Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology

  1. 1. NANOTECHNOLOGY By Saurabh Chawla XII Science FAITH ACADEMY
  2. 2. An engineered DNA strand What is Nanotechnology? “ Nanotechnology is the art an science of manipulating matter at the nanoscale ” Buckyball <ul><li>Nano technology is the study of making small microscopic things </li></ul><ul><li>It is an advance to the future </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Nanoscale? 0.22 m Fullerenes C 60 22 cm 0.7 nm 10 millions times smaller 1 billion times smaller 12,756 km 1.27 × 10 7 m 0.7 × 10-9 m
  4. 4. <ul><li>2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair. </li></ul><ul><li>1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nanoparticles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows. </li></ul><ul><li>1974 – “Nanotechnology” - Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope. This microscope evolved to allow the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules in the field of Nano technology. </li></ul><ul><li>1985 – “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C 60 </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima </li></ul>History of Nanotechnology
  5. 5. NEED FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Allows the placement of small structures placed with precision,simplicity and low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances national security </li></ul><ul><li>Improves the quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to job creation </li></ul>
  6. 6. APPROACHES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Bottom-up approach </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down approach </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nanoscale Approaches and Fabrication Top-down Approaches Bottom-up Approaches Create smaller objects using Larger objects They arrange smaller components in to more complex. Uses principles of molecular recognition Layer-by-layer self assembly
  8. 8. <ul><li>Carbon NanoTubes </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Nano Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul>Nanotechnology Applications Stinger: Targeted Drug Delivery <ul><li>OLED </li></ul>Nanorobot Aerogel NANO FILTERS Nano Transistor
  9. 9. <ul><li>With NT, we can create unique materials and products which </li></ul><ul><li>are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers can become a billion times faster and a million times smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Pollution Cleanup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing at almost no cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of Illnesses (i.e. cancer, heart disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Immunity (i.e. aids, flu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Sculpting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e. change your appearance) </li></ul></ul>Industrial Medical Material Advantages
  10. 10. NANO MATERIALS: <ul><li>Fullerenes </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotubes </li></ul>
  11. 11. FULLERENES Buckminster fullerene
  12. 12. NANOTUBES: <ul><li>Single walled nanotube </li></ul><ul><li>Multi walled nanotube </li></ul>
  13. 13. SINGLE WALLED NANOTUBE:
  14. 14. MULTI WALLED NANOTUBE:
  15. 15. Carbon NanoTubes The joining of two carbon nanotubes   <ul><li>Carbon Nanotubes:: This rotating picture is actually a model of carbon nanotube, the strongest and stiffest materials discovered till to date. </li></ul><ul><li>CNTs also known as  buckytubes are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1 </li></ul>carbon nanotube
  16. 16. Single Walled Nanotubes (SWNT) The ( n , m ) nanotube naming scheme can be thought of as a vector ( C h ) in an infinite graphene sheet that describes how to &quot;roll up&quot; the graphene sheet to make the nanotube.  <ul><li>Single-walled nanotubes have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer, with a tube length that can be many millions of times longer. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>The way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices ( n , m ) called the chiral vector </li></ul><ul><li>Single-walled nanotubes are an important variety of carbon nanotube because they exhibit electric properties </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>There are two models of description of these MWNT:: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the  Russian Doll  model, sheets of graphite are arranged in concentric cylinders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> In the  Parchment  model, a single sheet of graphite is rolled in around itself, resembling a scroll of parchment or a rolled newspaper </li></ul></ul>Multi Walled Nano Tubes (MWNT) <ul><li>Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphite </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Torus </li></ul><ul><li>A nanotorus is theoretically described as carbon nanotubes bent into a torus (doughnut shape). </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotori are predicted to have many unique properties, such as ‘ magnetic moments’ which is the property of magnet that interacts with an applied field to give a mechanical moment </li></ul>Nanobud <ul><li>Carbon nanobuds are a newly created material combining two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and fullerenes </li></ul><ul><li>This hybrid material has useful properties of both fullerenes and carbon nanotubes . </li></ul>A stable nanobud structure
  19. 19. <ul><li>Properties of Nano Tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength :- Carbon nanotubes are the strongest and stiffest materials yet discovered in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus respectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness :- The hardness of compressed SWNTs is 462–546 GPa, surpassing the value of 420 GPa for diamond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical :- In theory, metallic nanotubes can carry an electrical current density of 4 × 10 9  A/cm 2  which is more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as copper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal :- All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal conductors along the tube, the temperature stability of carbon nanotubes is estimated to be up to 2800 °C in vacuum and about 750 °C in air. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. NANOPARTICLE
  21. 21. Striking properties of nanoparticles: <ul><li>Tremendous driving force for diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Semi conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization of electronic energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>Highly reactive </li></ul>
  22. 22. IMPLEMENTATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Nano sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Nano computers </li></ul><ul><li>Nano rods </li></ul><ul><li>I pods </li></ul><ul><li>Nanogears </li></ul>
  23. 23. NANOGEARS
  24. 24. Nanorobot repairing RBC
  25. 25. <ul><li>Solar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Solar cells developed at the New Jersey Institute of Technology use a carbon nanotube complex, formed by a mixture of carbon nanotubes and carbon buckyballs </li></ul><ul><li>Ultracapacitors </li></ul><ul><li>With a nanotube electrode the hollow spaces that store charge may be tailored to any size and consequently the capacity should be increased considerably . </li></ul><ul><li>Paper batteries </li></ul><ul><li>A paper battery is a battery engineered to use a paper-thin sheet of cellulose infused with aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes act as electrodes; allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. The battery, which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, can provide a long, steady power output comparable to a conventional battery . </li></ul><ul><li>Other applications </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotubes have been implemented in nanoelectromechanical systems, including mechanical memory elements (NRAM being developed by Nantero Inc.) </li></ul>Applications of Nano Tubes Aligned nanotubes are preferred for many applications.
  26. 26. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>In curing diseases like AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>To make new surgical devices </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the untasteful medicine into tasteful </li></ul><ul><li>Nano products can be prepared at average sized homes </li></ul>
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Less pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Low production cost </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production in food & consumables </li></ul><ul><li>Technology itself </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul>
  28. 28. DISADVANTAGES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Health and safety issues </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles can cause serious illness or damage human body. </li></ul><ul><li>Untraceable destructive weapons of mass destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Social & Political issues </li></ul><ul><li>Creates social strife through increasing wealth gap </li></ul><ul><li>Advisability of increasing scope of the technology creates political dilemma </li></ul>Implications of Nanotechnology
  30. 30. Exposure of human and the environment to nanomaterials at different stages of product life cycle <ul><li>“ Grey-goo ” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a hypothetical situation where self replicating nanobots go out of control, and consume all matter on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues </li></ul><ul><li>Nanopollution is created by toxic wastes from nanomaterial manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances Global warming in the long run </li></ul>“ The Living Fog ” formed by billions of replicating nanobots gone mad

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