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# LAWS OF ELECTROSTATICS

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LAWS OF ELECTROSTATICS

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### LAWS OF ELECTROSTATICS

1. 1. ELECTROSTATICS LAWS OF
2. 2. <ul><li>The study of properties of electric charges at rest called ELECTROSTATICS. In an isolated system the total charge remains conserved. Law of conservation of charges helps us to study interactive energy and forces. The objects with same charges repel each other on the other hand charges with opposite charges attract one another. </li></ul>DIRECTION OF CHARGED OBJECTS
3. 5. <ul><li>Volume charge density </li></ul><ul><li>It is the ratio between small quantity of charge contained in a body and small volume of body. </li></ul><ul><li>q = P dv </li></ul><ul><li>v </li></ul><ul><li>Surface charge density </li></ul><ul><li>It is the ratio between small quantity of charge contained in a body and small surface area of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>q = ds </li></ul><ul><li>s </li></ul><ul><li>Linear charge density </li></ul><ul><li>It is the ratio between small quantity of charge contained in a body and small length of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>q = dl </li></ul><ul><li>l </li></ul>
4. 7. <ul><li>Coulomb's law states that the electrical force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of the quantity of charge on the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two objects. In equation form, Coulomb's law can be stated as </li></ul><ul><li>The symbol k is a proportionality constant known as the Coulomb's law constant. The SI unit is newton (N) </li></ul>F = k ( Q1 Q2 ) / r2 The Coulomb's law equation provides an accurate description of the force between two objects whenever the objects act as point charges COULOMB'S LAW...
5. 8. <ul><li>Electric field at any point is given by the force experienced by unit positive charge (test charge) kept at that point. </li></ul><ul><li>E = F/q </li></ul><ul><li>E = </li></ul>q/R 2 ELECTRIC FIELD
6. 9. <ul><li>An imaginary line drawn in an electric field such that any tangent drawn on a point on this curve gives direction of electric field at that point. </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>They do not intersect each other. </li></ul><ul><li>They never form closed loops. </li></ul><ul><li>They start at positive terminal and end at negative terminal. </li></ul>ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCES
7. 12. <ul><li>Two equal and opposite charges separated by a small vector distance may be considered as dipole system. </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul><ul><li>The product of charge and distance is called dipole moment. </li></ul><ul><li>p = q a </li></ul>DIPOLE MOMENT +q -q
8. 13. <ul><li>Electric field due to dipole system on the axial line of the dipole. </li></ul><ul><li>E = 2P/4 E xxx </li></ul><ul><li>Electric field at any point on equitorial line due to dipole moment. </li></ul><ul><li>E = P/ 4 E xxx </li></ul><ul><li>Torque experienced by dipole system kept in uniform electric field. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential energy </li></ul>FORMULAE!!!
9. 14. <ul><li>Electrostatic potential in electrostatic field is nothing but the work done in bringing the unit positive charge from infinity to that point. </li></ul><ul><li>V = W/ q </li></ul><ul><li>V = Er </li></ul><ul><li>V = - E l </li></ul><ul><li>V = q/4 E r </li></ul>ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL
10. 15. <ul><li>It states that total number of electric lines of forces (electric flux) through a closed surface is 1/ E times the net charge enclosed in that surface . </li></ul><ul><li>= q/ E </li></ul><ul><li>Electric flux is defined as total no of electric lines of forces passing normally through a surface held inside electric field. </li></ul>GAUSS THEOREM
11. 16. <ul><li>It is used to store energy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in digital circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuning of circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>It will not allow direct current to pass through it. </li></ul><ul><li>As a potential difference is applied across a conductor its charge increases. </li></ul><ul><li>q = CV </li></ul><ul><li>Where C is capacitance of conductor. </li></ul>CAPACITANCE!!!
12. 17. <ul><li>Every conductor stores charge in small quantity. In order to store large quantity of charge capacitor is devised. The capacitance of a conductor increases by large amount when an earthed uncharged conductor is placed near to it. </li></ul><ul><li>This constitutes the principle of capacitor. </li></ul><ul><li>C = E A/d </li></ul>PRINCIPLE OF CAPACITANCE
13. 18. <ul><li>Resultant capacitance when three capacitors are in series: </li></ul><ul><li>1/C = 1/C ‘ + 1/C ‘‘+ 1/C’’’ </li></ul><ul><li>Resultant capacitance when three capacitors are in parallel: </li></ul><ul><li>C = C’ + C’’ + C’’’ </li></ul>ARRANGEMENT OF CAPACITORS
14. 19. THANK YOU!!! ANTRIKSHA BAHSIN XII SCIENCE FAITH ACADEMY 2008-09
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