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Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
Unit the periodic table2
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Unit the periodic table2

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  • 1. The Periodic Table
  • 2. Periodic Vocabulary Atomic Radius  Metal Electronegativity  Metalloid Family  Noble Gas Group  Nonmetal Ionic Radius  Periodic Law Ionization Energy  Period
  • 3. Classifying Elements Dmitri Mendeleev – observed that when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, similar chemical and physical properties appeared at regular or periodic intervals.  This was later determined to not exactly be the case…. Modern Periodic Law – The properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. ◦ If the elements are arranged increasing atomic number (not atomic mass) properties are repeated periodically.  For the majority of the table it is also appears as if it is organized by increasing atomic mass, there are however some
  • 4. Classifying Elements Dmitri Mendeleev – observed that when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, similar chemical and physical properties appeared at regular or periodic intervals.  This was later determined to not exactly be the case…. Modern Periodic Law – The properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. ◦ If the elements are arranged increasing atomic number (not atomic mass) properties are repeated periodically.  For the majority of the table it is also appears as if it is organized by increasing atomic mass, there are however some exceptions. Can you spot them?  Ar and K; Co and Ni; Te and I; Th and Pa, U and Np; Pu and Am; Lr and Rf; Sg and Bh, Hs and Mi
  • 5. Basic Periodic Table InfoAtomicMass Common oxidation states (ions) Chemical Symbol Atomic Number Electron configuration
  • 6. Chemical Symbols Each symbol has one, two, or three letters. ◦ First letter is always capitalized. ◦ Other letters (if present) are lowercase. C Au Uuu
  • 7. Chemical Symbols Each symbol has one, two, or three letters. ◦ First letter is always capitalized. ◦ Other letters (if present) are lowercase. C Au Uuu Rg
  • 8. Name the movie…
  • 9. Arrangement of the PeriodicTable
  • 10. Arrangement of the PeriodicTable Metalloids (semimetals)
  • 11. General Characteristics of Element on the PeriodicTable A. Metals: (Fr = most metallic element) 1. All (except Hg) are solid at room temperature. 2. Have luster. (are shiny) 3. Are Malleable (can be pounded into shape) 4. Are ductile (can be drawn into wires) 5. Are excellent conductors of heat and electricity.  Due to mobile electrons. 6. Have low ionization energy. Tend to lose electrons 7. Have low electro-negativity. and become postive (+) ions.
  • 12. General Characteristics of Element on the PeriodicTable B. Nonmetals: (F = most nonmetallic) 1. Can be gases, liquids, or solids.  Most nonmetals are gases or solids (molecular or network) at room temperature.  Bromine is a liquid at room temperature. 2. Lack luster. (are dull) 3. Are brittle. (crumble easily) 4. Are poor conductors of heat and electricity. 5. Have high ionization energy. Tend to gain electrons 6. Have high electro-negativity. and become negative (-) ions.
  • 13. General Characteristics of Element on the PeriodicTable C. Metalloids: (semi-metals) 1. Properties are a combination of metallic and nonmetallic substances.  Located along the “staircase”  B, Si, As, Sb, Te, Po
  • 14. Elements in Nature  Some elements can exist as a single atom in nature, some cannot… ◦ Monotomic Elements: Most elements exist as single atom particles in nature.  Na, Si, Te, W ◦ Diatomic Elements: Some elements cannot exist as a single atom, instead they exist as a two atom particle in nature.  HOFBrINCl’s  H2, O2, F2, Br2, I2, N2, Cl2
  • 15. Elements in Nature ◦ Allotropes: Some elements exist as two or more forms in the same phase. These forms differ in molecular or crystal structure, and hence in their chemical and physical properties.  Allotropes of Oxygen ◦ Oxygen (O2) and Ozone (O3)
  • 16. Elements in Nature  Allotropes of Carbon… Coal/Graphite Diamon Buckminsterfulleren d e  Allotropes of Oxygen ◦ Oxygen (O2) and Ozone (O3)
  • 17. Groups (Families) Vertical columns of elements. ◦ Have similar characteristics due to having the same number of valence electrons.  Example; H Li B F Na Group 1 Al Group 13 Cl Group 17 K All have one Ga All have three Br All have seven Rb valence In valence I valence Cs electron. Ti electrons. At electrons. Fr
  • 18. Periods (rows)  Horizontal rows of elements. ◦ Elements within a period have the same number of occupied principal energy levels.  They differ however, in their chemical properties.Period 1: H, He use the 1st Principal Energy or… 1sLevel  Example;Period 2: Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne use the 2nd Principal EnergyLevel or… 1s2s2pPeriod 3: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar use the 3rd PrincipalEnergy Level or…
  • 19. Trends in Properties Atomic Radius: (Table S) ◦ Covalent atomic radius: ½ the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element joined in the solid phase by a covalent bond.  Within a period, atomic radius decreases.  Within a family (group), atomic radius increases.
  • 20. Group Group Group Group Group 1 Li 2 B 3 C 4 O 5 Ne ePeriod2Period Mg3Period Ca4
  • 21. Trends in Properties Ionic Radius: (No Table/ Estimate using table S) ◦ An atom that has gained or lost electrons, will change in atomic size.  Metals tend to lose electrons, thus the outer shell is lost/pulled closer and the ionic radius will be smaller than the covalent radius.  Nonmetals tend to gain electrons, thus the outer shell is stretched larger as the additional electrons start to repel each other and the ionic radius will be larger than the covalent atomic radius.
  • 22. Practice Question Which of the following has the greater ionization energy, Na or Na+? Explain your answer.
  • 23. Practice Question Which of the following has the greater ionization energy, Na or Na+? Explain your answer. Na+ has higher ionization energy as it has 11 protons holding 10 electrons while Na has 11 protons holding 11 electrons.
  • 24. Summary Within a Period, as atomic number increases. 1. Covalent atomic radius _______________ 2. Ionization Energy _______________ 3. Electronegativity _______________ 4. Metallic Character _______________ Within a group, as atomic number increases. 1. Covalent atomic radius _______________ 2. Ionization Energy _______________ 3. Electronegativity _______________ 4. Metallic Character _______________
  • 25. Summary Within a Period, as atomic number increases. 1. Covalent atomic radius decreases Table S 2. Ionization Energy increases 3. Electronegativity increases Periodic Table 4. Metallic Character decreases Within a group, as atomic number increases. Table S 1. Covalent atomic radius increases 2. Ionization Energy decreases Periodic Table 3. Electronegativity decreases 4. Metallic Character increases
  • 26. Do Now Mendeleev arranged the periodic table in orders of increasing atomic masses. Locate iodine and tellurium on the table and note that they are not arranged by increasing atomic mass, and yet Mendeleev placed iodine in Group 17 and tellurium in Group 16. What is the likely reason that he chose not to arrange these two elements by atomic mass as he did for the majority of his original table?
  • 27. Do Now Mendeleev arranged the periodic table in orders of increasing atomic masses. Locate iodine and tellurium on the table and note that they are not arranged by increasing atomic mass, and yet Mendeleev placed iodine in Group 17 and tellurium in Group 16. What is the likely reason that he chose not to arrange these two elements by atomic mass as he did for the majority of his original table? He placed the tellurium and iodine into the columns of elements with similar characteristics.
  • 28. Chemistry of Groups Alkali Metals Alkali Earth (1) Metals (2)
  • 29. Chemistry of Groups Group 1 ◦ Alkali Metals  Have one valence electron. Form +1 ions. (complete octet)  Highly reactive.  Reactivity increases as one proceeds from top to bottom of the table (increasing atomic number).  Typically form very stable compounds. Group 2 ◦ Alkali Earth Metals  Have two valence electrons. Form +2 ions. (complete octet)  Highly reactive.  Reactivity increases as on proceeds from top to bottom of the table (increasing atomic number).Group 1 and Group 2 element are generally found as compounds in  Typically only very stable compounds.nature, and usuallyformseparated into elemental form by a process
  • 30. Chemistry of Groups * *“Staircase” * * * *
  • 31. Chemistry of Groups Group 13,14,15,16 ◦ “Staircase”  Have 3,4, 5, and 6 valence electrons respectively.  Group 13 forms +3 ions. (Complete octet)  Groups 14, 15, and 16 tend to gain e- and form -4, -3, and -2 ions repectively. (Complete octet)  Properties change from nonmetals (C/N) to metalloids (Si/As) to metals (Pb/Bi) with increasing atomic number. Metals Metalloids Nonmetals13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 B C N O B C N O B C N OAl Si P S Al Si P S Al Si P SGa Ge As Se Ga Ge As Se Ga Ge As SeIn Sn Sb In Sn Sb In Sn Sb Te Te Te
  • 32. Chemistry of Groups The Halogens
  • 33. Chemistry of Groups Group 17 ◦ Halogens  Have 7 valence electrons.  Form -1 ions. (complete octet)  Highly reactive nonmetals.  Reactivity decreases with increasing atomic #.  Halogen States of Matter (Room Temperature)  F and Cl = gases  Br = liquid  I = solid  At = No known stable isotopes. This means that all of its isotopes are radioactive.  *** All elements with an atomic number above 83 have no known stable isotopes.***
  • 34. Practice Question Why does chemical reactivity increase from top to bottom of Group 1, while it decreases from top to bottom of Group 17?
  • 35. Practice Question Why does chemical reactivity increase from top to bottom of Group 1, while it decreases from top to bottom of Group 17? Group 1 contains metal which lose electrons and have large atomic radii in order to have low ionization energy and low electronegativity. Atomic radius increases as you move from top to bottom of a group. Group 17 contains nonmetals which gain electrons so smaller atomic radii is required for high ionization energy and high electronegativity.
  • 36. Chemistry of Groups Noble Gases
  • 37. Chemistry of Groups Group 18 ◦ Noble (Inert) Gases  Have 8 valence electrons. (Complete Octet)  Generally NOT reactive.  *** Under extreme conditions Kr and Xe have been made to react with Flouring and Oxygen. This is why they have oxidation numbers other than 0.***
  • 38. Chemistry of Groups Transition Metals d sublevel elements Lanthanide Series Actinide Series f sublevel elements
  • 39. Chemistry of Groups Groups 3 to 12 ◦ Transition Metals  Generally exhibit positive oxidation numbers.  All contain electrons that are “bounced” between two outer principal energy levels; as a result these elements are usually in a constant semi- excited state.  Solutions of these elements are usually colorful.
  • 40. Chemistry of a Period  As one progresses from left to right along the periodic table: ◦ There is a change from + to – oxidation states. ◦ There is a change in characteristics from: Very Less Less Very NobleReacti Reacti Metalloi Reactive Reactive (Inert) ve ve ds (Nonmetals (Nonmetals Gases(Metal (Metal ) ) s) s)
  • 41. Do Now Elements with atomic number 112 and 114 have been produces and their IUPAC names are pending approval. However, an element that would be put between these two elements on the periodic table has not yet been produced. If produced this element will be identified by the symbol Uut until an IUPAC name is approved. ◦ Determine the charge of the Uut nucleus. Include both the numerical value and the sign of the charge. ◦ Identify one element that would be chemically related to Uut.
  • 42. Do Now Elements with atomic number 112 and 114 have been produces and their IUPAC names are pending approval. However, an element that would be put between these two elements on the periodic table has not yet been produced. If produced this element will be identified by the symbol Uut until an IUPAC name is approved. ◦ Determine the charge of the Uut nucleus. Include both the numerical value and the sign of the charge. +113 ◦ Identify one element that would be chemically related to Uut. Any element of Group 13; B, Al, Ga, In, Tl
  • 43. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas Water (H2O) is formed by the sharing of electrons so that each atom can try to emulate the outer shell electron configuration of a noble gas (complete octet) ◦ Hydrogen (H) tries to be like Helium (He) ◦ Oxygen (O) tries to be like Neon (Ne) Covalent Bond We will explore this further when we start to learn about
  • 44. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas Hydrogen belongs to Group 1 which form +1 ions. Oxygen belongs to Group 16 which form -2 ions. Nonmetal
  • 45. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas Ice melt (CaCl2) is formed by the electromagnetic attraction between positive ions forms by a metal and the negative ions formed by a nonmetal. ◦ Calcium (Ca) loses its 2 electrons to become the Ca+2 ion in order to be like the Noble gas Argon (Ar) 2-8-8-2 2-8-8 2-8-8 ◦ Chlorine (Cl) gains an electron to becom the Cl-1 ion in order to be like Argon (Ar) as well. 2-8-8 2-8-7 2-8-8
  • 46. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas Metal Nonmetal Ionic Bond
  • 47. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas Predict the chemical formulas for the following… K+1 P-3  Beryllium and Carbon Mg+2 Cl-1  Cesium and Fluorine Ca+2 S-2  Group 13 (X) and Group 16 (M) B+3 O-2
  • 48. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas What would be the general formula of a Group 2 element (represented by M) combined with chlorine of Group 17? What would be the general formula of a group 16 element (represented by X) combined with sodium of group 1?
  • 49. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas In the 19th century, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of a then unknown element X with a mass of 68. He also predicted thant an oxide of X would have the formula X2O3 . On the modern periodic table, what is the group number and period number of element X.
  • 50. Using the Periodic Table topredict Chemical Formulas What groups do the elements of the folwing compound belong to? ◦ Mg3P2 ◦ AlBr3 ◦ GaN ◦ CH4
  • 51. Isoelectricity Ions and atoms (noble gases) that contain the same number of electrons. ◦ Example;  K+1, S-2, and Ar are isoelectronic because they each contain 18 electrons.  Ge-4, Br-1, Rb+1, Sr+2, and Kr are isonelectronic because they contain 36 electrons.
  • 52. Practice question Ions are isoelectronic when they contain the same number of electrons. Which of the following ions are isoelectronic? ◦ Mg+2, Cl-1, Al+3, K+, S-2, Ba+2 For each of the preceding ions name the nobles gas with which they are isoelectronic with.
  • 53. Metals and Conductivity. In terms of electrons, why are metals good conductors of electricity? ◦ The valence electrons of metals are mobile and form an electron “cloud” around the metallic bonds of a given metal element.  This “cloud” of mobile electrons also serves in the thermal conductivity of metals.
  • 54. To get these slides go to…http://mrmartinschemistryblog.blogspot.com

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