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Reading Strategies

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  • 1 Reading Strategies.
  • 2 “You have to be a speedy reader because there’s so so much to read.” - Dr. Seuss, I Can Read With My Eyes Shut! READING STRATEGIES. THE BOOKLET
  • 3 DEFINITIONS What are Reading Strategies? Reading strategies are purposeful, cognitive actions that students take when they are reading to help them construct and maintain meaning. Reading successfully goes well beyond fluency and word recognition and relies heavily upon comprehension of text. Since reading is a meaning-making task, any behaviors used to enhance student understanding help to create more effective readers. Reading strategies are often categorized as those behaviors designed to help students before, during, and after they read. It is important for teachers and parents to be aware of the strategies used by the children to make meaning and to build upon those strategies over time and as text becomes more complex. Studies show that children need to practice reading everyday in order to improve their reading skills. Developing and teaching reading strategies to students will help increase their reading ability. Often when students get stuck on a word they are told to “sound it out.” While this strategy may work at times, there are other strategies that may work even better. The following is a list of reading strategies for students. Teach your students these tips to help improve their reading ability. When choosing your reading strategies, use the following checklist: • Connecting text-text • Connecting text-self • Critical questioning • Inferencing • Predicting • Revising • Visualizing • Retelling There are many strategies that students may learn to assist them with their reading. These strategies are applied before a students reads the text to activate prior knowledge, during the reading of the text to deepen understanding, and after reading the text to increase the generalization and application to new situations. Generally, however, students need strategies that support the following: - Word recognition - Reading for various purposes (skimming, scanning, detailed analysis, etc.) - Vocabulary development (knowing and understanding word derivatives and roots) - Comprehension Within each of these broad categories are a host of more specific ideas and techniques to help students become more efficient and effective readers. It is important to work with the parents to determine which of these trategies/areas of focus would be most beneficial to the student. Reading is the active process of understanding print and graphic texts. Reading is a thinking process. Effective readers know that when they read, what they read is supposed to make sense. They monitor their understanding, and when they lose the meaning of what they are reading, they often unconsciously select and use a reading strategy (such as rereading or asking questions) that will help them reconnect with the meaning of the text.
  • 4 Effective readers use strategies to understand what they read before, during, and after reading. Before reading, they: • use prior knowledge to think about the topic. • make predictions about the probable meaning of the text. • preview the text by skimming and scanning to get a sense of the overall meaning. During reading, they: • monitor understanding by questioning, thinking about, and reflecting on the ideas and information in the text. After reading, they: • reflect upon the ideas and information in the text. • relate what they have read to their own experiences and knowledge. • clarify their understanding of the text. • extend their understanding in critical and creative ways. Students can be taught to be strategic and effective readers. Struggling readers benefit from a variety of instructional approaches that demonstrate reading skills as subject content is taught. Direct teaching, thinking aloud, modelling, discussion, and small-group support are only a few of the approaches teachers use to help students become more strategic and effective readers in different contexts. Struggling readers need: • knowledge of different types of texts and the best strategies for reading them. • multiple and meaningful opportunities to practise reading in subject-specific contexts. • opportunities to practise reading with appropriate resources. • opportunities to talk about their reading and thinking. • background knowledge in subject areas. • expanded sight vocabularies and word-solving strategies for reading subject-specific texts. • strategies for previewing texts, monitoring their understanding, determining the most important ideas and the relationships among them, remembering what they read, and making connections and inferences. • strategies for becoming independent readers in any context.
  • 5 Classroom Strategies Explicit strategy instruction is at the core of good comprehension instruction. “Before” strategies activate students’ prior knowledge and set a purpose for reading. “During” strategies help students make connections, monitor their understanding, generate questions, and stay focused. “After” strategies provide students an opportunity to summarize, question, reflect, discuss, and respond to text. Teachers should help students to understand why a strategy is useful, how it is used, and when it is appropriate. Teacher demonstration and modeling are critical factors for success, and student discussion following strategy instruction is also helpful. The most frequently researched strategies can be applied across content areas; other content-area specific strategies are emerging, and we will include them here in the future.
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  • 9 READING STRATEGIES. VARIED TECHNIQUES
  • 10 Reading Guides Background Reading Guides help students navigate reading material, especially difficult textbook chapters or technical reading. Students respond to a teacher-created written guide of prompts as they read an assigned text. Reading Guides help students to comprehend the main points of the reading and understand the organizational structure of a text. Benefits Reading Guides are teacher-created and may be developed for a variety of subjects and reading levels. The strategy is especially helpful when used with text that is more difficult than students could comprehend through independent reading. Reading Guides may be used with the whole class, small groups or for individual work. Create and use the strategy The teacher determines the major concepts from an assigned text and considers each students’ knowledge related to the concepts. Teachers then write items designed to guide readers through the major ideas and supporting details of the text. Guides may be phrased as statements or as questions. Begin the activity by introducing the assigned text and discussing the main concepts. Then present the items on the Reading Guide. Students read the assigned text and complete the tasks on the Reading Guides during the reading process. Monitor and support students as they work. Note: As students gain proficiency at completing Reading Guides, they may design their own guides and provide support for one another. Sample content for a reading guide The following is a list of sample items that teachers might include on a Reading Guide: • What is the main idea of the text? • The author’s purpose for writing the text is… • The author discusses the differences between ____ and ____ . • What are the important dates discussed in the reading? • The most significant contribution of ____ was… • What might be your personal experiences related to the reading? • The author’s motivation for writing the text was… View the following link for more items teachers might include on a Reading Guide: • http://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/reading.html#Guides References Horton, S.V., & Lovitt, T.C. (1989). Using study guides with three classifications of secondary students. Journal of Special Education, 22(4), 447-462. SEDL. (2008). Building Reading Proficiency at the Secondary Level: A Guide to Resources. Retrieved 2008, February 28, from http://www.sedl.org/cgi-bin/mysql/buildingreading.cgi?l=instruction&showrecord=4 DR
  • 11 Reciprocal Teaching Background Reciprocal Teaching is a strategy that asks students and teachers to share the role of teacher by allowing both to lead the discussion about a given reading. Reciprocal Teaching involves four strategies that guide the discussion: predicting, question generating, summarizing and clarifying. Benefits Reciprocal Teaching is a great way to teach students how to determine important ideas from a reading while discussing vocabulary, developing ideas and questions, and summarizing information. It can be used across several content areas; it works particularly well with textbooks and non-fiction text. Create and use the strategy Break the classroom into mixed-ability small groups. Designate one student as the “teacher” within each small group. This student will help keep their small group on task and ensure they move through each of the four steps as they read material that has already been divided it into smaller chunks by you. Next, you will read the first chunk to all the small groups, modeling the following four steps of reciprocal teaching. 1. Prediction a. Ask students to predict what they think the reading may be about. Get them to think about what is going to happen by asking questions like a detective might do. 2. Question as you go a. Remind students to generate questions as they listen and read. Remind them of the three levels of questions: i. Right-There questions (answer in the text) ii. Between-the-lines questions (inference needed) iii. Critical Thought questions (require their opinion) 3. Clarify a. As students listen and read remind them to ask themselves what words and phrases are unclear to them. These clarifications may take the form of the following questions. i. How do you pronounce that? ii. What does the word mean? iii. I think the author is saying… iv. I’m guessing ‘pie-in-the-sky’ means… 4. Summarize a. Students summarize verbally, within pairs, and then share with their assigned small group or record their summary and read it aloud to their small group. b. Each small group could create a semantic map with major points of significance shared by each group member. After you have modeled the previous steps, students may continue working in their small groups by silently or orally reading the next sections of the reading while conducting the four-step process. What it looks like… To see examples of reciprocal teaching within specific content areas see: Fisher, D., and Frey, N, (2004). Improving Adolescent Literacy: Strategies at Work. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Palincsar, A. S. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Fostering and Comprehension Monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), pp. 117-175. DR
  • 12 Reciprocal Cards Predict Based on the title, I predict this is going to be about ____. I think the next part will be about ____. Based on ____ (a clue), I predict ____. Based on what ____ said/did, I predict ____. Teacher-Like Question Who is ____? What is/does ____? When is ____? Where is ____? Why is ____ important? Why does ____ happen? How is ____ like ____? What caused ____ to ____? Why does the author ____? Which sentence best tells ____? How is ___ an example of ___? Clarify 1. Reread 2. Look for little words inside big words 3. Look for root words, prefixes or suffixes 4. Look for commas, parentheses, or bold-face type. 5. Think of a similar word 6. Substitute a word 7. Use a reference 8. Ask Summarize Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? This story/paragraph is mostly about ____. The topic sentence is ____. The author is trying to tell me ____. This is mostly about ____. A FRAMED SUMMARY SENTENCE: This story/passage about _________ begins with _________, discusses (or develops) the idea that _________, and ends with _________. Make a Picture When I read this, I imagine that ____. As I read, in my mind I see ____. I can see ____. This must look like ____. The colors are ____. Teacher/Leader 1. Predict card? 2. Read aloud 3. Clarify card? 4. Make a picture card? 5. Teacher-like question card? 6. Summary card?
  • 13 Predict Write one or two sentences that predict what the passage will be about. Base your response on the title or any other infor- mation contained in this text. Clarify Write down any words, phrases, or ideas that you do not un- derstand as you read. After you have written down the words or ideas that need clarification, try to figure out what they mean by using the clarification clues you have learned. Do not use a dictionary. You may ask the teacher or a family member for help if you are not able to clarify a word. If you do not need to clarify any words, phrases or ideas, write NONE in the space provided. Reciprocal Teaching Worksheet
  • 14 Visualize – Make a picture in your mind After you finish reading, draw a picture of what the passage makes you see in your imagination. Draw it on this paper in the space below. Question – Ask “teacher-like” questions Pretend you are the teacher and are going to give a test about what you have just read. Using the reciprocal teaching cards, write three “teacher-like” questions about the passage. 1 2 3 Summarize Complete this summary frame about the passage you have just read. The passage about _________________________________ ________________________________________________ begins with ______________________________________ ____________, discusses (or develops) the idea that ______ ________________________________________________ _______________________ and ends with _____________ ________________________________________________
  • 15 K - W – L (Before/While/After) Background The K-W-L is a 3-column chart that helps capture the Before, During, and After components of reading a text selection. • K stands for Know This is the prior knowledge activation question. • W stands for Will or Want What do I think I will learn about this topic? What do I want to know about this topic? • L stands for Learned What have I learned about this topic? Benefits The K-W-L is suitable for all kind of students. For example, the reason to do the K column of the K-W-L is to have students bring to mind something they already know, as a hook to which new information can be attached. Some people who use K-W-L complain that their students either don’t know anything or what they know is wrong. That’s a great sign that the students have been asked not about what they know, but about what they don’t know. Please “know” this: ALL students have background or prior knowledge. As teachers, we have to know our content well enough that we know how it’s like something that would be familiar to our students. That should determine what we ask in the K column. It may OR MAY NOT be the topic. And, especially with younger children who usually think about zillion things, they’ll suggest all kinds of questions for what they want to know. And with older kids, maybe they say, “Nothing!”. Use the W to ask what they think they WILL learn. Then, it’s predictive. Create and use the strategy Here you have some ideas: 1. On the board, computer, on a handout, or on students’ individual clean sheets, three columns should be drawn. 2. Label Column 1 K, Column 2 W, Column 3 L. 3. Before reading (or viewing or listening), students fill in the Know column with words, terms, or phrases from their background or prior knowledge. If you are having them draw on a topic previously learned, then the K column may be topic-related. But if the topic is something brand-new, and they don’t know anything (or much) about it, you should use the K column to have them bringing to mind a similar, analogous, or broader idea. 4. Then have students predict what they might learn about the topic, which might follow a quick glance at the topic headings, pictures, and charts that are found in the reading. This helps set their purpose for reading and focuses their attention on key ideas. 5. Alternatively, you might have students put in the middle column what they want to learn about the topic. 6. After reading, students should fill in their new knowledge gained from reading the content. They can also clear up misperceptions about the topic which might have shown up in the Know column before they actually read anything. This is the stage of metacognition: did they get it or not? Common Issues with K-W-L • “My students don’t have background knowledge! The reason to do the K column of the K-W-L is to have students bring to mind something they already know, as a hook to which new information can be attached. Some people who use K-W-L complain that their students either don’t know anything or what they know is wrong. That’s a great sign that the students have been asked not about what they
  • 16 know, but about what they don’t know. Please “know” this: ALL students have background or prior knowledge. As teachers, we have to know our content well enough that we know how it’s like something that would be familiar to our students. That should determine what we ask in the K column. It may OR MAY NOT be the topic. • “I ask what they want to know, and they think of a zillion things!” Especially with younger children, they’ll suggest all kinds of questions for what they want to know. And with older kids, maybe they say, “Nothing!”. Use the W to ask what they think they WILL learn. Then, it’s predictive. K What Do I Already Know? W What Do I Think I Will Learn? or What Do I Want To Know? L What Have I Learned?
  • 17 Seed Discussion Background A Seed Discussion is a two-part strategy used to teach students how to engage in discussions about assigned readings. In the first part, students read selected text and identify “seeds” or key concepts of a passage which may need additional explanation. In the second part, students work in small groups to present their “seeds” to one another. Each “seed” should be thoroughly discussed before moving on to the next. Benefits Seed Discussions can be developed for a variety of subjects and reading levels. This strategy encourages students to have in-depth discussions of reading selections. Seed Discussions rely upon the use of higher order thinking as students identify and articulate the “seeds.” This technique helps to build communication skills as the students discuss the “seeds” within the group. Create and use the strategy Introduce students to the seed discussion strategy. Each student should be assigned to a group composed of varying skill levels and a role within the group. Seed Discussions usually include the following four roles played by students: • Leader: responsible for calling on each person to share his/her discussion seeds • Manager: ensures that everyone has all materials for the discussion (books, journals, seeds, etc.) • Checker: ensures that every group member has a chance to talk about his/her seed and that each group member comments on each seed before the next person presents a new seed for discussion • Communicator: the only person to leave the group; notifies the teacher when the discussion is complete Note: Give each student a card containing a description of their role (see example below). 1. Teachers begin by providing each student with the reading material and a set of questions about the assigned reading. These questions will guide students as they target possible “seeds” for discussion. Examples of such questions might include: o What new information does the reading selection provide? o What did you find interesting or surprising about the selection? o What did you not understand in the selection? 2. The next step is to provide students with an opportunity to write and refine their target “seeds.” 3. Students meet in their groups and assume their assigned roles. Students begin the discussion by presenting their “seeds” to one another. Each “seed” should be discussed by all group members before moving on to the next. 4. Teachers should ask students to determine the strongest and weakest “seeds.” This discussion should include criteria for deciding upon quality “seed” ideas. Students can then use those criteria when developing “seeds” for their next discussion. DR
  • 18 Sample Seed Discussion Cards The following link contains another example of a Seed Discussion: • http://nms.pulaski.net/teacher_pages/a_to_z_literacy_strategies.htm References Just Read Now (n.d.). Seed Discussions. Retrieved 2008, March 5, from http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/frayer. htm Puckett, D. (ed.). (n.d.). A to Z Literacy Strategies: 70 Best Practice Strategies for Teaching Reading and Writing Across Middle Grades Content Areas. Retrieved 2008, March 5, from http://nms.pulaski.net/teacher_pages/a_to_z_literacy_ strategies.htm
  • 19 Selective Highlighting Background Selective Highlighting/Underlining is used to help students organize what they have read by selecting what is important. This strategy teaches students to highlight/underline ONLY the key words, phrases, vocabulary, and ideas that are central to understanding the reading. Benefits Selective Highlighting/Underlining is a flexible strategy that may be tailored to fit various types of information, and different skill-levels. You can employ the selective highlighting/underlining for many different instructional purposes (i.e., key vocabulary; main ideas). This strategy can also be integrated with the use of technology and electronic information such as eBooks (see example below). As students study, selective highlighting/underlining helps them learn to pay attention to the essential information within a text. Create and use the strategy Introduce students to the Selective Highlighting/Underlining strategy and discuss the purpose of the activity (i.e., focus on vocabulary, main ideas, etc.). Then model the procedure to ensure that students understand how to use Selective Highlighting/Underlining. Give students time and means to practice the technique and reinforce successful performance. Monitor and support students as they work. Teacher should ask students to: 1. Read through the selection first. 2. Reread and begin to highlight main ideas and their supporting details. 3. Highlight only the facts which are important or the key vocabulary not the entire sentence. 4. After highlighting, look at what they have highlighted and summarize what they read. 5. Take what was highlighted and write a summary paragraph. Teachers may wish to have students use various colors of highlighters to identify main ideas from details (e.g., use orange to represent main ideas and yellow to represent supporting details). When using an eBook, teachers should ask students to: 1. Read through the selection first. 2. Reread and select a portion of the text that the student wishes to highlight by highlighting or changing the font of the text OR using text boxes for comments. o From the menu select the add text box option. o Type in the comment into the text box and click anywhere outside the text box to finish. 3. Summarize what they read by using the highlighted text or text boxes to write a summary paragraph. Further reading • http://drscavanaugh.org/ebooks/ebrs/note_taking.htm Research citation Jones, R. (2006). Strategies for Reading Comprehension: Selective Underlining. Retrieved 2008, April 14, from http:// www.readingquest.org/strat/underline.html DR
  • 20 Semantic Feature Analysis Background The Semantic Feature Analysis strategy engages students in reading assignments by asking them to relate selected vocabulary to key features of the text. This technique uses a matrix to help students discover how one set of things is related to one another. Use this strategy to help students: • understand the meaning of selected vocabulary words • group vocabulary words into logical categories • analyze the completed matrix Benefits A Semantic Feature Analysis improves students’ comprehension, vocabulary, and content retention. This strategy helps students to examine related features or concepts and make distinctions among them. By analyzing the completed matrix, students are able to visualize connections, make predictions, and better understand important concepts. Teachers can use this strategy with the whole class, small groups, or individually. Monitoring each student’s matrix provides teachers with information about how much the students know about the topic. This allows teachers to tailor instruction accordingly. Create and use the strategy Select a passage of text for students. Model the procedure for using the matrix as a tool for recording reading observations. Provide students with key vocabulary words and important features related to the topic. Assist students as they prepare their matrix. Vocabulary words should be listed down the left hand column and the features of the topic across the top row of the chart. Once the matrix outline is complete, review all the words and features with the students and have them carefully read the text selection. Follow the steps below for using the Semantic Feature Analysis strategy: 1. Have students read the assigned text. 2. As they read, have students place a “+” sign in the matrix when a vocabulary word aligns with a particular feature of the topic. If the word does not align students may put a “-” in the grid. If students are unable to determine a relationship they may leave it blank. 3. After reading and completing the matrix, have students analyze their completed graphics by: o sharing their observations; o discussing differing results; and/or o writing a summary of what they learned Further reading • http://searchlight.utexas.org/content/serp-secondary/materials/t1010662.pdf* • http://www.readingquest.org/strat/sfa.html • http://edweb.sdsu.edu/triton/guides/SFA.html • http://searchlight.utexas.org/content/serp-secondary/activities/semantic-feature-analysis/view?SearchableText=&sear ch=true&Subj=Vocabulary References Johnson, D. D. & Pearson, P. D. (1984). Teaching reading vocabulary. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Lenski, Susan D., Wham, Mary Ann, & Johns, Jerry L. (1999). Reading and learning strategies for middle and high school students. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. DR
  • 21 Name:
  • 22 Story Maps Background Story Maps are used for teaching students to work with story structure for better comprehension. This technique uses visual representations to help students organize important elements of a story. Students learn to summarize the main ideas, characters, setting, and plot of an assigned reading. Benefits Story Maps can be used with the entire class, small groups, or for individual work. This strategy helps students examine the different components of an assigned text or story. Story Maps can be used with both fiction (i.e., defining characters; events) and nonfiction (i.e., main ideas; details). The use of Story Maps as a comprehension strategy can be beneficial for all students, and are especially helpful for students needing the additional support of a graphic organizer. Create and use the strategy The teacher decides upon that text to be read and determines the key elements that the students should identify. Teachers choose (or create) a Story Map that is most appropriate for the type of assigned reading (i.e., fiction or non- fiction). As with all strategy instruction, teachers should model the procedure to ensure that students understand why and how to use the strategy. Teachers should monitor and support students as they work. 1. Teachers should introduce the text/story to be read and provide each student with a blank Story Map. 2. Students begin by recording the title of the assigned text on the Story Map. 3. The other components of the story may be mapped out during the reading process. Examples of such key elements are listed below: Story Element Examples Characters Who are the people who were involved? Which ones played major roles? Which ones were minor? Setting Where and when did this event take place? Over what period of time? Plot Problem/Goal: What set events in motion? What problem arose, or what were the key players after? Events/Episodes: the key steps or events that capture the progress of the situation. Resolution/Outcome: How was the problem solved? Was the goal attained? Theme The larger meaning or importance, the moral, the “so what?” 4. After the students have completed their Story Maps, they may discuss why each element was recorded. 5. A class Story Map may be created by putting the information on a large sheet of paper. The map is discussed and students are encouraged to add items to the categories or even to suggest new categories. References Block, C., & Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. Guilford Press: New York, NY. Reutzel, D.R. (1985). Story maps improve comprehension. Reading Teacher, 38(4), 400-404. DR
  • 23   Setting Where? When? Main Characters   Problem   Resolution   Event 3   Event 2   Event 1   All About Adolescent Literacy www.adlit.org Resources for Parents and Educators of Kids Grades 4—12 Name Story Title Story Map
  • 24 Story Map 2 Title: Author: Illustrator: Setting: Characters: Beginning: Middle: End: Reader’s Conclusion (Problem/Solution):
  • 25 Structured Notetaking Background Structured Notetaking is a strategy that helps students become more effective note takers. Using graphic organizers specific to a particular text, structured notes assist students in understanding the content of their reading. Initially teachers create the graphic organizers, but as students become more comfortable with using structured notes they are able to construct their own, matching the structure of their graphic organizer to the structure of the texts they read. Benefits Structured notes are really helpful when students are faced with interpreting complex text structures. The notes give students a reading guide to use as they navigate through difficult text, and act as a model of how students should organize their ideas as they are reading. Create and use the strategy 1. Review the text and create a graphic organizer that matches the structure of the text. Provide each student with a copy of the organizer and the text they will read. 2. Review the structure of the organizer and how it relates to the structure of the text your students will read. 3. As students read and complete the organizer, remind them to review their responses and reflect on the connections being made between concepts. 4. Have students discuss their responses as a whole group or within their small groups. Remind students to focus their discussion on any questions where student answers differed. 5. At the completion of the reading, discuss how you created the graphic organizer and why you chose a particular structure for it. You may want to help students understand some of the common ways that information is organized (Buehl, 2000). a. Cause/effect b. Propostion/support c. Goal/action/outcome d. Compare/contrast e. Problem/solution f. Concept/definition References Buehl, D. (2000). Classroom Strategies for interactive Learning (2nd Ed.) Newark, DE: IRA Smith, P., & Tompkins, G. (1988). “Structured Notetaking: A new strategy for content area teachers.” Journal of Reading, 32, 46-53. DR
  • 26 Nonfiction Notes Name: 1. 2. 3. Book Title: Facts Topic / Main Idea 3 New Words
  • 27 SQ3R: Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review Background SQ3R is a comprehension strategy that helps students think about the text they are reading while they’re reading. Often categorized as a study strategy, SQ3R helps students “get it” the first time they read a text by teaching students how to read and think like an effective reader. Benefits Do you have students who get to the end of reading their textbook selection and have no idea what they’ve read? These students can benefit from using the SQ3R because it requires them to activate their thinking and review their understanding throughout their reading. It also dissuades students from waiting and then cramming for tests since the five steps requires them to review information and create notes during their initial reading. Their notes from the initial reading become their study guides. Create and use the strategy As with its sister strategy Question-Answer Relationship (QAR), SQ3R requires the teacher to model. 1. Explain to students that effective readers do many things while reading, including surveying, questioning, reading, reciting and reviewing. 2. Choose a content area passage to read and model the five SQ3R steps. 3. During each step, make sure to explain what you’re doing and why you’re doing it. 4. After your modeling session, invite students to independently read a selection and practice applying the SQ3R steps. This could be completed as an in-class or take-home assignment. 5. Afterwards ask students to review their notes and reflect on the process. Were they surprised by how much they remember by using the SQ3R method? 6. Students may not be “sold” on this strategy the first time they try it. Not all readings will be worth the time it takes to complete the SQ3R steps, so help students to understand not just how to apply it, but when to apply it. What it looks like This strategy includes the following five steps (Robinson, 1946): • Survey: Students review the text to gain initial meaning from the headings, bolded text, and charts. • Question: Students begin to generate questions about their reading from previewing it. • Read: As students read, they need to look for answers to the questions they formulated during their preview of the text. These questions, based on the structure of the text, help focus students’ reading. • Recite: As students move through the text they should recite or rehearse the answers to their questions and make notes about their answer for later studying. • Review: After reading, students should review the text to answer lingering questions and recite the questions they previously answered. References Fisher, D., and Frey, N, (2004). Improving Adolescent Literacy: Strategies at Work. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Robinson, F.P. (1946). Effective Study. New York: Harper & Row. DR
  • 28 SQ3R Chart Name ___________________________ Date ____________________ SQ3R Chart Title of Work: _______________________ Survey: Record important titles and subtitles from work. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Question: Write "Who, What, When, Where, and Why" questions from main topics. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Read: Write answers to questions from above. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Recite: Record key facts and phrases as needed for each question. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Review: C reate a summary paragraph for each question. ____________________________________ ____________________________________
  • 29 Text Structure Background Text structure refers to how the information within a written text is organized. This strategy helps students understand that a text might present a main idea and details; a cause and then its effects; and/or different views of a topic. Teaching students to recognize common text structures can help students monitor their comprehension. Benefits Teachers can use this strategy with the whole class, small groups, or individually. Students learn to identify and analyze text structures which helps students navigate the various structures presented within nonfiction and fiction text. As a follow up, having students write paragraphs that follow common text structures helps students recognize these text structures when they are reading. Create and Use the Strategy To create the text structure strategy teachers should: 1. Choose the assigned reading and introduce the text to the students. 2. Introduce the idea that texts have organizational patters called text structures. 3. Introduce the following common text structures (see chart below for more detailed information): o description, o sequence, o problem and solution, o cause and effect, and o compare and contrast. 4. Introduce and model using a graphic organizer to chart the text structure. To use the text structure strategy teachers should: 1. Show examples of paragraphs that correspond to each text structure. 2. Examine topic sentences that clue the reader to a specific structure. 3. Model the writing of a paragraph that uses a specific text structure. 4. Have students try write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. 5. Have students diagram these structures using a graphic organizer. Examples Table adapted from http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/strattextstructure.html DR
  • 30 Text Structure Definition/Example Organizer Description This type of text structure features a detailed description of something to give the reader a mental picture. EXAMPLE: A book may tell all about whales or describe what the geography is like in a particular region. Descriptive Pattern [pdf] Describing Qualities Cause and Effect This structure presents the causal relationship between an specific event, idea, or concept and the events, ideas, or concept that follow. EXAMPLE: Weather patterns could be described that explain why a big snowstorm occurred. Cause-Effect Pattern[pdf] Process/Cause and Effect Comparison/Contrast This type of text examines the similarities and differences between two or more people, events, concepts, ideas, etc. EXAMPLE: A book about ancient Greece may explain how the Spartan women were different from the Athenian women. Comparison/Contrast Order/Sequence This text structure gives readers a chronological of events or a list of steps in a procedure. EXAMPLE: A book about the American revolution might list the events leading to the war. In another book, steps involved in harvesting blue crabs might be told. Sequence Pattern[pdf] Chronological Sequence Problem-Solution This type of structure sets up a problem or problems, explains the solution, and then discusses the effects of the solution. Problem-Solution Organizer Other examples of text structure strategies may be found using the following links: • http://www.literacymatters.org/lessons/textstructure.htm • http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/strattextstructure.html • http://www.literacymatters.org/content/text/intro.htm • http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/IdentifyingTextStructure.html Research citations Dickson, S. V., Simmons, D. C., & Kameenui, E. J. (1995). Text organization and its relation to reading comprehension: A synthesis of research. Eugene, OR: National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from http://idea.uoregon.edu/~ncite/documents/techrep/tech17.html Dymock, S. (2005). Teaching Expository Text Structure Awareness. The Reading Teacher, 59(2), 177-181. Simonsen, S. (1996). Identifying and Teaching Text Structures in Content Area Classrooms. In D. Lapp, J. Flood, & N. Farnan (Eds.), Content Area reading and Learning: Instructional Strategies (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • 31 Pyramid
  • 32 Cause Effect Chain
  • 33 Compare Contrast
  • 34 Sequence
  • 35 Sequence 2
  • 36 Draw The Problem
  • 37 Problem Solution
  • 38 Word Hunts Background Word Hunts are used to enhance students’ vocabulary growth. Teachers ask students to look for words and patterns in reading materials based upon selected features. Word Hunts focus on the structure and meaning of words by turning students’ attention to spelling patterns and root words. Benefits Opportunities for students to work with words are important to enhancing students’ vocabularies, as well as increasing their comprehension. The Word Hunt strategy is a fun, versatile, and simple technique to improve students’ vocabulary. Use this strategy with the whole class, small groups, or individually. Word Hunts help students learn how words are used in different contexts. Create and use the strategy 1. Introduce the book or topic to be read along with the specific word patterns of study; 2. Provide students with written material (i.e., newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, novels, and/or news articles on the internet). 3. Model word hunting by using a portion of text copied onto chart paper, overhead transparencies, or a familiar book 4. Demonstrate how to locate words that fit the patterns under study and how to record those word into categories 5. Ask the students to read and reread a text to find words that fit a particular pattern. 6. Have students write down words they find that fit the desired patterns in journals or on charts. 7. Ask student to form small groups and read the words they found aloud. 8. Have students check to see what new words they can add to their journals or charts. 9. Ask students to find words that they can group together in categories. 10. Record the words on chart paper for a whole-class display. Further reading http://red6747.pbwiki.com/Word+Hunts Research Citations Barger, J. (2006). Building word consciousness. The Reading Teacher. 60(3), 279-281. Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., Johnston, F. (2004). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Bloodgood, J.W., Pacifici, L.C. (2004). Bringing word study to intermediate classrooms. The Reading Teacher. 58(3), 250-263. Ivey, G., & Fisher, D. (2006). Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents. http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/ template.chapter/ menuitem.5d91564f4fe4548cdeb3ffdb62108a0c/ ?chapterMgmtId=329393cbc00d9010VgnVCM1000 003d01a8c0RCRD DR
  • 39 AFTER READING
  • 40 Exit Slips Background The Exit-Slip strategy requires students to write responses to questions you pose at the end of class. Exit Slips help students reflect on what they have learned and express what or how they are thinking about the new information. Exit Slips easily incorporate writing into your content area classroom and require students to think critically. There are three categories of exit slips (Fisher & Frey, 2004): • Prompts that document learning, o Ex. Write one thing you learned today. o Ex. Discuss how today’s lesson could be used in the real world. • Prompts that emphasize the process of learning, o Ex. I didn’t understand… o Ex. Write one question you have about today’s lesson. • Prompts to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction o Ex. Did you enjoy working in small groups today? Other exit prompts include: • I would like to learn more about… • Please explain more about… • The most important thing I learned today is… • The thing that surprised me the most today was… • I wish… Benefits Exit Slips are great because they take just a few minutes and provide you with an informal measure of how well your students have understood a topic or lesson. Create and use the strategy • At the end of your lesson or five minutes before the end of class, ask students to respond to a prompt you pose to the class. • You may state the prompt orally to your students or project it visually on an overhead ro blackboard. • You may want to distribute 3X5 cards for students to write their responses on or allow students to write on loose-leaf paper. • As students leave your room they should turn in their exit slips. • Review the exit slips to determine how you may need to alter your instruction to better meet the needs of all your students. • Collect the exit slips as a part of an assessment portfolio for each student. References Fisher, D., and Frey, N. (2004). Improving Adolescent Literacy: Strategies at Work. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. AR
  • 41 Exit Slips     Write  one  thing  you  learned  today.                                 Name     Rate  your  understanding  of  today’s  topic  on  a  scale  of    1-­‐10.  What  can  you  do  to   improve  your  understanding?                               Name  
  • 42 Exit Slips     Discuss  one  way  today’s  lesson  could  be  used  in  the  real  world.                                 Name     Describe  one  topic  that  we  covered  today  that  you  would  like  to  learn  more  about.                                 Name  
  • 43 Exit Slips     One  thing  I  didn’t  understand:                                 Name     Of  the  two  strategies  we  learned  today,  which  one  did  you  find  most  useful?  Why?                                 Name  
  • 44                                     Name                                     Name   Exit Slips
  • 45 Frame Routine Background The Frame Routine is a strategy designed to assist students as they organize topics, main ideas and details about reading assignments. This technique includes a basic hierarchic graphic organizer called a “Frame” that can be used to help students think and talk about the key topic and essential related information. Benefits Frames allow students to identify the main ideas and supporting details while reading texts. As they list them on a Frame graphic, comprehension of the written material tends to increase. The Frame Routine is flexible and can be used with all content areas. The Frame Routine can be particularly beneficial to many students with learning disabilities because it depicts the organization of the concepts that students are expected to learn. Create and use the strategy Introduce the assigned passage of text to the students. Discuss the Frame Routine technique and model the procedure by co-constructing an initial Frame graphic. Simultaneously fill in information with students on blank copies of the form. This provides teachers with the opportunity to monitor the students’ level of understanding and to adjust instruction as needed. After students have become familiar with use of the Frame Routine, they can use the Frame graphics independently or in small groups as they identify main ideas and essential details from pre-selected texts. There are five basic steps for using the Frame Routine: 1. Select the topic The teacher introduces the lesson topic and provides students with a blank Frame. Students note the topic in the appropriate spaces on the graphic. This would most likely be the title of the reading selection. 2. Determine the main ideas Students record brief statements or words that summarize key ideas relating to the topic. 3. Discuss the details The details that are important for students to learn and remember are written on the Frame graphic in the essential details boxes. These essential details can later be ranked on the graphic according to level of importance. 4. Develop the “Big Idea” The teacher, small groups, or the whole class develop the Big Idea statement or the “So what?” idea. This statement is designed to help students understand how the topic fits with the overall context. These statements can take the form of: o A short summary o A conclusion the student has drawn o A connection to a real-world application relevant to the student 5. Evaluate the information The teacher facilitates evaluation of the new information when it is clearly organized. Several follow-up activities can then be employed to extend students’ understanding of important concepts. Such activities might include the following: o Having in-depth discussions; o Debating various points; o Drawing conclusions; o Making connections to other ideas; o Forming predictions, or forecasts; and o Engaging in journal writing AR
  • 46 References Ellis, E. S. (1998). Framing Main Ideas and Essential Details to Promote Comprehension. Retrieved 2008, February 6, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5765 Ellis, E. S. (2008). The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. The Framing Routine: Framing the big picture with essential details. http://www.ku-crl.org/library/cer/frame.shtml Name Essential Details Essential Details Essential Details is about… Key Topic Main Idea Main Idea Main Idea   Big Idea
  • 47 Question Frames Student’s Name: Directions: Choose a question frame from each question level in order to develop five questions based on your reading selection. Use these questions for review or to share in class for discussion. Recall: What is _________________________________________________________________________________? Define __________________________________________________________________________________. Identify the ______________________________________________________________________________. Who did ________________________________________________________________________________? Analysis: What is the main idea ______________________________________________________________________? List the main events of ______________________________________________________________________. What are the parts of a _____________________________________________________________________? What is the topic of ________________________________________________________________________? Comparison: Compare the characters in ___________________________________________________ to the characters in ________________________________________________________________________________________. What is the difference between _____________________________ and ______________________________? Inference: What do you think will happen next in the ______________________________________________________? What is the main conclusion from _____________________________________________________________? Predict what _________________________________________________________________________ will do. What would happen if ______________________________________________________________________? Evaluation: What is your opinion of _____________________________________________________________________? What is the best solution to the problem of ______________________________________________________? Evaluate the writing of ______________________________________________________________________. Defend your opinion about __________________________________________________________________.
  • 48 Question Starters Student’s Name: Directions: Use the key words on the right column in order to develop questions related to your reading selection. Type of question Recall: who, what, list, repeat, identify, name, when, define Analysis: summarize, categorize, divide, separate Comparison: differentiate, compare, contrast Inference: predict, conclude, what if, anticipate, infer Evaluation: judge, defend, prove, assess, evaluate
  • 49 Question the Author (QtA) Background Question the Author (QtA) is a comprehension strategy that requires students to pose queries while reading the text in order to challenge their understanding and solidify their knowledge (Beck et al., 1997). Primarily used with nonfiction text, QtA lets students critique the author’s writing and in doing so engage with the text to create a deeper meaning. Benefits QtA aims to engage all students with the text. Although it requires a bit of prep work, you will reap the rewards of your labor through the student interactions and discussions in your classroom. Create and use the strategy Beck et al. (1997) identify specific steps you should follow during a QtA lesson: 1. Select a passage that is both interesting and can spur a good conversation. 2. Decide appropriate stopping points where you think your students need to delve deeper and gain a greater understanding. 3. Create queries (questions to encourage critical thinking) for each stopping point. a. Ex: What is the author trying to say? b. Ex: Why do you think the author used the following phrase? c. Ex: Does this make sense to you? To introduce the strategy, display a short passage to your students along with one or two queries you have designed ahead of time.Model for your students how you think through the queries. Invite individual students or small groups to read and work through the queries you have prepared for their readings.Remember that your role as the teacher during this strategy is to facilitate the discussion, not lead it. When students ask questions that go unanswered, try to restate them and encourage students to work to determine the answer. Beck, I.L., & McKeown, M.G., Hamilton, R.L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. AR
  • 50 Author’s Tools SIMILES:Comparisonbetweenunlikethingsusinglikeoras HYPERBOLE:Exaggerationusedtomakeapoint. IMAGERY:Appealstothesenses METAPHORS:Comparisonssuggestingthingsaresimilar Student’sName:Date: Title:Author:
  • 51 Author Study Author’s name: Author’s life Books by this author: Story themes: Genres: Memorable characters: • Childhood • Family • Education • Various Jobs • Thoughts on being a writer • Memorable Characters • Plot • Setting • Humor • Excitement • Author’s Purpose • Themes Why I like this author Author’s craft:
  • 52 Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) Background Question-Answer relationship (QAR) is a strategy to be used after students have read. QAR teaches students how to decipher what types of questions they are being asked and where to find the answers to them. Four types of questions are examined in the QAR. They include: • Right There Questions: Literal questions whose answers can be found in the text. Often the words used in the question are the same words found in the text. • Think and Search Questions: Answers are gathered from several parts of the text and put together to make meaning. • Author and You: These questions are based on information provided in the text but the student is required to relate it to their own experience. Although the answer does not lie directly in the text, the student must have read it in order to answer the question. • On My Own: These questions do not require the student to have read the passage but he/she must use their background or prior knowledge to answer the question. Benefits QAR empowers students to think about the text they are reading and beyond it, too. It inspires them to think creatively and work cooperatively while challenging them to use literal and higher-level thinking skills. Create and use the strategy QAR is a simple strategy to teach students as long as you model, model, model. 1. Depending on your students, you may choose to teach each type of question individually or as a group. Explain to students that there are four types of questions they will encounter. Define each type of question and give an example. 2. Read a short passage aloud to your students. 3. Have predetermined questions you will ask after you stop reading. When you have finished reading, read the questions aloud to students and model how you decide which type of question you have been asked to answer. 4. Next, show your students how find information to answer your question (i.e., in the text, from your own experiences, etc.). 5. After you have modeled your thinking process for each type of question, invite students to read another passage on their own, using a partner to determine the type of question and how to find the answer. 6. After students have practiced this process for several types of questions and over several lessons, you may invite students to read passages and try to create different types of questions for the reading. Notes: • Students may work by themselves, in pairs or small groups. Remind students that they should be prepared to discuss and debate their reactions to the questions and how they figured out their answers. • QARs require students to activate both literal and critical thinking skills. For students who have a hard time thinking beyond the text, this will be a challenging task and will require a lot of time to apply to their own readings. These students will need consistent practice in determining the type of thinking the text is requiring them to do. AR
  • 53 QAR Practice – Given Questions
  • 54 QAR Practice – Given Questions
  • 55 QAR
  • 56 Summarizing Background Summarizing teaches students how to take a large selection of text and reduce it to the main points for more concise understanding. Upon reading a passage, summarizing helps students learn to determine essential ideas and consolidate important details that support them. It is a technique that enables students to focus on key words and phrases of an assigned text that are worth noting and remembering. Benefits Summarizing builds comprehension by helping to reduce confusion. Teachers train students to process the information they read with the goal of breaking down content into succinct pieces. This strategy can be used with the whole class, small groups, or as an individual assignment. Summarizing text by using writing activities builds on prior knowledge, helps improve writing, and strengthens vocabulary skills. Create and use the strategy Pre-select and introduce the text to be used in the Summarizing technique. Decide whether to have students use this strategy within one section, on one page, or with the entire book. Then, model the process of sifting out extra verbiage and extraneous examples within the passage. Give your students ample time and opportunities to practice. 1. Begin by reading OR have students listen to the text selection. 2. Ask students to write a summary of the target text based on the following framework questions: a. What are the main ideas? b. What are the crucial details necessary for supporting the ideas? c. What information is irrelevant or unnecessary? 3. Guide students throughout the summary writing process. Have them use key words or phrases to identify the main points from the text. 4. Encourage students to write successively shorter summaries, constantly refining their written piece until only the most essential and relevant information remains. References Jones, R. (2007). Strategies for Reading Comprehension: Summarizing. Retrieved 2008, January 29, from http://www. readingquest.org/strat/summarize.html. Guthrie, J. T. (2003). Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction: Practices of Teaching Reading for Understanding. In C. Snow & A. Sweet (Eds.), Reading for Understanding: Implications of RAND Report for Education (pp. 115-140). New York: Guilford. AR
  • 57 Sum It Up S u m I t U p NAME DATE TITLE of READING SELECTION 1. Read the selection and underline the key words and main ideas. Write these in the blank area below where it says “Main Idea Words.” 2. At the bottom of this sheet, write a one-sentence summary of the article, using as many main idea words as you can. Imagine you only have $2.00, and each word you use will cost you 10 cents. See if you can “sum it up” in twenty words! Main Idea Words: “Sum It Up” for $2.00 ____________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ ____________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ ____________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Adapted from Pat Widdowson Surry County (NC) Schools
  • 58 One-Sentence Summary Chart Student’s name: Frame Sentence Directions: Use the following chart to help you develop a summary about what you read. Then use the words from the chart to complete the summary sentence frame at the bottom of the page. Identify the topic being summarized. Tell what it begins with. Tell what is in the middle – helpful words: covers, discusses, presents, continues with. Tell what it ends with. ______________________________________________________ began with ______________________ __________________________________ continue with ________________________________________ ______ ,and ended with __________________________________________________________________.
  • 59 One-Sentence Summary Frames Student’sname: Directions:Usethefollowingsentenceframestodevelopaone-sentencesummaryaboutyourreadingselection. 1.DESCRIPTION: A__________________________________isakindof___________________________________ that___________________________________________________________________________. 2.COMPARE/CONTRAST: ____________________________and___________________________aresimilarinthattheyboth ______________________________________,but_____________________________________, while___________________________________________________________________________. 3.SEQUENCE: _____________________beginswith_________________________________________________, Continueswith_________________________________,andendswith________________________. 4.PROBLEM/SOLUTION: __________________________wanted____________________________,but________________ _______________________________,so_____________________________________________. 5.CAUSE/EFFECT: _____________________________happensbecause_____________________________________.
  • 60 RAFT Writing Background RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they’ll be writing about. By using this strategy, teachers encourage students to write creatively, to consider a topic from a different perspective, and to gain practice writing for different audiences. Students learn to respond to a writing prompt that requires them to think about various perspectives (Santa & Havens, 1995): • Role of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? A pilgrim? A soldier? The President? • Audience: To whom are you writing? A political rally? A potential employer? • Format: In what format are you writing? A letter? An advertisement? A speech? • Topic: What are you writing about? Benefits Students must think creatively and critically in order to respond to prompts, making RAFT a unique way for students to apply critical thinking skills about new information they are learning. RAFT writing is applicable in every content area thereby providing a universal writing approach for content area teachers. Create the strategy 1. Explain to your students the various perspectives (mentioned above) writers must consider when completing any writing assignment. 2. Display a RAFT writing prompt to your class and model on an overhead or Elmo how you would write in response to the prompt. 3. Have students react to another writing prompt individually, or in small groups. It works best if all students react to the same prompt so the class can learn from varied responses. 4. As students become comfortable in reacting to RAFT prompts, you can create more than one prompt for students to respond to after a reading, lesson, or unit. Varied prompts allow students to compare and contrast multiple perspectives, deepening their understanding of the content. Sample RAFT prompts Example 1: R: Citizen A: Congress F: Letter T: Taxation Example 2: R: Scout Finch A: Community of Monroeville, Alabama F: Eulogy for Atticus Finch T: Social Inequality References Mitchell, D. (1996). Writing to learn across the curriculum and the English teacher. English Journal, 85, 93-97. Santa, C., & Havens, L. (1995). Creating independence through student-owned strategies: Project CRISS. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt. AR
  • 61 Anticipation Guides Background An Anticipation Guide is a strategy that is used before reading to activate students’ prior knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic. Before reading a selection, students respond to several statements that challenge or support their preconceived ideas about key concepts in the text. Using this strategy stimulates students’ interest in a topic and sets a purpose for reading. Anticipation guides can be revisited after reading to evaluate how well students understood the material and to correct any misconceptions. Benefits Anticipation Guides are loved by teachers because of their ability to engage all students in the exploration of new information by challenging them to critically think about what they know or think they know about a topic. In doing so, anticipation guides set a purpose to the reading, even for those students who initially may not be engaged by the topic. Create the strategy There are several ways to construct an anticipation guide for middle and high school students. Most include the following steps (Duffelmeyer, 1994): 1. Identify the major ideas presented in the reading. 2. Consider what beliefs your students are likely to have about the topic. 3. Write general statements that challenge your students’ beliefs. 4. Require students to respond to the statements with either a positive or negative response. Use the strategy 1. Have students complete the anticipation guide before reading. They may work by themselves, in pairs or small groups. Remind students that they should be prepared to discuss and debate their reactions to the statements on the anticipation guide after they have completed it. 2. After students have finished the guide, encourage a class discussion of students’ reactions to the statements. Remember, you want to activate their critical thinking about the topic, so dig deeper than students’ answers and get to their justifications. 3. Have students read the text with their anticipation guide responses fresh in their minds so they can react to the text as they read. Encourage students to mark or write down where the text supports their initial reaction to statements, or causes them to rethink those reactions. 4. Have a class discussion after reading. Ask students if any of them changed their position on any of the statements. Encourage students to share how they reacted to the text, given their initial responses captured in the anticipation guide. Make sure students share examples from the text where their initial responses were either supported or challenged. References Duffelmeyer, F. (1994). Effective Anticipation Guide statements for learning from expository prose. Journal of Reading, 37, 452-455. McKenna, M.C. (2002). Help for struggling readers: Strategies for grades 3-8. New York: Guilford. BR
  • 62 Before Reading Agree/Disagree Statement/Question After Reading Agree/Disagree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Name Topic Read each statement below. Respond in the left column whether you agree (A) or disagree (D) with each statement. Think about why you agree or disagree, and be prepared to share. Anticipation Guides
  • 63 Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) Background Is a technique that teaches students to work cooperatively on a reading assignment to promote better comprehension. CSR learning logs are used to help students keep track of learning during the collaboration process. Students think about what they are reading and write down questions/reflections about their learning. The completed logs then provide a guide for follow-up activities and evaluation methods. Benefits CSR learning logs may be used across various units of study which offers teachers flexibility for implementation. CSR learning logs provide written documentation of learning, encourage all students to participate actively in their groups, and become excellent study guides. CSR learning logs also assist teachers with recording IEP progress for special education students. Create and use the strategy Introduce students to the selected text and discuss the specific CSR assignment. Prior to reading, students should be: 1. grouped according to varying reading levels 2. provided a set of guidelines for writing their logs (planned activities for logs might include impromptu writing; note taking; or diagram drawing) 3. asked to write what they already know about the topic As students read they should record information learned or questions about the text. Recordings may be written in a notebook, handout, or class-made journals. Students then enter their reaction after reading a text. Teachers should monitor entries, respond to questions, and clarify confusions. Further reading • http://www.ims.issaquah.wednet.edu/CSR/CSR_Learning_Log.pdf* • http://searchlight.utexas.org References Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperative learning: What special educators need to know. The Pointer, 33, 5-10. Klingner, J., & Vaughn, S. (1998). Using Collaborative Strategic Reading. Retrieved 2008, February 21, from http:// www.teachingld.org/pdf/teaching_how-tos BR
  • 64 BeforeReading BrainstormPredict DuringReading What’stheGist? AfterReading QuestionsaboutmainideasWhatIlearned Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) Name Topic
  • 65 Concept Sorts Background A concept sort is a strategy used to introduce students to the vocabulary of a new topic or book. Teachers provide students with a list of terms or concepts from reading material. Students place words into different categories based on each word’s meaning. Categories can be defined by the teacher or by the students. When used before reading, concept sorts provide an opportunity for a teacher to see what his or her students already know about the given content. When used after reading, teachers can assess their students’ understanding of the concepts presented. Benefits This technique is beneficial when there is a lot of specialized vocabulary to introduce. Concept sorts enhance reading skills by providing the content to which students can attach new oral vocabulary. This technique has been shown to be particularly beneficial for ELL students. Teachers can use this strategy with the whole class, small groups, individually. Monitoring each student’s sorting process provides teachers with information about how much the students already know about the topic. This allows teachers to tailor instruction accordingly. Create and use the strategy 1. Introduce the book or topic to be read; 2. Choose relevant, important vocabulary terms; 3. Write or print out the terms on cards (one term per card), making several sets; 4. Create and label the categories OR assist students with creating their own categories as they sort the cards. Note: As with all strategy instruction, teachers should model the procedure to ensure that students understand why and how to use the strategy. Provide the students with the cards containing the selected terms. Have the students sort the cards and then explain why they grouped the terms as they did. The students continue the activity by developing a chart of their sort. Note: A more structured way to use concept sorts with a new book is to create story categories (i.e., character, setting, problem, & solution) and have students determine where the selected terms go. Teachers can then ask the students to write a short prediction of what the story will be about. BR
  • 66 Sample Concept Sort The following example introduces students to a book about trees. 1. Introduce and discuss the following pre-selected terms: deciduous leaves water bark evergreen forests branches mountains sunlight soil roots rainforest 2. Then, ask students to sort the terms according to the following categories OR ask the students to sort the cards in a way that is meaningful to them and follow up to check their understanding of the concepts. o Parts of a tree o Types of trees o Where trees grow o What trees need to grow References Baumann, J. & Kame’enui, E. (eds.). (2004). Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Guilford Press: New York. Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2007). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (4th Edition). Prentice Hall: New Jersey. Douglas, E. (n.d.). Preparing English language learners for reading comprehension. Retrieved 2008, January 21, from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/ell-readcomp0708-1#1-3-0
  • 67 First Lines Background First Lines is a strategy in which students read the beginning sentences from assigned readings and make predictions about the content of what they’re about to read. This pre-reading technique helps students focus their attention on what they can tell from the first lines of a story, play, poem, or other text. As students read the text in its entirety they discuss, revisit and/or revise their original predictions. Benefits The First Lines strategy is a versatile and simple technique for improving students’ reading comprehension. It requires students to 1) anticipate what the text is about before they begin reading, and 2) activate prior knowledge. First Lines helps students become active participants in learning and can include writing as a way of organizing predictions and/or thoughts generated from discussions. Monitoring each student’s predictions provides teachers with information about how much the students already know about the topic. This allows teachers to tailor instruction accordingly. Create and use the strategy Choose the assigned reading and introduce the text to the students. Then describe the purpose of the strategy and provide guidelines for discussions about predictions. Explain that students will be looking at the first sentences from texts that they will be reading during the class or unit. You may wish to copy these first lines separately and give them to each student. As with all strategy instruction, you should model the procedure to ensure that students understand how to use the strategy. Monitor and support students as they work. Create and use the strategy To use the First Lines strategy, teachers should: 1. Ask students to begin reading the first line of the assigned text. 2. Ask students to make predictions for the reading based on what they see in the first sentence. 3. Explain that students should be ready to volunteer the ideas for their predictions. 4. Remind students that there is not a “right” or “wrong” way to make predictions about a text, but emphasize that readers should be able to support their predictions from the information in the sentence. 5. Engage the class in discussion about each student’s predictions. 6. Ask students to review their predictions and to note any changes or additions to their predictions in a journal or on recording Sheets before reading the text. Students might work in groups or individually. 7. Encourage students to return to their original predictions after reading the text, assessing their original predictions and building evidence to support those predictions which are accurate. Students can create new predictions as well. Further reading • http://www.learnnc.org/lessons/Readwritethink200606212461 • http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=834 Research Citations Beers, K. (2003). When Kids Can’t Read--What Teachers Can Do: A Guide for Teachers 6-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. BR
  • 68 First line Prediction Explanation Revision Name Title First Lines
  • 69 Frayer Model Background The Frayer Model is a strategy that uses a graphic organizer for vocabulary building. This technique requires students to (1) define the target vocabulary words or concepts, and (2) apply this information by generating examples and non- examples. This information is placed on a chart that is divided into four sections to provide a visual representation for students. Benefits This instructional strategy promotes critical thinking and helps students to identify and understand unfamiliar vocabulary. The Frayer Model can be used with the entire class, small groups, or for individual work. The Frayer Model draws on a student’s prior knowledge to build connections among new concepts and creates a visual reference by which students learn to compare attributes and examples. Create and use the strategy Pre-select a list of key vocabulary from a reading selection. The Frayer Model should be explained and a graphic organizer provided to each student. Then direct students to complete the template individually, in small groups or as a whole class. Model the type and quality of desired answers for the specific concept. 1. Review vocabulary words or concept list with the class before students read the selection. 2. Have students read the assigned text and carefully define the target concepts. Have students complete the four-square chart for each concept. 3. Ask the students to share their conclusions with the entire class. These presentations may be used to review the entire list of new vocabulary or concepts. References Frayer, D., Frederick, W. C., and Klausmeier, H. J. (1969). A Schema for Testing the Level of Cognitive Mastery. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Just Read Now (n.d.). Frayer Model. Retrieved 2008, February 25, from http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/frayer. htm BR
  • 70  Definition   Examples   Non-examples Facts Word/Concept Name Frayer Model
  • 71 List-Group-Label Background List-Group-Label is a vocabulary strategy that engages students in a three-step process to actively organize their understanding of content area vocabulary and concepts. It provides students with a way to recognize the relationships between words and concepts using their prior knowledge about a topic. The list-group-label strategy can be used before and after students read. Benefits List-Group-Label makes words come alive for students through their conversations and reflections on the “meaning connections” between words. It actively engages students in learning new vocabulary and content by activating their critical thinking skills. Create and use the strategy After selecting a main concept in a reading passage: 1. List: Have students brainstorm all the words they think relate to the topic. a. Visually display student responses. b. At this point do not critique student responses. Some words may not reflect the main concept, but hopefully students will realize this as they begin grouping the words in the next step. 2. Group: Divide your class into small groups. Each group will work to cluster the class list of words into subcategories. As groups of words emerge, challenge your students to explain their reasoning for placing words together or discarding them. 3. Label: Invite students to suggest a title or label for the groups of words they have formed. These labels should relate to their reasoning for the grouping. Notes: • Although List-Group-Label may begin as a pre-reading activity, students should return to it as they read through and the text related to the major concept they brainstormed about. They may find they should add words from their reading or re-label the groups of words they created. • Encourage students to discard words very cautiously, particularly during the pre-reading portion of the strategy. Often the best conversation between students centers around words that don’t immediately fall into a major category. References Lenski, S. D., Wham, M. A., & Johns, J. L. (1999). Reading and learning strategies for middle and high school students. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Taba, H. (1967).Teacher’s handbook for elementary social studies. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. BR
  • 72 List Group and Label Name Topic In the first column, list all of the words you can think of that are related to the topic. Once you have created your list, group the words based on their similarities. Label each group when you are finished. List-Group-Label
  • 73 Listen-Read-Discuss (LRD) Background Listen-Read-Discuss (LRD) (Manzo & Casale, 1985) is a comprehension strategy that builds students’ prior knowledge before they read a text. During the first stage, students listen as you present the content of their reading through a lecture, often paired with a graphic organizer. Next, students read the text and compare what they learned during the lecture to their understanding of reading the text on their own. Finally, students discuss their understanding of the text with other students in their small group or large group. Benefits LRD is a powerful tool for engaging struggling readers in classroom discussions. Since the content is initially covered orally, students unable to read the entire text on their own are able to gain at least a surface level of understanding about the reading. Those students lacking prior knowledge about the content gain it during the listening stage, allowing them to more easily comprehend the text during the reading stage. Create and use the strategy 1. Listen: You present a lecture on the content of the reading. Include a graphic organizer of the information you discuss. 2. Read: Students read the selection, guided by the idea that the reading may provide another understanding or interpretation of the content. 3. Discuss: Lead a classroom discussion of the material. Encourage students to reflect on the differences between their reading of the content and your presentation. LRD is difficult to use on a daily basis because developing the lecture and the students’ prior knowledge is time intensive. Be selective and choose specific text you feel your students lack prior knowledge about and need more support with as your LRD text. Most students don’t need that high level of support for the content material they will read, but struggling readers and early English language learners will benefit greatly from this strategy. References Manzo, Anthony V., & Casale, Ula P. (1985). Listen-Read-Discuss: A content reading heuristic. Journal of Reading, 28, 372-734. McKenna, M.C. (2002). Help for struggling readers: Strategies for grades 3-8. New York: Guilford.
  • 74 Mnemonics Background A mnemonic is an instructional strategy designed to help students improve their memory of important information. This technique connects new learning to prior knowledge through the use of visual and/or acoustic cues. The basic types of mnemonic strategies rely on the use of key words, rhyming words, or acronyms. Teachers may develop mnemonic strategies or have students come up with their own. Benefits Mnemonics are strategies that can be modified to fit a variety of learning content. This method enhances memory of complex words or ideas and promotes better retention of material to be learned. It is especially beneficial to LD students and others who may have difficulty with information recall. Create and use the strategy Mnemonics may be introduced to students when a set of new information is presented. Discuss the topic to be learned and pre-select a mnemonic strategy such as those listed below (or have students create their own: • Keyword — A keyword is a familiar word that sounds similar to the word or idea being taught. The teacher creates an illustration that links the prior and new information in the student’s memory. Example: The scientific term for common frogs is ranidae. A helpful keyword for ranidae might be rain and a teacher could show a picture of frogs hopping in the rain. • Pegword — Pegwords refer to a set of rhyming words that are used to stand for numbers. For example, the pegword for “one” is “bun.” Pegwords include the following: one is bun six is sticks two is shoe seven is heaven three is tree eight is gate four is door nine is vine five is hive ten is hen Pegwords are used to help students remember information in a particular order. These words are substituted for the number to be remembered and associated with the other information. For instance, to remember that insects have six legs and spiders have eight legs, create a picture of insects on sticks and another picture of a spider on a gate. • Letter — Letter strategies include acronyms and acrostics (or sentence mnemonics). For example, the acronym HOMES can be used to help students recall the names of the Great Lakes o H: Huron o O: Ontario o M: Michigan o E: Erie o S: Superior Teachers then may wish to use verbal cues such as “A good way to remember this is…” for an introduction to the technique. Note: The specific mnemonic strategy will need to be modeled and students should go through the steps of the mnemonic until they can use it independently. Allow students opportunities to practice orally and provide corrective feedback. BR
  • 75 Further reading The following links provide examples of mnemonic strategies: • http://www.ldonline.org/article/5912 • http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/mnemonics/index.html • http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/mnemonics_reading.asp • http://www.readingrockets.org/article/5736 • http://www.ict4us.com/mnemonics/ References Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1998). Constructing more meaningful relationships in the classroom: Mnemonic research into practice. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 138-145. Nagel, D. R., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1986). The FIRST-letter mnemonic strategy. Lawrence, KS: EXCELLenterprises. Schumaker, J. B., Bulgren, J. A., Deshler, D. D., & Lenz, B. K. (1998). The recall enhancement routine. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas. Scruggs, T. E., and Mastropieri, M. A. (1992). Classroom applications of mnemonic instruction: Acquisition, maintenance and generalization. Exceptional Children, 58, 219-229.
  • 76 Peer-Assisted Learning Strategy Background Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a classwide peer tutoring program. Teachers carefully partner a student with a classmate. The pair works on various activities that address the academic needs of both students. Pairs change over time. PALS can be used across content areas. Benefits PALS does not require special reading materials and consequently enables teachers to use the reading material of their choice. This offers teachers flexibility for incorporating PALS into various content areas. More recently, this technique has been implemented as a strategy for ELL students with LD. The strategy provides direct opportunities for a teacher to circulate in the class, observe students, and offer individual remediation. PALS therefore allows for differentiated instruction via having partners work simultaneously on various teacher-directed activities. Create and use the strategy Create pairs within the classroom by identifying which children require help on specific skills and who the most appropriate children are to help other children learn those skills. Each member of the teacher-assigned pair takes turns being Coach and Reader. These pairs are changed regularly, and over a period of time as students work on a variety of skills. Thus, all students have the opportunity to be “coaches” and “players.” Teachers train students to use the PALS procedures. As the reader reads aloud, the coach listens and provides corrective feedback. The PALS technique is designed to be a 25 to 35 minute activity. It should be implemented 2-4 times a week for effectiveness. Award students points for good reading and coaching. References Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: An Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Reading Achievement. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 85-91. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318. Saenz, L., Fuchs, L., & Fuchs, D. (2005) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, (71). Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development. (n.d.). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Retrieved 2008, January 21, from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/ BR
  • 77 Possible Sentences Background Possible Sentences is a pre-reading vocabulary strategy that activates students’ prior knowledge about content area vocabulary and concepts. Before reading, students are provided a short list of vocabulary words from their reading, which they group and eventually use to create meaningful sentences. After reading, students check to see if their “possible sentences” were accurate or need revising. Benefits Possible Sentences are great because they spark students’ curiosity about their content area words and reading. By asking your students to guess how the words may be used in the text, you are hoping they are as equally enticed to read the selection and determine if their sentences were accurate. Create and use the strategy 1. Before students read the text, visually display the chosen vocabulary. 2. Ask students to define the words and pair related words together. 3. Ask individual or pairs of students to write sentences using their word pairs. Remind students that their sentences should be ones they expect to see in the text as they read. 4. Have students read the text and compare their possible sentences with the actual sentences within the text. 5. If your students’ possible sentences are inaccurate, ask them to rewrite their sentences to be accurate. 6. Invite students to share their sentences with the class. Notes: • If students have never completed possible sentences you will need to model the process for your students. • Students can either share their sentences before or after they have read the text. Done as a post reading game, students share their sentences without disclosing which are accurate or inaccurate. Teams of students can try to decipher, based on their reading, which sentences are accurate. References Moore, D.W., & Moore, S.A (1986). “Possible sentences.” In Reading in the content areas: Improving classroom instruction. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Stahl, S.A. & Kapinus, B.A. (1991). Possible sentences: Predicting word meaning to teach content area vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 45, 36-45. BR
  • 78 Vocabulary Map Definition: Synonym: Antonym: Sentence:Chapter: Page: Student’sName: Picture: Word:
  • 79 Think Alouds Background Think Alouds help students learn to monitor their thinking as they read an assigned passage. Students are directed by a series of questions which they think about and answer aloud while reading. This process reveals how much they understand a text. As students become more adept at this technique they learn to generate their own questions to guide comprehension. Benefits Think Alouds are practical and relatively easy for teachers to use within the classroom. Teachers are able to model the Think Aloud technique and discuss how good readers often re-read a sentence, read ahead to clarify, and/or look for context clues to make sense of what they read. Think alouds slow down the reading process and allow students to monitor their understanding of a text. Create and use the strategy Begin by modeling this strategy. Model your thinking as you read. Do this at points in the text that may be confusing for students (new vocabulary, unusual sentence construction). Then introduce the assigned text and discuss the purpose of the Think Aloud strategy. Then develop the set of questions to support thinking aloud (see examples below). 1. What do I know about this topic? 2. What do I think I will learn about this topic? 3. Do I understand what I just read? 4. Do I have a clear picture in my head about this information? 5. What more can I do to understand this? 6. What were the most important points in this reading? 7. What new information did I learn? 8. How does it fit in with what I already know? Teachers should next (1) give students opportunities to practice the technique, either in pairs, small groups or individually; and (2) offer structured feedback to students. Initially, the teacher reads the selected passage aloud as the students read the same text silently. At certain points the teacher stops and “thinks aloud” answers to some of the pre-selected questions. Teachers should demonstrate how good readers monitor their understanding by rereading a sentence, reading ahead to clarify, and/or looking for context clues. Students then learn to offer answers to the questions as the teacher leads the Think Aloud strategy. As students become familiar with the Think Aloud process, they may work BR
  • 80 Think-Pair-Share Background Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a collaborative learning strategy in which students work together to solve a problem or answer a question about an assigned reading. This technique requires students to (1) think individually about a topic or answer to a question; and (2) share ideas with classmates. Discussing an answer with a partner serves to maximize participation, focus attention and engage students in comprehending the reading material. Benefits The Think-Pair-Share strategy is a versatile and simple technique for improving students’ reading comprehension. It gives students time to think about an answer and activates prior knowledge. TPS enhances students’ oral communication skills as they discuss their ideas with one another. This strategy helps students become active participants in learning and can include writing as a way of organizing thoughts generated from discussions. Create and use the strategy The teacher decides upon the text to be read and develops the set of questions or prompts that target key content concepts. The teacher then describes the purpose of the strategy and provides guidelines for discussions. As with all strategy instruction, teachers should model the procedure to ensure that students understand how to use the strategy. Teachers should monitor and support students as they work. 1. T : (Think) Teachers begin by asking a specific question about the text. Students “think” about what they know or have learned about the topic. 2. P : (Pair) Each student should be paired with another student or a small group. 3. S : (Share) Students share their thinking with their partner. Teachers expand the “share” into a whole-class discussion. Variation: Teachers can modify this strategy and include various writing components within the Think-Pair-Share strategy. This provides teachers with the opportunity to see whether there are problems in comprehension. Teachers can create a Read-Write-Pair-Share strategy in which students: 1. R: Read the assigned material; 2. W: Write down their thoughts about the topic prior to the discussions; 3. P: Pair up with a partner 4. S: Share their ideas with a partner and/or the whole class. Further reading • Doing Cooperative Learning: Think-Pair-Share Research Citations Gunter, M. A., Estes, T. H., & Schwab, J. H. (1999). Instruction: A Models Approach, 3rd edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Lyman, F. (1981). “The responsive classroom discussion.” In Anderson, A. S. (Ed.), Mainstreaming Digest. College Park, MD: University of Maryland College of Education. Millis, B. J., & Cottell, P. G., Jr. (1998). Cooperative learning for higher education faculty, American Council on Education, Series on Higher Education. The Oryx Press: Phoenix, AZ. BR
  • 81 Somebody Wanted Title: Author: Illustrator: Somebody (Character) Wanted (Goal) But… (Problem) So… (Solution)
  • 82 Concept Maps Background A concept map help students visualize various connections between words or phrases and a main idea. There are several types of concept maps; some are hierarchical, while others connect information without categorizing ideas. Most are comprised of words or phrases surrounded by a circle or square that connect to one another and ultimately back to the main idea through graphic lines. These lines help students to “negotiate meaning” (Hyerle, 1996) as they read and make the meaning connections between the main idea and other information. Benefits Concept maps have been shown to support struggling readers (Lovitt & Horton, 1994) by building off of students’ prior knowledge and asking them to reflect on their understanding while reading. They are easy to construct and can be used across all content areas. Create and use the strategy There are several ways to construct concept maps for middle and high school students. Most include the following steps: 1. Model for your students how you identify the major ideas presented in a reading as you read. 2. Organize your ideas into categories if applicable to the type of concept map you chose. Remind students that your organization may change as you continue to read and add more information. 3. Use lines or arrows to represent how ideas are connected to one another, a particular category, and/or the main concept. You can use concept maps as a pre-reading strategy by inviting students to share what they already know about a particular concept. As students begin reading and adding to the map, they are able to meld their prior knowledge with new information they have gathered from their reading. After students have finished the guide, encourage them to share their concept maps with one another in pairs or small groups. This will allow students to share and reflect on how they each interpreted the connections between concepts and words. Encourage students to use the concept map to summarize what they have read, organize their writing on the concept, or to create a study guide for their own studying. References Hyerle, D. (1996). Visual tools for constructing knowledge. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervisors of Curriculum Development. Lovitt, T.C., & Horton, S.V. (1994). Strategies for adapting science textbooks for youth with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15, 105-116. DR
  • 83 Concept Maps
  • 84 Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) Background The Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a strategy that guides students in asking questions about a text, making predictions, and then reading to confirm or refute their predictions. The DRTA process encourages students to be active and thoughtful readers, enhancing their comprehension. Benefits A DRTA may be used with an individual, a small group, or a whole class. This activity can be easily adapted for a variety of subjects and reading levels. This strategy helps strengthen reading and critical thinking skills. As the teacher guides the process, the DRTA teaches students to determine the purpose for reading and make adjustments to what they think will come next based on the text. Create and use the strategy Determine the text to be used and pre-select points for students to pause during the reading process. The reading should be broken into small sections so that the students have time to think about and process information. The amount of reading should be adjusted to fit the purpose and the difficulty of the text. Introduce the text, the purpose of the DRTA and gives examples of how to make predictions. Be aware of the reading levels of each student, and be prepared to provide appropriate questions, prompts, and support as needed. Encourage students not to be intimidated by taking a risk with predictions and not to feel pressure to state only correct predictions. D - DIRECT - Teachers direct and stimulate students’ thinking prior to reading a passage by scanning the title, chapter headings, illustrations, and other explanatory materials. Then teachers should use open-ended questions to direct students as they make predictions about the content or perspective of the text (e.g., “Given this title, what do you think the passage will be about?”). Students should be encouraged to justify their responses and activate prior knowledge. R - READING - Teachers should have students read up to the first pre-selected stopping point in the text. The teacher then prompts the students with questions about specific information and asks them to evaluate their predictions and refine them if necessary. This process should be continued until students have read each section of the passage. T - THINKING - At the end of the reading, teachers should have students go back through the text and think about their predictions. Students should verify or modify the accuracy of their predictions by finding supporting statements in the text. The teacher deepens the thinking process by asking questions such as: • What do you think about your predictions now? • What did you find in the text to prove your predictions? • What did you find in the text that caused you to modify your predictions? NOTE: Writing may be included as part of the DRTA. As students become more comfortable with this strategy, have each student write predictions in a learning log or on a piece of paper. Then, in small groups, students can discuss their predictions and share their thinking processes. Next ask students to write summary statements about how their predictions compared to the passage. Further reading • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/skill-builder/reading/48610.html?for_printing=1 • http://www.rockingham.k12.va.us/English/shared/Directed%20Reading%20Thinking.pdf • http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/drta.htm Research citations Jennings, C. & Shepherd, J. (1998). Literacy and the key learning areas: successful classroom strategies. Eleanor Curtain Publishing. Lenski, Susan D., Wham, Mary Ann, & Johns, Jerry L. (1999). Reading and learning strategies for middle and high school students. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Murdoch, K. (1998). Classroom Connections: Strategies for Integrated Learning. Eleanor Curtain Publishing. Stauffer, R. G. (1969). Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. New York: Harper & Row. DR
  • 85 Double-Entry Journals Background The Double-Entry Journal strategy enables students to record their responses to text as they read. Students write down phrases or sentences from their assigned reading and then write their own reaction to that passage. The purpose of this strategy is to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts and become actively involved with the material they read. Benefits Double-Entry Journaling improves students’ comprehension, vocabulary, and content retention. This interactive strategy activates prior knowledge and present feelings, and promotes collaborative learning. It fosters the connection between reading and writing as students are able to “reply” to the author or speaker as they write their responses. The technique offers flexibility in that teachers can use any form of written text, read alouds, or listenings that are assigned in class. Create and use the strategy Introduce a passage of text to the students. Discuss the Double-Entry Journal technique and model the procedure including specific guidelines for writing. Have students read the selected text making journal entries whenever a natural pause in the reading occurs, so that the flow is not interrupted constantly. 1. Students fold a piece of paper in half, lengthwise. 2. In the left hand column, the students write a phrase or sentence from the selection that was particularly meaningful to them, along with the page number. 3. In the right hand column, the students react to the passage by writing personal responses to the quotes on the left. The entry may include a comment, a question, a connection made, or an analysis. 4. Students can share their responses with the class or literature discussion group. References Joyce, M. (1997). Double Entry Journals and Learning Logs. Retrieved 2008, January 23, from http://www.maslibraries. org/infolit/samplers/spring/doub.html Litwiller, D.(2003). Helpful ESL Links. Retrieved 2008, January 24, from http://homepage.usask.ca/~dul381/common/ helpfulesllinks.html Ruddell, R. (2002). Teaching Children to Read and Write: Becoming an Influential Teacher (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. DR
  • 86 Name Topic Asyoureadthetext,selectafewphrasesthatyoufindmeaningfulorinteresting.Writeeachphraseinthefirstcolumnbelow,thenwriteyourreaction (acomment,question,connectionmade,oranalysis)eachquoteinthesecondcolumn. Page intext FromthetextMythoughts Double-Entry Journals
  • 87 Inferential Reading Background Teaching students to “read inferentially” helps them learn how to read more strategically. This technique is derived from the teaching model that learners develop knowledge via the process of interpreting new information in light of past experiences and rethinking past knowledge based on new information. Benefits Inferences are the conclusions we draw based on what one already knows and judgments we make based on given information. This strategy helps students make connections between their personal experiences and their comprehension of a text. Rather than stopping students during the reading process to comment on specific points, this strategy focuses on their thinking and how new information reshapes their prior knowledge. Inferential reading can be taught using a variety of reading material beyond assigned textbooks (i.e. cartoons and bumper stickers can be used as a way to help students think about what authors imply). As students develop inferential reading skills they learn to: • understand the intonation of characters’ words and relationships to one another • provide explanations for ideas that are presented in the text • offer details for events or their own explanations of the events • recognize the author’s view of the world including the author’s biases • offer conclusions from facts presented in the text • relate what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the world Students can also use inferential reading to help them with new or difficult vocabulary by figuring out 1) antecedents for pronouns, 2) the meaning of unknown words from context clues, and/or 3) the grammatical function of an unknown word. Create and use the strategy Teachers should begin by reading the assigned passage before presenting it to students. The next step is to identify 3 or 4 main ideas in the reading selection. Teachers then develop a series of pre-reading questions for the reading assignment. The questions should 1) elicit previous knowledge of the topic (e.g., “What are your own attitudes and experiences about [idea]?”), and 2) point beyond past knowledge and encourage students to make predictions about the reading (e.g., “What do you think the article will say about [idea]?”). Teachers may wish to model this strategy using a short read aloud. 1. Have students first think about inferences they make every day in their lives. 2. Encourage students to discuss both their prior knowledge of the topic and their predictions about the reading selection. 3. Have students write predictions and speculations prior to reading the selection. 4. Ask students to read the selection as a whole without interruption. 5. After reading, have the students review their written predictions about the passage. 6. Ask students how the new information changed/reshaped their prior knowledge. DR
  • 88 Sample prompts Include comments like those listed below to help students learn to make various types of inferences: 1. “Look for pronouns and figure out what to connect them to.” 2. “Figure out explanations for these events.” 3. “Think about the setting and see what details you can add.” 4. “Think about something that you know about this (insert topic) and see how that fits with what’s in the text.” 5. “After you read this section, see if you can explain why the character acted this way.” 6. “Look at how the character said (insert a specific quote). How would you have interpreted what that character said if he had said (change how it was said or stress different words)?” 7. “Look for words that you don’t know and see whether other words in the sentence or surrounding sentences can give you an idea what those unknown words mean.” 8. “As you read this section, look for clues that would tell you how the author might feel about (insert a topic or character’s name).” Further reading • http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/6-12/Reading/Reading%20Strategies/inferentialreading.htm • http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/inferential.htm Example: • http://collectiveconscious.com/chaucer/Ordeal%2520By%2520Cheque.pdf Research citations Hirsch, E.D. (2003). Reading comprehension requires knowledge-of words and the world: Scientific insights into the fourth-grade slump and the nations stagnant reading comprehension scores. American Educator, 27(1), 10-22, 28-29, 48. Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. van den Broek, P. (1994). Comprehension and memory of narrative texts: Inferences and coherence. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 539-588). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • 89 Inquiry Charts (I-Charts) Background The Inquiry Chart (I-Chart) is a strategy that enables students to generate meaningful questions about a topic and organize their writing. Students integrate prior knowledge or thoughts about the topic with additional information found in several sources. The I-Chart procedure is organized into three phases: (1) Planning, (2) Interacting, and (3) Integrating/Evaluating. Each phase consists of activities designed to engage students in evaluating a topic. Benefits This instructional strategy fosters critical thinking and strengthens reading skills. I-Charts can be used with the entire class, small groups, or individual work. Teachers can guide each student’s chart development which allows for differentiated instruction as well as targeting the zone of proximal development. In addition, I-Charts can serve as an evaluation tool for how much a student has learned about a topic. Create and use the strategy The teacher directs students as they begin with the planning phase of this activity. This phase includes: 1. identifying the topic, 2. forming questions, 3. constructing the I-Chart, and 4. collecting materials The next step is to engage students in the interacting phase which involves: 1. exploring prior knowledge, 2. sharing of interesting facts, and 3. reading and rereading Finally, teachers guide the students through the integrating and evaluation phase by: 1. summarizing 2. comparing 3. researching, and 4. reporting The teacher provides each student with a blank I-chart* and assists with topic selection OR provides the pre-selected topic. The students then engage in forming questions about the topic. These are placed at the top of each individual column. The rows are for recording any information students already know and the key ideas pulled from several different sources of information. The last row gives students the opportunity to pull together the ideas into a general summary. Teachers may ask students to resolve competing ideas found in the separate sources or develop new questions to explore based on any conflicting or incomplete information. Deborah Heiligman suggests an interesting activity to help kids develop good research methods. This activity would work well with the inquiry-chart strategy. References Hoffman, J. (1992). Critical reading/thinking across the curriculum: Using I-charts to support learning. Language Arts, 69(2), p. 121-27. Jones, R. (2006). Strategies for Reading Comprehension: Inquiry Chart. Retrieved 2008, January 25, from http://www. readingquest.org/strat/ichart.html FOR-PD. (2005). FOR-PD’s Reading Strategy of the Month. Retrieved 2008, January 25, from http://forpd.ucf.edu/ strategies/stratIChart.html DR
  • 90 Question1Question2Question3Question4 OtherInteresting Facts NewQuestions WhatWe Know Source1 Source2 Source3 Summaries Name Topic Inquiry Charts (I-Charts)
  • 91 Jigsaw Background Jigsaw is a strategy that emphasizes cooperative learning by providing students an opportunity to actively help each other build comprehension. Use this technique to assign students to reading groups composed of varying skill levels. Each group member is responsible for becoming an “expert” on one section of the assigned material and then “teaching” it to the other members of the team. Benefits Jigsaw is a well-established method for encouraging group sharing and learning of specific content. This technique can be used as an instructional activity across several days and is best to use when there is a large amount of content to teach. Jigsaw helps students learn cooperation as group members share responsibility for each other’s learning by using critical thinking and social skills to complete an assignment. Subsequently, this strategy helps to improve listening, communication, and problem-solving skills. Monitoring each student’s participation within the groups provides teachers with information about how much the students already know about the topic. This allows teachers to tailor instruction accordingly. Create the strategy Teachers can use the following steps when developing the jigsaw strategy for a class: 1. Introduce the technique and the topic to be studied. 2. Assign each student to a “home group” of 3-5 students who reflect a range of reading abilities. 3. Determine a set of reading selections and assign one selection to each student. 4. Create “expert groups” that consist of students across “home groups” who will read the same selection. 5. Give all students a framework for managing their time on the various parts of the jigsaw task. 6. Provide key questions to help the “expert groups” gather information in their particular area. 7. Provide materials and resources necessary for all students to learn about their topics and become “experts”. 8. Discuss the rules for reconvening into “home groups” and provide guidelines as each “expert” reports the information learned. 9. Prepare a summary chart or graphic organizer for each “home group” as a guide for organizing the experts’ information report. 10. Remind students that “home group” members are responsible to learn all content from one another. Note: It is important that students have experience with small group learning skills before participating in the jigsaw strategy. It is also important that the reading material assigned is at appropriate instructional levels. Use the strategy Students are directed to read the selection of text assigned to them. When the reading has been completed, the students meet for approximately 20 minutes with others assigned to the same topic. They discuss the material, identify the most important learning points, and return to their “home groups” to instruct the others about information in which they have become an “expert”. Each student takes turns teaching what he or she has learned to the other “home group” members. DR
  • 92 During this process teachers should: 1. circulate to ensure that groups are on task and managing their work well; 2. ask groups to stop and think about how they are checking for everyone’s understanding and ensuring that everyone’s voice is heard; and 3. monitor the comprehension of the group members by asking questions and rephrasing information until it is clear that all group members understand the points. If appropriate, have students fill out a graphic organizer in the “home group” to gather all the information presented by each “expert”. “Home groups” then present results to the entire class, or they may participate in some assessment activity. Teachers may assign a team grade based upon academic and cooperative performance. Further reading The following links provide some examples of the jigsaw technique: • http://departments.jordandistrict.org/socialstudies/expert_jigsaw.html • http://www.lpb.org/education/classroom/itv/litlearn/lessons/lssn_jigsaw.pdf • http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr324.shtml • http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr324.shtml • http://www.landmarkcases.org/tinker/activity.html • http://english.unitecnology.ac.nz/resources/units/shawshank/jigsaw.html References Aronson, E. (2000-2008). Jigsaw Classroom: overview of the technique. Retrieved 2008, February 15, from http://www. jigsaw.org/overview.htm Aronson, E., & Goode, E. (1980). Training teachers to implement jigsaw learning: A manual for teachers. In S. Sharan, P. Hare, C. Webb, and R. Hertz-Lazarowitz (Eds.), Cooperation in Education (pp. 47-81). Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press. Aronson, E., & Patnoe, S. (1997). The jigsaw classroom: Building cooperation in the classroom (2nd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Clarke, J. (1994). Pieces of the puzzle: The jigsaw method. In S. Sharan (Ed.), Handbook of cooperative learning methods. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Muskingum College - Center for Advancement and Learning (CAL). (n.d.). Retrieved 2008, February 15, from http:// www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/attention4.html Slavin, R. E. (1980). Cooperative learning in teams: State of the art. Educational Psychologist, 15, 93-111. Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Tierney, R. (1995) Reading Strategies and Practices. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • 93 Important Ideas 1. 2. 3. Summary Other Facts Name Topic As you read and discuss with your group, write down important facts about your topic. After you have become an expert on your own topic, you will share your findings with a group of classmates, and learn about their topics as well. Jigsaw
  • 94 Monitoring/Clarifying Background The Monitoring/Clarifying strategy teaches students to recognize when they don’t understand parts of a text and to take necessary steps to restore meaning. This technique is a component of the Reciprocal Teaching model (see below for more information) in which teachers encourage students to think about their own thought process during reading. Monitoring/Clarifying helps students learn to be actively involved and monitor their comprehension as they read. Benefits Monitoring/Clarifying helps students to focus their attention on the fact that there may be reasons why the text is difficult to understand. Students can be taught to ask questions, reread, restate, and visualize making the text more comprehendible. Create and use the strategy Pre-select and introduce the text to be used based upon each student’s reading level. Next, model the Monitoring/ Clarifying process while providing students with ample time and opportunities to practice. Ask students to begin reading the assigned text and use the following steps as they encounter difficulties: • Stop and think about what you have already read. • Reread. • Adjust your reading rate: slow down or speed up. • Try to connect the text to something you read in another book, what you know about the world, or to something you have experienced. • Visualize. • Reflect on what you have read. • Use print conventions (key words, bold print, italicized words, and punctuation). • Notice patterns in the text structure. Further reading • http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/promising/tips/rec.html • http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratreciprocalteaching2.html • http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/reciprocal.htm Research citations Oczuks, L. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Palincsar, A. S. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Fostering and Comprehension Monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), pp. 117-175. DR
  • 95 Paired Reading Background The Paired Reading strategy encourages peer teaching and learning. Students are divided into pairs and read along together or take turns reading aloud to each other. Pairs can have the same reading ability or can include a more fluent reader with a less fluent reader. Each student reads and provides feedback about their own and their partner’s reading behaviors. Benefits Paired Reading can be used with many types of reading materials including student produced stories, and poetry. This strategy frees up the teacher to observe paired reading sessions and work with different students while other students continue reading together. Reading with someone encourages students to try reading materials that may be just above their normal reading level. Paired Reading can also be used to build oral skills so that reluctant readers can work toward reading in front of a large group. Create and use the strategy Begin by introducing students to the Paired Reading strategy. This includes: • establishing a routine for students to adopt so that they know the step-by-step requirements for engaging in paired reading (i.e. Will they read out loud, simultaneously? Will they take turns with each person reading a paragraph? a page? Or will one person read while the other person listens?) • teaching students an error-correction procedure to use when supporting each other’s reading (i.e. re-reading misread words; signals for difficulty) • modeling the procedure to ensure that students understand how to use the strategy • pairing students either by same reading ability or by high level readers with low level readers NOTE: If pairing high level readers with low level readers, use the following steps before class: 1. List the students in order from highest to lowest oral reading fluency score. 2. Divide the list in two. 3. Place the top student in the first list with the top student in the second list. 4. Continue until all students have been partnered. Ask students to begin reading in pairs and adjust reading speed if reading simultaneously so they stay together. Students should offer feedback and praise frequently for correct reading. Monitor and support students as they work. NOTE: You may wish to take notes about how each student is reading as a way to keep track of development and progress. DR
  • 96 Further reading • http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/interventionista/interventionista_random.php?intv_ID=127 • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/ • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/2-6Samples.html Videos: • http://searchlight.utexas.org/content/serp-elementary/activities/ partner-reading-procedures-for-pairing-students/ view?SearchableText=paired%20reading&search=true&Subj=None • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/HSPRR.html Research citations Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: An Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Reading Achievement. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 85-91. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318. Koskinen, P. & Blum, I. (1986). Paired repeated reading: A classroom strategy for developing fluent reading. The Reading Teacher, 40(1), 70-75. Topping, K. (1995). Paired reading, spelling and writing: The handbook for teachers and parents. Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • 97 Paragraph Shrinking Background Paragraph Shrinking is an activity developed as part of the Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). PALS is a classwide peer tutoring program in which teachers carefully partner a student with a classmate. The Paragraph Shrinking strategy allows each student to take turns reading, pausing, and summarizing the main points of each paragraph. Students provide each other with feedback as a way to monitor comprehension. Benefits Paragraph Shrinking does not require special reading materials and consequently enables teachers to use the reading material of their choice. This offers teachers flexibility for incorporating the strategy into various content areas. Paragraph Shrinking provides direct opportunities for a teacher to circulate in the class, observe students, and offer individual remediation. Create and use the strategy Choose the assigned reading and introduce the text to the students. Then create pairs within the classroom by identifying which children require help on specific skills and who the most appropriate children are to help other children learn those skills. Model the activity to ensure that students understand how to use the strategy. During this process teachers should: 1. Each member of the teacher-assigned pair takes turns being “Coach” and “Player.” These pairs are changed regularly. All students have the opportunity to be “coaches” and “players.” Note: It is important for teachers to monitor and support students as they work together. 2. Each student reads aloud for five minutes without rereading a text. After each paragraph, students stop to summarize the main points of the reading. Students are asked to summarize the following information: o the who or what of the paragraph; o the most important thing about who or what; and o the main idea If a “Player” ever gives a wrong answer, the “Coach” asks the “Player” to skim the paragraph again and answer question a second time. Students must state the main idea in ten words or less which encourages them to monitor comprehension while taking turns reading. The pair earns points when the above goals of the strategy are met. Further reading Video: • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/2-6VPMPS.html Research Citations Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: An Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Reading Achievement. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 85-91. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318. Saenz, L., Fuchs, L., & Fuchs, D. (2005) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, (71). Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development. (n.d.). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Retrieved 2008, January 21, from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/ DR
  • 98 Partner Reading Background Partner Reading is a cooperative learning strategy in which two students work together to read an assigned text. This strategy is often used as part of the Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). PALS is a classwide peer tutoring program in which teachers carefully partner a student with a classmate. The Partner Reading strategy allows students to take turns reading and provide each other with feedback as a way to monitor comprehension. Benefits Partner Reading does not require special reading materials and consequently enables teachers to use the reading material of their choice. This offers teachers flexibility for incorporating the strategy into various content areas. Partner Reading provides direct opportunities for a teacher to circulate in the class, observe students, and offer individual remediation. Create and use the strategy Choose the assigned reading and introduce the text to the students. Then create pairs within the classroom by identifying which children require help on specific skills and who the most appropriate children are to help other children learn those skills. Model the procedure to ensure that students understand how to use the strategy. 1. Each member of the teacher-assigned pair takes turns being “Coach” and “Player.” These pairs are changed regularly, and over a period of time as students work. Thus, all students have the opportunity to be “coaches” and “players.” Note: It is important for teachers to monitor and support students as they work together. 2. The stronger reader begins this activity as the “Player” and reads orally for 5 minutes. The “Coach” follows along and corrects any mistakes when necessary. 3. The pair switch roles and the weaker reader becomes the “Player.” The “Player” rereads the same passage for the next 5 minutes and the “Coach” provides corrective feedback. One point is earned for each correct sentence read (optional). 4. After each partner has read the selection, teachers may wish to include the following additional activities: o Story retelling - students work together to retell the story by cooperatively providing input and correcting mistakes o Summarization - students support each other in developing a summary of the passage in 10 words or less o Writing - students write down the summary they developed and/or responses to the following: • the who or what of the paragraph; • the most important thing about who or what; and • the main idea Further reading • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/2-6Samples.html Video: • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/HSPRR.html Research Citations Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: An Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Reading Achievement. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 85-91. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318. Saenz, L., Fuchs, L., & Fuchs, D. (2005) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, (71). Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development. (n.d.). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Retrieved 2008, January 21, from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/ DR
  • 99 Power Notes Background Power Notes is a strategy that teaches students an efficient form of organizing information from assigned text. This technique provides students a systematic way to look for relationships within material they are reading. Power Notes help visually display the differences between main ideas and supportive information in outline form. Main ideas or categories are assigned a power 1 rating. Details and examples are assigned power 2s, 3s, or 4s. Benefits Power Notes offer an easy to follow activity for categorizing information. This procedure helps students prioritize information and separate main ideas from supportive details. Power Notes gives students an opportunity to organize ideas and evaluate their writing. Power Notes can be integrated into a number of activities to help students perceive how information is related. Note: Power Notes is similar to outlining but is much simpler for students because key features are assigned numbers and it is not necessary that two be the same in order to create an entry. Create the strategy The teacher should begin by discussing the assigned topic or text. Teachers then describe the purpose of the strategy and introduce the concept of powers with a simple example familiar to the students. Power 1 Animals • Power 2 Dog o Power 3 Cocker Spaniel o Power 3 Dachshund • Power 2 Cat o Power 3 Siamese o Power 3 Calico Point out how the powers relate to each other: power 2’s offer examples or elaboration of power 1’s, power 3’s provide examples or elaboration of power 2’s, and so on. Guided practice of the strategy with detailed feedback from the teacher should be provided. The teacher should model using Power Notes with the assigned text and describe how the powers relate to each other. Use the strategy 1. Teachers should provide students with the Power 1 category or main idea.Note: As student become familiar with this strategy, teachers may have students determine this information from the text. 2. Students should begin by reading the assigned text keeping in mind the Power 1 category. 3. Students should then categorize information and record examples of the chosen category or topic as Power 2’s. 4. Students can further elaborate each point and expand their writing by adding power 3 and Power 4 details. 5. Students can discuss their completed Power Notes with the class for review. 6. Power Notes can then be revised to expand learning. DR
  • 100 Power Notes are written using the following format: Power 1 = Main Idea of the information. Power 2 = Detail or supportive information for Power 1 above. Power 3 = Detail or supportive information for Power 2 above. Power 4 = Detail or supportive information for Power 3 above. Further reading • http://www.hsdist88.dupage.k12.il.us/aths/resources/AT%20MCweb02/TEAMS/Literacy_learn/Powernote.htm • http://www.mvrhs.org/eel/caruthers/linkforallteachers/reviewlist.html#Anchor-Power-14210 • http://www.lz95.org/msn/faculty/snoisey/Strategies/power_outlining.htm References Jones, R. (2006). Reading Quest: Strategies for Reading Comprehension. Retrieved 2008, February 28, from http:// www.readingquest.org/strat/pto.html Santa, C., Havens, L. & Macumber, E. (1996). Creating Independence Through Student-owned Strategies. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Company: Dubuque, IA.
  • 101 Prediction Relay Background Prediction Relay is an activity that was developed as part of the Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). PALS is a classwide peer tutoring program in which teachers carefully partner a student with a classmate. The Prediction Relay strategy allows each student to (1) make predictions about the assigned text, (2) take turns reading for 5 minutes, (3) check their predictions, and (4) summarize the main points. The students provide each other with feedback as a way to monitor comprehension. Benefits Prediction Relay does not require special reading materials and consequently enables teachers to use the reading material of their choice. This offers teachers flexibility for incorporating the strategy into various content areas. Prediction Relay provides direct opportunities for a teacher to circulate in the class, observe students, and offer individual remediation. Create and use the strategy Choose the assigned reading and introduce the text to the students. Then create pairs within the classroom by identifying which children require help on specific skills and who the most appropriate children are to help other children learn those skills. Model the procedure to ensure that students understand how to use the strategy. 1. Each member of the teacher-assigned pair reads for 5 minutes and takes turns being “Coach” and “Player.” These pairs are changed regularly, and over a period of time as students work. Thus, all students have the opportunity to be “coaches” and “players.” Note: It is important to monitor and support students as they work together. 2. Before reading each page, students make predictions about what will be on the following page. Then after the “Player” reads half of a page aloud, the “Player” stops to summarize the main points of the reading. Students are asked to summarize the following information: • the who or what of the paragraph; • the most important thing about who or what; and • the main idea If a “Player” ever gives a wrong answer, the “Coach” asks the “Player” to skim the reading again and provide answers a second time. The students work together to correct any errors in predictions as a way of monitoring comprehension. The pair earns points for viable predictions and concise summaries. Further reading • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/2-6VPMPR.html Research Citations Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: An Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Reading Achievement. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 85-91. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318. Saenz, L., Fuchs, L., & Fuchs, D. (2005) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, (71). Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development. (n.d.). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Retrieved 2008, January 21, from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/ DR
  • 102 Reading Strategy Tips: * Emphasize the importance of reading by modeling reading to the student and by sharing the contents of what you read. Students then equate reading with meaning. * Recognize the student’s reading interests and encourage the development through these interests (sports stories, non- fiction topics, humor, science fiction) * Talk with the student’s parents about the strategies the school is using to make meaning from text and tell them that, when possible, repeat those same strategies at home. * Help the student develop an understanding of text structure: titles, headings, sub-headings, as well as graphs, charts, and diagrams. * Encourage the student to re-read material to get a deeper understanding of its contents. This is particularly true for non-fiction material (textbook content) and material written above grade level. * Discuss the importance and approach of reading for different purposes: to entertain, to inform, to persuade, etc. Reading for different purposes helps to define the speed and depth of understanding to apply to that reading. * Distinguish between skimming, scanning, speed reading and reading for deep understanding. Help the student to understand the appropriate applications of each. * Encourage “engagement strategies” such as highlighting, using post-it notes, underlining, and developing questions as the student reads. These behaviors help to habitualize the process of making-meaning and ensuring the student is doing more than reading the words on the page. * Periodically read the same content (newspaper/magazine articles, textbook sections, short stories, or chapters) and discuss its meaning. Look for depth of understanding as well as the use of specific/key vocabulary. * Emphasize the importance of reading as a life-long habit and encourage its frequent practice. BIBLIOGRAPHY California’s Guide to Reading http://www.pleasval.k12.ia.us/studyskills/parentreading.htm http://www.readingquest.org/strat/abc.html http://k6educators.about.com Reading Class sanchezclass.com cheney268.com