• When students talk during the class.• When they raise their hands for volunteering• When the teacher asks a question and everybody says something nobody can understand.• When students get involved in every aspect of the class, not only by talking, but showing interest and provoking peer participation.
Teachers play animportant roleWe have to facilitate students’ participation.
Teacher: Class, do you understand?Class: (chorally) Yes we do!Teacher: Hello Bryan, What did you do this weekend?Bryan: Errr… (pause and silence)Teacher: Did you go to the movies?Bryan: YesTeacher: Did you like the movie?Bryan: YesTeacher: I need a volunteer, please raise your hands.Class: (silence, everybody seems unattentive)Teacher: I will give you extra points.Class: (everybody reising hands) Me! Me! Me!
• They are the simplest form of interaction and can occur at any moment.• Do not give the answer, but elicit the answer.• Use Open ended questions (Wh- questions) to spark discussion and Close Ended Questions to elicit and encourage longer answers.• Try the PPP technique: Pose a question Pause for answer. Pounce for somebody else for help.
• Good for vocabulary lists.• Activates previous knowledge.• Consolidates what has been taught.• Only some participate.• Can be outside of context.
• Why don’t we give specific instructions? Tell names of animals with each letter of the alphabet.• Ant, alligator…. Bee, bear…. Cat, crocodile…. Q??? X???
• Everybody has to write.• Enhances listening skills.• May result boring if used often. • But….
Not only saying:Manuel, you are theteacher.Christina, you are thestudent.Jose, you are the principal.
Role 1 Role 2Your company has designed a You are having a meeting torange of revolutionary new hear about some amazingproducts completely different new products from anfrom your usual ones. important suplier.You are having a meeting Ask a lot of questions andwith one of your best find as much as you cancostumers. Describe the new about the products.product to him/her.
Hollander (2002) discusses the need to present participationas a collective responsibility of the class rather than just anindividual responsibility. In order to facilitate a conversationwhere connections are made, students need to view theirparticipation as a contribution to a shared experience.Asking students to respond to a peer’s response helps tofacilitate a conversation. As well, positively reinforcing suchcontributions builds this sense of collectivism.