BICS CALP Basic Cognitive Interpersonal AcademicCommunicative Language Skills Proficiency
BICS and CALPThe acronyms BICS and CALP refer to a distinctionintroduced by Cummins (1979) between BasicInterpersonal Communicative Skills and CognitiveAcademic Language Proficiency.Sometimes teachers and administrators think that a childis proficient in a language when they demonstrate goodsocial English and that is not true.
BICS CALPLanguage skills needed in social situations. Formal academic learning. This includes It is the day-to-day language needed to listening, speaking, reading, and writing interact socially with other people. about subject area content material.Examples: When they are on the playground, Academic language acquisition isnt just the in the lunch room, on the school bus, at understanding of content area vocabulary. It parties, playing sports and talking on the includes transferable academic skills. telephone. They are not very demanding cognitively. The language becomes more cognitively demanding. New ideas, concepts and language are presented to the students at the same time. The language required is not specialized. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. It is acquired to a functional level within At least five years is usually required to catch about two years of initial exposure to the up to native speakers in academic aspects of second language. the second language.
Students need to go beyond social skills in order tosucceed in their professional lives in the future.
Transferable Academic SkillsTransferable skills are skills developed throughexperience, which can be used in the workplace,classroom, real life situations.They are related mainly to the ability to carry outtasks that may trascend subject boundaries.
What is CLIL? Content and Language Integrated Learning14 Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/00 1
CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts ofsubjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focussed aims, namely the learning of content, and thesimultaneous learning of a foreign language. (Marsh,1994)This approach involves learning subjects such as history,geography or others, through an additional language. Itcan be very successful in enhancing the learning oflanguages and other subjects, and developing in theyoungsters a positive ‘can do’ attitude towards themselvesas language learners. (Marsh, 2000)
CLIL PROJECT 1D, SOCIAL STUDIES(See In Sync 2A Student Book, page 11)MATERIALS NEEDED:--CLIL Project 1D handout--A big piece of paper or cardboard--Pens/pencils--Scissors--Glue or tape--Photos or pictures of teens doing free-time activities (Note for teacher: If studentsare going to work on the project in class, bring some pictures for them to use or remindthem in advance to bring pictures from magazines or the Internet.)PAIRS Make a poster about the favorite free-time activities of teenagers in your country.Follow the instructions below and use your notes from your pair discussion. (SeeStudent Book 2A, page 73, CLIL Project 1D.)1 Make a list of the favorite free-time activities of teenagers in your country.1 ____________________________________________2 ____________________________________________3 ____________________________________________4 ____________________________________________5 ____________________________________________2 Find photos or draw pictures of teens doing the activities. Paste the pictures on a bigpiece of paper or cardboard. Write one or two sentences next to each picture to describewhat the people are doing.For example:FREE-TIME ACTIVITIESTeenagers in my country often listen to music on their cell phones.3 Present your poster to your class. Compare your poster with your classmates posters.Do they have the same activities on their posters?
How to integrate CLIL in the classroom 1) CONTENT ELECTION • Topics already familiar to students. • Topics may include cultural aspects. • Different perspectives to introduce information: written, oral, auditive, visual • Quality rather than quantity. • Possibility for students to ‘manipulate’ content and follow up with discussions and project works.19Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/00
2) LANGUAGE ADAPTATION TO CONTENT • Language objectives are derived from topics in the content areas. • Language(syntax, vocabulary) is simplified in written and spoken communication (‘comprehensible input hypothesis’ by Krashen). • Situations should be provided so that students use L2 productively: summarizing, paraphrasing, reacting, giving an opinion (‘comprehensible output hypothesis’ by Swain). • Teachers analyze content and based on that decide what language should be taught.20Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/00
Content is the cornerstone of learning, and language teaching derives from it.21Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/00
Student benefits •increased motivation; •meaningful use of English to reach immediate, real-life goals; •development of multicultural awareness; •preparation for future studies and work in a global context. In addition, as Berton (2008) states, “learners will develop linguistic and communicative competencies by using language as a tool in a natural and innovative way.”22Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/00