Water MicrobiologyThe study of diversity of microorganisms –viruses, bacteria, algae, protozoa andmicroscopic fungi – which inhabit andperform activities essential to life in fresh,estuarine and marine waters, includingsprings, lakes, rivers, bays and seascomes under the umbrella of WaterMicrobiology.
IMPORTANCE: Every thing originated in the water & everythingis sustained by water. All life on earth depends on water. Man uses water for many purposes.- drinking- irrigation- fisheries- industrial processes- transportation- waste disposal
IMPORTANCE OF WATER• For life• Inorganic constituent of living matter.Medium for Growth:Second natural medium• Contain mineral nutrients and dissolved oxygen.• Organic matter = Microbial Population.• Microbial population higher in Rivers near thickly populated citiesthan village.• PH, Temperature range & inorganic phosphate & situation of thelake.• Availability of possible factors (Zinc & Coppers)- limits growth ofMicrobes. & Poor quantity of nitrate and nitrogen.• Calcium-harmful for algae.
Common Waterborne Diseases Caused Due toBacteria, Viruses, Protozoa & AlgaeWHO estimates, 30,000 people die everyday in developing countries due to lack of clean waterWATERBORNE PATHOGENS DISEASE CAUSEDBacteriaSalmonella typhi Typhoid feverSalmonella enteritides GastroenteritisHelicobacter pylori (Camphylobacterpylori)Stomach (gastric) ulcers, chronicgastritis, stomach canerShigella dysenteria & others Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)Vibrio cholerae Cholera (or Asiatic cholera)Vibrio parahaemolyticus GastroenteritisEscherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strain) GastroenteritisCampylobacter fetus GastroenteritisLegionella pneumophila Legionnaires disease (Pneumonia)Aeromonas hydrophila Gastroenteritis
Common Waterborne Diseases Caused Due toBacteria, Viruses, Protozoa & AlgaeWHO estimates, 30,000 people die everyday in developing countries due to lack of clean waterWATERBORNE PATHOGENS DISEASE CAUSEDVirusHepatitis A Virus HepatitisPolio Virus PoliomyelitisCoxsackie virus GastroenteritisPROTOZOAGiardia intestinalis GiardiasisBalantidium coli BalantidiasisEntamoeba histolytica Amoebic dysenteryCryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis (gastroenteritis)Naegleria fowleri Amoebic meningoencephalitisALGAEGonyaulax catanella Muscular paralysisGambierdiscus toxicus Ciguatera fish poisoning
Classified Based on Suitability forsupport of living matter.Stored Water:1. Eutrophic Lake: Well nourished2. Oligotrophic Lake: Poorly nourished3. Dystrophic Lake: High Organic matterof special type – Lake dark and acidic.
Classified Based on Suitability forsupport of living matter.Stored Water:1. Eutrophic Lake
Classified Based on Suitability forsupport of living matter.Stored Water:2. Oligotrophic Lake: Poorly nourished
Classified Based on Suitability forsupport of living matter.Stored Water:3.Dystrophic Lake: High Organic matter ofspecial type – Lake dark and acidic.
Water Impurities• Sea water ( about 3% dissolved mineralimpurities)• Connote water (Produced with somecrude oils, sometimes 20 to 30%dissolved salts)• Brackish water ( Industrial waste water)• Measured in Parts Per Million (ppm)- 10,000 ppm = 0.015%
FRESH WATER MICROBIOLOGYFresh Water Environments are characterized by lowsalinity and variability in temperature, PH & oxygenconcentration and contain microorganisms belonging toall major taxonomic groups.(eg. Aerobes (bacillus), Anaerobes (Clostridium), Aquatic fungi – Chytrids(Zoospora), Ingoldian fungi(Detuteromycetes),
Fresh Water Aquatic Ecosystems (Lakes & Ponds) Littoral/shoreline Zone – area of shallow water near the shore – lightpenetrates to the bottom Limnetic Zone – sunlight water away from the shore and the residentmicroorganisms include algae, cyanobacteria, pseudomonas andCaulobacter. Photic/Profundal Zone- Light penetration (between Limnetic Zone andLakee sediment) Benthic Zone – composed of organic debris & mud. – Desulfovibrio &methane bacteria.
MICROORGANISMS IN WATER1. Phytoplankton2. Zooplankton3. Periphyton (Biotecton)4. Benthos (Zoobenthos)5. Saprotrophs (Bacteria and Fungi)- Pleosaprophytic Zone- Mesosaprophytic Zone- Oligosaphrophytic Zone6. Sea water Microorganism
1. Phytoplankton:- Floating microscopic autotrophs- Cyanobacteria, algae (Chlorophyceae &Bacillariophyceae) Classified based on Size:- Ultraplankton 0.5 to 10 m- Nannoplankton 10 to 50 m- Microplankton 50 to 500 m- Net plankton- Macroplankton 500 m Primary Producers – indicates water quality Biological treatment of Organic wastes in water .
2. Zooplankton:• Heterogenous assemblage of minutefloating animal forms found in water.• Locomotary structures• Primary consumers• Dominating Members» Protozoa,» Ronifera,» Copepoda» Cladocera» Ostracod.
3. Periphyton (Biotecton)• are the organisms (both plant and animal)attached or clinging to the submergedplant or other surfaces projecting abovethe bottom• An organism may remain as periphytonthroughout its life or during some period ofits life cycle.• Animals may be an obligatory or afacultative periphyton.
4. Benthios (Zoobenthos)The heterogenous assemblage oforganisms attached or resting on thebottom or living in the bottom sediments ofa body of water.Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants.Zoobenthos – Benthic Animals.
5. Saprotrophs (Bacteria & Fungi):mud water.• Saprophytism– Pleosaprophytic Zone: Heavily Polluted Zoneof water reservoir and contains sufficientamount of Organic residues of plants andanimals.– Mesosaprophytic Zone: Less polluted due tohigh rate of mineralisation and oxidation oforganic matter.– Oligosaphrophytic zone: pure and clear water
Lakes & Pond of Temperate Region – Based onThermal stratification/gradients in temperature• - Seasonal changes in microbial populations.• Nutrients & Oxygen exchange.EPILIMNION: Warmest & aerobic. 250-220CTHERMOCLINE:Buffer zone. 200– 100cHYPOLIMNION: Cooler & anaerobic.50– 40c• Upwilling Process: Nutrients up from sediments –massive growth of one group of microorganisms.
• Streams & Rivers: Nutrients from flow ofinorganic and organic materials.– - effects of agricultural & industrial practiices– -Chemoorganotrophic Microorganisms• Estuaries: (a semi enclosed coastal body ofwater which has a free connection with theopen sea) – receive inputs from varioussources– domestic , industrial, agricultural or atmospheric sources– Coliforms, fecal streptococci, spp. of Bacillus, clostridium,sphaerotilus, Beggiatoa, Thiothrix, Thiobacillus. (Domestic pollution)– Hyphomicrobium, Caulobacter Gallionella ( Poor nutritionalestuaries)– Fungi: Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota & Deuteromycota
Hydrothermal Vents• Deep-sea hot springs wherevolcanic activity generates fluidscontaining large amounts ofinorganic energy sources that canbe used by chemolithotrophicbacteria.• Bacteria fix CO2 into organiccarbon used by deep seaanimals.• Deep sea hydrothermal vents:– Warm vents: Emit Hydrothermal fluid– 6-230c– Hot vents: 270-3800c (Blacksmokers)
Microorganisms in sea:– Heliophilic (sunlight)– Barophilic (high hydrostatic pressure)– Psychrophilic (low temperature)– All are decomposed by bacteria and other microbes.– Contains bacteria, aerobic cellulose fermenters, fibriocolyticbacteria ad sulphuroxidizing bacteria, Blue green algae, greenalgae and diatoms.– Photosynthetic organisms (Primary Producers, thephytoplankton (eg., cyanobacteria, diatoms, dinoflagellates,chalmydomonada, and variety of other protists and eukaryoticalgae)– Heterotrophic bacteria – at surface and lower strata.Ocean = High –pressure refrigerator ( 30C at 100m depthHigh salinity ( 3.5% salts) & most below 5 oC, PH (8.0),Oxygen concentration
MARINE MICROBIOLOGY Contd…..Deep Sea = Water at > 1000m depth.Low TemperatureHigh TemperatureLow nutrient Levels Archea at 100 meters Ocean depth Barophiles(Piezophiles) = Weight/high pressure loving Barotolerant Baraophilic Extreme obligate barophiles – at 10,000 m depth Thiomargarita namibiensis (100x300 µm diameter) 100 timebigger than common bacterium - World Largest known
WATER POLLUTION- Change in quality or composition- By Waste disposal and other human activities- Less suitable or Harmful for drinking, domestic,agricultural recreational, fisheries or otherpurposes.Water Pollution: The adding to water of anysubstance, or the changing of water’s physicaland chemical characteristics in any way whichinterferes with its use for legitimate purpose.WATER: CONTAMINATED, POLLUTED ORPOTABLE
• It contain impurities of various kinds- bothdissolved and suspended• Dissolved gases (H2S, CO2, NH3, N2)• Dissoved minerals (Calcium, Magnesium,Sodium)• Suspended impurities ( clay, silt, sand andmud)• Microorganisms.
Some different types of Water Pollution1. Microbiological2. Chemical3. Oxygen depleting substances4. Nutrients5. Suspended matter
Water Pollution categorized:• Physical Pollution: due to particulatematter(sand/soil)• Chemical Pollution: Inorganic & organicwastes.• Biological Pollution: Microorganisms –human wastes, food processing, meatpacking plants and medical facilities.
Sources of Water Pollution:1. Natural Sources: Rain, Snowfall,Leaching, river, etc.2. Anthropogenic Sources:• Industrial sources• Domestic Sources• Agricultural Sources• Mining Sources• Physical Pollutants (thermal and radioactivesubstances).
1. Industrial Sources:1. Tanneries2. Sugar mills3. Pulp and Paper mills,4. Distilleries, Oil refineries etc.TanneriesSugar millsPulp and Paper millsDistilleries, Oil refineries
2. Domestic Sources:– From Houses– Commercial buildings– Institutions– Important Pollutants are Biodegradable Organic matter,coliforms and pathogens.
3. Agricultural Sources:– Soil and silt removed by erosion– Agricultural run off– Synthetic fertilizers, herbicides andinsecticides– Plant residue.
Classification of Water Pollution:(based on nature of its origin)1. Point Sources» From pipes and sewage treatment plants andindustrial facilities.1. Non Point Sources» Urban storm water run off, run off from farm fields,acid rain, etc.
• Classified based on their environmental orhealth effects:» Infectious agents.» Oxygen demanding wastes» Plant nutrients» Inorganic pollutants» Toxic organic chemicals» Sediment» Thermal pollutants» Radioactive pollutants.
2.Chemical Characteristics:» PH» Alkalinity» Inorganic constituents like chlorides, heavy metals,nitrogen, Phosphorus, etc.» Dissolved Oxygen (DO)» Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)» Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)3.Biological Characteristics» Bacteria» Algae» Protozoa» Viruses» ColiformsBiodegradation of organic wastes suspended in water is brought about byaerobic decomposers provided that the water contains sufficient oxygen formicroorganisms to decompose the substances. The Oxygen required forbiodegradation is termed biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
Water PurificationSedimentation Coagulation/FlocculationFiltrationChlorinationStorageCatch basin inuntreated (or raw)waterCatch basin inuntreated (or raw)waterHolding tank orcoagulation basinHolding tank orcoagulation basinSandCharcoalSandCharcoal……..…….000…..@@@@@@@@……..…….000…..@@@@@@@@Tank of treatedwaterTank of treatedwaterPumping stationPumping stationRemove sand,gravel, largeparticulatesFormation & removal of floc,containing insoluble material& microoganismsRemoval or remainingparticulates, organic &inorganic compoundsKill pathogenic microorganisms ie.,disinfectionPrevent growth of new inoculationTo consumer through domestic water pipesSTEPSFUNCTIONS
WATER QUALITY ASSAYS &PUBLIC HEALTHPresence of Indicator Microorganisms Standard Plate Count The Most Probable Number Methods. The Membrane Filter Technique The (o-nitrophenyl-ß-D-galactopyrano-side) ONPG andMUG(4-methylum – bellifery1-ß-D-glucuro-nide) Test. Isolation of Aquatic Molds.(Chytridiomycetes &Oomycetes – Chytridiales Saprolegniales). Nuisance Organisms (not harmful to human) in DrinkingWater. (Desulfovibrio, Thiobacillus, Eukaryotic algae,diatoms & Cyanobacteria.
Raw wastewaterScreening ChamberGritPrimarysettingtankAerationTankSecondarySettlingTankEffluentSludgethickenerAnaerobicdigestionSludgethickenerSludge DisposalPrimarysludgeSludge recycling(30-40%)Activated sludge(Secondary sludge)Grit ChamberWASTE WATER TREATMENT