Microorganism & Water Pollution

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Microorganism & Water Pollution

  1. 1. MICROORGANISMS & WATER POLLUTION MAJID MOHIUDDIN
  2. 2. <ul><li>IMPORTANCE: </li></ul><ul><li>Every thing originated in the water & everything is sustained by water. </li></ul><ul><li>All life on earth depends on water. </li></ul><ul><li>Man uses water for many purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>- drinking </li></ul><ul><li>- irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>- fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>- industrial processes </li></ul><ul><li>- transportation </li></ul><ul><li>- waste disposal </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF WATER </li></ul><ul><li>For life </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic constituent of living matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium for Growth: </li></ul><ul><li>Second natural medium </li></ul><ul><li>Contain mineral nutrients and dissolved oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter = Microbial Population. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial population higher in Rivers near thickly populated cities than village. </li></ul><ul><li>PH, Temperature range & inorganic phosphate & situation of the lake. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of possible factors (Zinc & Coppers)- limits growth of Microbes. & Poor quantity of nitrate and nitrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium-harmful for algae. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Water in Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Water exist in 3 states </li></ul>Gas Solid Liquid Lithosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere
  5. 5. Ocean Polar Ice Caps Glaciers Ice fields Inland surface water – Lakes and River
  6. 6. Ocean – 97% of the Hydrosphere .
  7. 7. Polar ice caps Ice fields Glaciers 2% in the form of ice
  8. 8. Inland surface water 0.02% Lake River
  9. 9. <ul><li>TYPES OF WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric water: Rain water & Snow water (dust, soot & suspended particles & Air borne bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water: Mountain, river water also. (organic matter, Soil microflora). Saprophytic Spp. & Protozoa . </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water: Water percolates (few bacteria & little amount of organic matter). (Microbes cannot multiply) </li></ul><ul><li>Stored water: Pounds, Reservoirs, Lakes & Ocean. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial Population decreases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X Area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X Types of vegetation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X Seasons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X Individual chemical components </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X Total inorganic Salt contents. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa Presents. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Atmospheric water Rain water & Snow water (dust, soot & suspended particles & Air borne bacteria)
  11. 11. Surface water: Mountain, river water also. (organic matter, Soil microflora). Saprophytic Spp. & Protozoa . Mountain water River water
  12. 12. Ground water: Water percolates (few bacteria & little amount of organic matter). (Microbes cannot multiply)
  13. 13. Stored water Pond Reservoirs Lakes Ocean
  14. 14. <ul><li>Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Water: </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophic Lake: Well nourished </li></ul><ul><li>Oligotrophic Lake: Poorly nourished </li></ul><ul><li>Dystrophic Lake: High Organic matter of special type – Lake dark and acidic. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Water: </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophic Lake </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Water: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Oligotrophic Lake: Poorly nourished </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Water: </li></ul><ul><li>3.Dystrophic Lake: High Organic matter of special type – Lake dark and acidic. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Water Impurities </li></ul><ul><li>Sea water ( about 3% dissolved mineral impurities) </li></ul><ul><li>Connote water (Produced with some crude oils, sometimes 20 to 30% dissolved salts) </li></ul><ul><li>Brackish water ( Industrial waste water) </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in Parts Per Million (ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>- 10,000 ppm = 0.015% </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>MICROORGANISMS IN WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Periphyton (Biotecton) </li></ul><ul><li>Benthos (Zoobenthos) </li></ul><ul><li>Saprotrophs (Bacteria and Fungi) </li></ul><ul><li>- Pleosaprophytic Zone </li></ul><ul><li>- Mesosaprophytic Zone </li></ul><ul><li>- Oligosaphrophytic Zone </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sea water Microorganism </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Phytoplankton: </li></ul><ul><li>- Floating microscopic autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>- Cyanobacteria, algae (Chlorophyceae & Bacillariophyceae) </li></ul><ul><li>Classified based on Size: </li></ul><ul><li>- Ultraplankton 0.5 to 10 m </li></ul><ul><li>- Nannoplankton 10 to 50 m </li></ul><ul><li>- Microplankton 50 to 500 m </li></ul><ul><li>- Net plankton </li></ul><ul><li>- Macroplankton 500 m </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Producers – indicates water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Biological treatment of Organic wastes in water . </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2 . Zooplankton: </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogenous assemblage of minute floating animal forms found in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotary structures </li></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating Members </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ronifera, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copepoda </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cladocera </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ostracod. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3. Periphyton (Biotecton) </li></ul><ul><li>are the organisms (both plant and animal) attached or clinging to the submerged plant or other surfaces projecting above the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>An organism may remain as periphyton throughout its life or during some period of its life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals may be an obligatory or a facultative periphyton. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Periphytons
  24. 24. <ul><li>4. Benthios (Zoobenthos) </li></ul><ul><li>The heterogenous assemblage of organisms attached or resting on the bottom or living in the bottom sediments of a body of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoobenthos – Benthic Animals. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants
  26. 26. Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants
  27. 27. Zoobenthos – Benthic Animals
  28. 29. <ul><li>5. Saprotrophs (Bacteria & Fungi): </li></ul><ul><li>mud water. </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleosaprophytic Zone: Heavily Polluted Zone of water reservoir and contains sufficient amount of Organic residues of plants and animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosaprophytic Zone: Less polluted due to high rate of mineralisation and oxidation of organic matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligosaphrophytic zone: pure and clear water </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Microorganisms in sea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliophilic (sunlight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barophilic (high hydrostatic pressure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychrophilic (low temperature) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All are decomposed by decomposed by bacteria and other microbes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains bacteria, aerobic cellulose fermenters, fibriocolytic bacteria ad sulphuroxidizing bacteria, Blue green algae, green algae and diatoms. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>Change in quality or composition </li></ul><ul><li>By Waste disposal and other human activities </li></ul><ul><li>Less suitable or Harmful for drinking, domestic, agricultural recreational, fisheries or other purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution: The adding to water of any substance, or the changing of water’s physical and chemical characteristics in any way which interferes with its use for legitimate purpose. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>It contain impurities of various kinds- both dissolved and suspended </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved gases (H 2 S, CO 2 , NH 3 , N 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Dissoved minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium) </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended impurities ( clay, silt, sand and mud) </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Some different types of Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Microbiological </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen depleting substances </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended matter </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Sources of Water Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Sources: Rain, Snowfall, Leaching, river, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mining Sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Pollutants (thermal and radioactive substances). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Industrial Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tanneries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar mills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp and Paper mills, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distilleries, Oil refineries etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tanneries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar mills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Pulp and Paper mills Distilleries, Oil refineries
  35. 36. <ul><li>2. Domestic Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Houses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial buildings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important Pollutants are Biodegradable Organic matter, coliforms and pathogens. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>3. Agricultural Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and silt removed by erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural run off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant residue. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Classification of Water Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>(based on nature of its origin) </li></ul><ul><li>Point Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From pipes and sewage treatment plants and industrial facilities. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non Point Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban storm water run off, run off from farm fields, acid rain, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Classified based on their environmental or health effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infectious agents. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen demanding wastes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic pollutants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic organic chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal pollutants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive pollutants. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Wastewater Characterization: </li></ul><ul><li>Physial </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>1.Physical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turbidity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>2.Chemical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PH </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alkalinity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic constituents like chlorides, heavy metals, nitrogen, Phosphorus, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen (DO) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3.Biological Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coliforms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>END </li></ul>MAJID MOHIUDDIN

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