OTITIS MEDIA, MIDDLE EAR INFECTION:• Develop as Complication of the common cold. • Bacteria: Streptococcus• Persistent and severe earache. pneumonia (G+ve• Temporary hearing loss. diplococcus), Haemophillus• Pressure in middle ear. influenzae (G-ve bacillus)• Bulging of the eardrum (Tympanic and Moraxella catarrhalis membrane), (G-ve diplococcus) also• Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever Streptococcus pyogenes and in young children. Staphylococcus aureus.• May lead to rupture of the eardrum, • Virus: Measles virus, bloody discharge and then pus. parainfluenza virus and• Severe complications: bone infection, respiratory syncytial virus permanent hearing loss, and (RSV) meningitis. • Not Communicable
Viral infections:• Conjunctivitis, keratitis keratoconjuctivitis: Adenoviruses, enteroviruses and herpes simplex viruses.• Treatment: – Care during viral infections (cold sores). – Antiviral agents for herpes simplex infections. (Ointment or eye drops).
BACTERIAL CONJUCTIVITIS (Pinkeye)• Irritation • Haemophilus• Reddening of influenzae biogroup conjunctiva, aegyptius and Streptococcus• Edema of eyelids, pneumoniae. And others.• Mucopurulent discharge,• Sensitivity to • Human to human via, eye and BACTERIAL light, respiratory discharge, contaminate• Highly INFECTIONS d fingers, facial tissues, clothing, eye
CHLAMYDIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS, INCLUSION CONJUCTIVITIS, PARATRACHOMA• Mucopurulent ETIOLOGIC AGENT: discharge in • Serotypes (serovars) neonates, result in of Chlamydia mild scarring of trachomatis. conjunctivae and cornea. • Contact with genital• May concurrent discharges of with chlamydial infected people. nasopharyngitis or pneumonia. • Contaminated fingers to eye.• In adults, may be BACTERIAL concurrent with • Infection in newborns via infected birth nongonococcal INFECTIONS canal.
TRACHOMA, CHLAMYDIA KERATOCONJUNCTIVITS• Highly contagious ETIOLOGIC• Acute or chronic AGENT: conjunctival • Serotypes inflammation (serovars) of Chlamydia• Scarring of trachomatis cornea and conjunctiva• Deformation of • Direct contact with BACTERIAL eyelids and infectious ocular or INFECTIONS blindness. nasal secretions
GONOCOCCAL CONJUNCTIVITIS,GONORRHEAL OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM• Acute redness • Neisseria• Swelling of gonorrhoeae (G-ve, conjunctiva kidney-bean shaped diplococci)• Purulent discharge • Contact with the• Corneal ulcers infected birth canal during delivery.• Perforation • Adult infection from• Blindness finger to eye contact BACTERIAL with infected genital INFECTIONS secretions.
AMEBIC CONJUCTIVITIS AND KERATOCONJUCTIVITIS• Inflammation of the conjunctiva • Several species of• Corneal ulcers amebae – genus• Pus formation Acanthamoeba.• Severe pain• Loss of vision • Ameba contaminated water. PROTOZOAL • Unsterile contact lens INFECTIONS • Cleaning and wetting
TOXOPLASMOSIS• Systemic sporozoal infection • Toxoplasma gondii;• Immunocompetent an intracelluar persons sporozoan.• Serious disease, even death, may • Cats and other occur in felines immunodeficient • Intermediate hosts persons include rodents,• Infection during birds, sheep, goats, PROTOZOAL early pregnancy swine and cattle. may lead to fetal • Humans usually INFECTIONS infection, causing become infected by