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Gender inclusive planning Gender inclusive planning Presentation Transcript

  • Gender Inclusive Planning: Towards creating Safer Communities Maitreyi Yellapragada 12AR60R21
  • Contents Introduction Need for Study Aims and Objectives Methodology Literature Review Inclusive Planning Status of women around the world and India The Changing Trend Pressing Issues concerning women Importance of safety and mobility for an urban woman Gender Inclusion Approach Process Case Studies Women-friendly cities Project; Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Design Guideline proposed by UrbSpace and European Regional Development Fund Jagori – Safe Delhi Campaign Transit-Oriented Safety Inferences on Shared Responsibilities Conclusions
  • Introduction Living environments reflect our culture, values, lifestyle and relationships and define the relation between us and various urban functions. They belong to the women and men who live in them and play an increasingly important part in organizing and providing services to them especially in the context of urbanization. After their long association with only domestic activities, women have gradually moved into the public arena. The urban setting must adapt to this cultural and social change, and cities must now deal with the changing status of women. Little political involvement or participation in decision-making. Little say in the planning of municipal services, installations and design “Experts in day-to-day living” Poorly served as citizens Inadequate day-care services, rigid operating hours of municipal services, poorly adapted public transportation, unsafe public places, The lack of access to services and resources also creates an obstacle to equal sharing in household and family tasks. WOMEN View slide
  • Need for Study It is stated by many planners and sociologists that women experience city life differently from men. Unlike other built environment occupations, the planning profession has traditionally been ‗gender blind‘. The general idea that, ―Whatever is good for men is automatically good for women‖ is inappropriate as gender neutrality is misleading. It overlooks specific needs of men and women and prevents from detecting and rectifying existing inequalities. Gender-sensitive urban planning is needed. Urban planning covers a wide spectrum of concerns including employment, housing, open space, transport and environment etc. Gender concerns all aspects of Planning Case of better employment opportunities for women in the urban areas than rural. But, the Urban labor market is biased on gender lines. Thus, the pro-urban planning policies provide scope for improvement of the same. Source: Statistics on Women of India, 2007: National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development Source: Addressing Gender Concern in India‘s Urban Renewal Mission, a paper published by UNDP. http://www.swayam.info Gender inequality holds back the growth of individuals, the development of nations and the evolution of societies. Gender issues are not women‘s issues but understanding opportunities, constraints and the impact of change as they affect both men and women. View slide
  • To emphasise on the major issues of safety, security and mobility of women and delineate the scope for equitable participation in urban life through gender inclusivity. Aims and Objectives AIM To highlight the issues concerning urban planning due to gender exclusion. •To interpret and conceive the concept of inclusive planning with respect to gender. •To Highlight the pressing women issues and the gender based needs and requirements in context to the changing trends •To understand the transformation of women‘s role and their changing contributions to the society •To study gender inclusivity policies at various locations and the process followed by which various institutions as they address the issues of safety and mobility. •To draw conclusions with respect to the responsibilities to be carried out by various stakeholders and beneficiaries METHODOLOGY
  • Affordable housing- Income integrated communities Inclusive Planning A gender- and socially-inclusive city promotes equitable rights and provides opportunities and support for all residents to participate in urban life. Sources: THE IRONY OF "INCLUSIONARY ZONING ROBERT C. ELLICKSON World Urban Campaign: An Inclusive City - http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=691 Social integration also requires policies to be inclusive and promotes attending to the needs of all. Social, political and economic inclusion is increasingly being recognized as the key strategies against social exclusion. Between 1973 and 1980, the average sale price of a single-family house in Los Angeles rose from $40,700 to $115,000, or by 183%. Conceptualization High housing prices Adoption of Rent controls Political Pressure Inclusionary zoning (IZ) is a set of controls and incentives designed to encourage the production of affordable housing. Inclusionary Zoning unaffordable Provision of affordable homes for poor
  • Women across the world Account for Women 60% of the working force Comprise only 30% of the official labour force Receive only 10% of the world‘s economy Source: www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub96-01/chapter2 UN statistics http://www.undp.org.in/webbook/Enlrg-spc-wmn-india.htm Human Development Report, 2003 Women in India- How free? How equal? – Kalyani Menon Sen, A.K. Shiva Kumar Own less than 1% of the world‘s real estate Little access to productive resources and negligible control over the family income The gender bias and discrimination is a part of the global scenario 60 % of the 130 million children in the age group of 6-11 years who do not go to school are girls. 67% of the world‘s 875 million illiterate adults are women 70% of the 1.2 billion people living in poverty 940 females per 1000 males in 2011 Female literacy: 47.8% Non-agricultural wage employment is only 17% 13.9% in the urban sector and 29.9% in the rural sector Status of Women in India Occupy only 9% of Parliamentary seats Less than 3% women managers and admin.
  • Women in India: A historical overview Sources: www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub96-01/chapter2.pdf Sreenivas Murthy, H. V. The position of women in Ancient India. Vedic Age – Women enjoyed an equal status . The position of women gradually weakened. Post-Vedic: Seclusion of women for reasons of security and respectability. Women had no property rights and were reduced to landless labourers. Female infanticide, and other practices which became commonplace during Mughal period, persisted later on. The Colonial period had the effect of generating self awareness, and made the presence of women felt in the freedom struggle. Thousands of women came forward and participated in the freedom struggle at the call of Mahatma Gandhi who spurred the movement for women emancipation. Twentieth century saw the emergence of Mahila Samitis and other organisations for the upliftment of women. They educated the society about the ill effects of the purdah system, child marriage, and ill-treatment of widows. They campaigned for equal rights for women in franchise and education. As a consequence of their efforts, and women‘s indirect participation in the world war, the ― The Indian Reforms Act of 1921 enfranchised a small section of the Indian Population for the first time and women were also included. ― (Devi 1982).
  • The Constitution of India - Provisions Relating to Women Grants equality to women Empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women for removing the cumulative socio-economic, educational and political disadvantages faced by them over the ages. Advancement of Women through Five Year Plans First Five Year Plan (1951-56) Second Five Year (1956-61) Third, Fourth, Fifth Year Plans (1961-74) Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) Welfare oriented concerning women‘s issues. The programmes for women were implemented through the National Extension Service Programmes through Community Development Blocks. Post Independence Efforts were geared to organise ―Mahila Mandals‖ (women‘s Plan groups) at grass-roots levels to ensure better implementation of welfare schemes. High priority to women‘s education. Measures to and other Interim improve maternal and child health services, and supplementary Source: Statistics on Women in India 2007 India, Planning Commission. (2007). Five Year Plans. New Delhi. The Plan adopted a multidisciplinary approach with a three-pronged thrust on health, education and employment of women.
  • Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) Eighth Five Year (1992-97) Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) Tenth Five Year (2002-2007) Eleventh Five Year (2007-2012) Post Independence Source: Statistics on Women in India 2007; India, Planning Commission. (2007). Five Year Plans. New Delhi. Changing Perspectives Development programmes with objective of raising economic and social status and bring them into the mainstream of national development. Promotion of ―beneficiary-oriented programmes‖ which extended direct benefits to women. Enabled to function as equal partners and participants in the developmental process with reservation in the membership of local bodies. Marks a definite shift from ‗development‘ to empowerment‘ of women. Envisaged: a) Empowerment of women and socially disadvantaged as agents of socio- economic change and development. b) Promoting and developing people‘s participatory institutions like Panchayati Raj institutions, cooperatives and self-help groups. c) Strengthening efforts to build self-reliance. d) A women‘s component plan at the Central and State levels. Ensure requisite access of women to information, resources and services, and advance gender equality goals. Special measures for gender empowerment and equity. The Ministry of Women and Child Development would make synergistic use of gender budget and gender mainstreaming process.
  • The number of educated Indian women pursuing professional careers still very small . 62% of women in the country who are illiterate and the low 42% female participation in the workforce. Only 18% of women are part of the organized labor sector, and only 20% of these are employed in urban areas. Women workers in the new IT-related occupations are only 0.3% of urban women workers. Despite their small numbers in the overall picture, the Indian women professionals of today are seen as the trend-setters of the future. The changing trend Out of the 134 countries surveyed in the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2009, India ranks 114th on the overall index, 134th on female health and survival, 124th on educational attainment, and 127th on economic participation and opportunity — although, paradoxically, it ranks 24th on political empowerment.Source: Delloite: Women in India
  • Pressing Issues As the opportunities in cities improve, it is observed that more women are migrating to the urban areas in search of work and a better quality of life. It is observed that women tend to choose the cities depending on the idea of how safe is the city for its women. Therefore, a intangible safety index that determines the movement of women in search of opportunities. The urban areas cannot afford to be tagged as unsafe as it negative implications on development of the economy and the social structure. Worsening economy forcing women to move to the cities for work and live in dangerous localities. Urban security because women in cities are increasingly vulnerable to gender-based violence Women and Poverty Education and Training of Women The attitudes towards women in the society Non-flexible working hours and discriminatory working condition Sexual harassment and a safety-oriented workplace design. Fear of Transit Sources: Zonta International, Safe Cities for Women Project in Guatemala City and San Salvador www.nipccd.nic.in/reports Making Space for Women in Cities by Councillor Ellen Woodsworth, canada
  • Gender Inclusive Planning Gender-sensitive urban governance Access to municipal services Women‘s rights to land and property Livelihoods and employment Safety and security Policies and legal or regulatory reforms Sources: www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/HDQ804.pdf World Urban Campaign: An Inclusive City http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=691 Planning pertaining to the various aspects of
  • Safety of Women Sources www.jagori.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/01/Building-Safe-Inclusive-Cities-for-Women_A- PracticalGuide_2011 Insecurity and the threat of violence prevent women from participating as full and equal citizens in community life. Women have a ―right to the city.‖ When this right is not realized, women and girls face significant obstacles to educational, economic, and political opportunities. The Growth of many cities, particularly in developing societies, has been unplanned and haphazard. Increasing population size has led to problems in provision of adequate housing, transport, sanitation and provision of basic services to all citizens.
  • Gender issues in planning are central to success in economic regeneration and social inclusion. Land‐use planning provides the spatial setting for government policy, shaping the way our towns and cities are designed. However, planning policy tends to ignore the fact that women and men use public space very differently and have different concerns about how it meets their needs. Consider things in a gender way, that means: • Make gender differentiated statistics, analysing utilization of sites or locations •Assessment for the using of areas and sites •Rules of decisions •Rules of participation •Responsibilities in planning process •Benefit from a urban design with regards to gender A city safety for women is safe for all other weak categories: elder, children, disables MAKE THE CITY A PLACE FOR EVERYONE Three levels of gender integration: a. Gender blindness – gender is not considered, b. Gender neutrality – gender is considered and equal opportunities are secured, c. Gender planning – gender is considered and equity impacts are secured.
  • Case Studies
  • Women Friendly Cities, Seoul Metropolitan Govt. 2009 1 The existing policies in Korea had little consideration of a woman‘s perspective and experiences pertaining to roads, transportation, and cultural aspects. Led to inception of Women-friendly City Project Aim to improve the city spaces by reflecting women‘s perspectives in all city policies thereby improving their day to day urban life. - Resolving the factors that cause inconvenience, discomfort and uneasiness in their daily lives. - Enhancing women‘s rights and helping women achieve their potential. Women Friedly Seoul Project Report Expanding the scope of Women related policies Improving the laws and the institution Addressing the inequality in their daily lives Redesigning a City from a Women’s perspective Participation of all Divisions in project Female citizen participation Women- friendly city project system Economy Welfare Culture Environment Citizens
  • Women Friendly Cities, Seoul Metropolitan Govt. 2009 Women Friedly Seoul Project Report Practices for Gender Mainstreaming ( By local Govt) Understanding the views of women and men equally Women and Family Policy Affairs Ways to help career-interrupted women regain employment. Provision of affordable yet high quality daycare facilities. Green Seoul Bureau Building parks with women-friendly amenities. How to create parks that are safe for a woman to walk by herself ? City Transportation Are there parking lots where women can safely and easily park their cars? Are there measures to help women use public transit and para transit services safely at night ? Seoul Metro Are subway facilities stroller friendly ? Reliability and safety ? Protection Create Crime – free living spaces and environs. Process involved participation of female citizens from policy making to implementation. 244 experts and professors were consulted during policy making. 200 women (workers and housewives) were involved in on-site monitoring. Policy consultations and on-site monitoring by 3250 people in 25 autonomous districts.
  • Women Friendly Cities, Seoul Metropolitan Govt. Women Friedly Seoul Project Report 90 Sub- Projects came up in 5 areas. Convenient Seoul Safe Seoul Caring Seoul Work-Conducive Seoul Prosperous Seoul Women-Friendly Parking Lots 56,000 parking lots that give first priority to female drivers (7.9% of around 7,00,000 slots in 13,00 parking lots. And installation of CCTVs and emergency bells in underground parking lots along with improving lighting. Women-Friendly Roads Improving quality of roads, Installing more CCTVs and increasing lighting to 30 lux, Creating rest spots separate from pedestrians, Women-Friendly Parks Well lit pedestrian roads, toilets and parking lots Women-Friendly Built Environment CPTED adopted in housing and redevelopment projects Crime prevention systems, such as windowed (transparent) elevators, in consideration for safety. Building childcare facilities along with female bathroom facilities. Subway ticket gates modified for stroller use.
  • Urban Design Guidelines for Safer Open Spaces Sources: GREEN SPACES
  • 1. Lighting in Public Spaces 2. Isolated Bus stops 3. Dark Roads and Unlit streets 4. Parks and Green areas 5. Car Parks 6. Debris Dumps, Partially Demolished Buildings and dark alleys. 7. Usable Public Toilets. 8. Male dominated spaces. 9. Security guards and police patrolling 10. Market areas Undertook a study on women‘s safety, and initiated the ‗Safe Delhi Campaign‘ that focused on strategies to create safer environments for women, and explored ways to get different groups of people in the city involved. Safety audits were conducted across different spots in the city which were then used to identify factors that cause fear as well as a feeling of safety among women. These findings were then to be used for advocacy and encourage states to include real life inputs and experiences from women in the urban planning process. Jagori, Delhi based NGO – “Safe Delhi Campaign” 2 FindingsofSafetyAudit Problems and Perceptions Sources: jagori.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/IS-THIS-OUR-CITY - Most women felt unsafe going into public spaces alone or after dark unless they were in groups or accompanied by men. Women felt safer in well-lit places. - Public transport, especially buses, are seen as unsafe and are cited by the majority of women as the commonest site for harassment. - Women felt safer in crowded places than in isolated places. Bus stops are seen as safer since they are seldom deserted. - Male dominated spaces such as cigarette and paan shops, street corners are felt to be unsafe and are avoided by women, especially after dark. - Women prefer using subways which have vendors and shops. - Women normally feel safe in using parks in early evenings or around dusk, but not after nightfall. Parks become almost exclusively male spaces after dark.
  • “Safe Delhi Campaign” – Safety Audit Maps 2 Sources: jagori.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/IS-THIS-OUR-CITY Group of women including more than 1 resident Identify area and observe infrastructure Observe Gendered use of space Discuss with the users of the space Audit Notes & Discuss with Local Govt. Connaught Place
  • “Safe Delhi Campaign” – Safety Audit Maps 2 Sources: jagori.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/IS-THIS-OUR-CITY Kalyanpuri and Mayur Vihar area
  • The concept of Women's Safety Audits was developed in Toronto, Canada by the Metro Action Committee on Public Violence Against Women and Children (METRAC), and experimented worldwide. UN-HABITAT adapted and experimented this tool within the Safer Cities Programme. Safety Audits A Women's Safety Audit is the best available tool for collecting information on public perceptions of the urban safety in relation to the urban design. Without proper knowledge of these public perceptions and experiences, social and physical planners can not theorize why crime happens, politicians can not formulate, prioritize and implement strategic policies and professionals can not combat (fear of) crime itself. It helps to create a more comfortable environment for women, children, elderly, and people with disabilities - for everyone. (METRAC, 1998) Characteristics of space that are “Safe” Characteristics of space that induce fear
  • Transportation systems are the key to urban life, enabling women to access healthcare, education, and employment opportunities. For too long, women have been ignored in urban transport planning and design. Research suggests that women are more likely to: Walk or use less expensive transportation means Use off-peak and peripheral public transport routes and Feel unsafe and be at risk of violence while using urban public transport Mobility and Transit Source: (GTZ, 2007) Examples of areas for policy reform identified in a recent ADB seminar (John, 2011) Gender Inclusive urban transport include the need to: -Examine the gendered impact of urban transport planning – for example, a focus on improving major transport corridors into a city centre is more likely to favour men, whereas women benefit more from transport improvements within peripheral areas; -Design urban transport infrastructure that reflects women‘s needs, including safety -Integrate formal and informal public transport - Develop strategies to encourage more women into the urban transport workforce
  • Mobility and Transit FEAR OF TRANSIT: Making Space for Women in Cities by Councillor Ellen Woodsworth, Canada Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 3, No. 4, May 2012 The design of transport systems is a fundamental aspect of urban and regional planning. Good public transport systems can widen women‘s employment opportunities. Women are more likely to be dependent on public transport, particularly in low income communities
  • Important to consider women/ family movements during the day The idea that a woman‘s place is in the house has been responsible for phrases or queries like ―What is a nice girl like you doing in a place like this?‖ This reflects greatly the prevailing attitude towards women in a public space. The no of employed women has increased and so has their participation in active public life yet, spatial stereotypes and patterns of behaviour remain.
  • Inferences
  • WOMEN MEN TO WOMEN'S GROUPS, GRASSROOTS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS TO CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES Speak out on issues of violence and insecurity Support in the efforts to attain gender equality in decision-making positions Support women in positions of power to remain accountable and promote equality. Listen, accompany, and support women in their drive for autonomy and empowerment Mobilize men and boys to challenge traditional gender roles in order to prevent violence against women and girls. Work in partnership with all the relevant organizations, especially municipalities Special efforts should be given to outreach isolated communities SHARING RESPONSIBILITIES Create local to local exchanges Act for a local safety policy, planning, and practices which integrate a gender approach, and which support women's safety initiatives. Provide greater opportunities for women's involvement Allocate municipal funds to gender equality, community development and poverty reduction programs
  • TO POLICE SERVICES EDUCATION SECTOR THE MEDIA RESEARCH COMMUNITY Preventive rather than a repressive approach to violence and insecurity The provision of adequate training on the causes and impacts of violence and insecurity on women Integrate gender awareness, anti-violence, and human rights teaching into the curriculum, and to challenge stereotypes and attitudes on gender-based violence. Mobilize children through empowerment strategies, including self-defense, aimed at ensuring a safer city for all Contribute to community mobilization, and facilitate access to services aimed at ensuring women's safety. Challenge gender stereotypes and inequalities through information and awareness campaigns SHARING RESPONSIBILITIES Reduce sensationalised reporting Encourage research on women's safety and the integration of gender in crime prevention Provide research assistance and support to community- based project implementation and evaluation Development of strategies to promote women's safety and empowerment. Increase women power in police force
  • TO PRIVATE SECTOR TO GOVERNMENTS INTERNATIONAL NETWORKS AND UN AGENCIES Partner with local organizations and municipalities, and financially support initiatives promoting women's safety. Develop policies and programs to ensure women's financial autonomy, including women's right to own property. Allocate necessary resources for the development of strategies and initiatives on women's safety and security Increase the availability of electronic exchange, and of technical assistance International, regional, national and local-to-local exchanges and cooperation for sustainable development SHARING RESPONSIBILITIES Politically and financially support local governments in their efforts to promote safety Audit the impacts of all decisions on the safety and security of women employees, clients, and consumers, by working with unions, women's groups and community organizations to include these issues in workplaces Support the evaluation of progress made by regular international or regional conferences on women's safety
  • Gender Inclusivity in planning cannot be achieved only through the participation and efforts of women but is possible only through the active involvement of all – men, women‘s groups, the municipalities and the governments, international networks and UN agencies. Emphasizing on the major issues of safety and security of women result in creation of positive public spaces which promote and strengthen the level of interactions between people. Conclusions Gender Inclusiveness promotes greater participation of all groups and segments of the societies along with improved ease of access to public spaces. It is the smaller aspects such as lighting, good transport facilities and urban design techniques that have a significant role in shaping the society as a whole. The role of NGO‘s and other organisations involved at the grassroot levels is critical to understanding the issues that might not be considered at the top level management.
  • Together for Women‘s safety, Creating Safer Cities for marginalised women and everyone, Authored by Women in Cities International. Mapping The Women‘s Movement in India http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2722/13/13_chapter%204.pdf http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub96- 01/chapter2.pdf http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan039701.pdf Urban Design Factors that Influence Women‘s Choice of Route of Movement: The Case of Nairobi Central Business District , by Brenda Maiba Bhoyyo A City Tailored to Women, The Role of Municipal Governments in Achieving Gender Equality 2004 EDITION. http://www.unchs.org/unchs/english/hagenda/ch-3d.htm ActionAid, 2011, ‗Women and the City: Examining the Gender Impact of Violence and Urbanisation‘, ActionAid Interntional, London. www. actionaidusa.org/what/womens_rights/women_and_the_city/ ADB, 2001, ‗Country Briefing Paper: Women in Bangladesh‘, ADB, Manila www.beta.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2001/women_ban.pdf References
  • Beall, J., 1996, ‗Urban Governance: Why Gender Matters‘, Gender in Development Monograph Series No 1, UNDP, New York. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpuprojects/drivers_urb_change/urb_society/pdf_gender/UNDP_Beall_ gender_matters.pdf The Sustainable Urban Reader, Edited by Stephen M Heeler and Timothy Beatley Gender in Planning and Urban Development by Nqobile Malaza, Alison Todes and Amanda Williamson of the School of Architecture and Planning, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, with Cliff Hague, Professor Emeritus, School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, and the Women in Planning (WiP) Network of the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP). Actinoid: 2011; Women and the City References
  • "The best thermometer to the progress of a nation is its treatment of its women". - Swami Vivekananda Thank You