Architecture in Hot and humid climate

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Architecture in Hot and humid climate

  1. 1. HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE -APOORVA -MAITREYI -MRUNALI -SHRADDHA -SOMREETA AN ANALYSIS
  2. 2. SYNOPSIS • FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE • TROPICAL CLIMATE • CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • AREAS INFLUENCED BY HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • TEMPERATURE VARIATION THROUGHOUT INDIA • ELUCIDATION OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE IN SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE COUNTRY • THERMAL COMFORT • BIOCLIMATIC CHART • APPLICATION OF CLIMATOLOGY AND CLIMATIC DESIGN PROCESS IN ARCHITECTURE
  3. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE??? • AIR TEMPERATURE • WIND (VELOCITY & DIRECTION) • HUMIDITY • PRECIPITATION (AS RAIN,FROST HAIL, SNOW, FOG) • SOLAR RADIATION
  4. 4. MAP SHOWING PRINCIPLE CLIMATES OF THE WORLD EQUATOR HUMID SEMI HUMID TROPIC OF CANCER TROPIC OF CAPRICON
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • TEMPERATURE RANGES FROM MAXIMUM TEMP. 27°C – 32°C MINIMUM TEMP. 21°C – 27°C IN SUMMERS • IN WINTERS, LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATIONS BOTH ANNUAL AND DIURNAL RANGES OF TEMPERATURE IS VERY NARROW. • HUMIDITY REMAINS HIGH AROUND 75% BUT VARIES FROM 55% - 100%.
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • PRECIPITATION 2000 TO 5000 mm OF RAINFALL • WIND TYPICALLY LOW WIND VELOCITIES. STRONG WIND WITH TORRENTIAL RAINS. • SOLAR RADIATION THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION IS HIGH DURING SUMMERS AND MODERATE DURING WINTERS.
  7. 7. AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS CLIMATE COASTAL PLAINS OF PENINSULAR INDIA • GOA • MUMBAI (MAHARASHTRA) • VISHAKHAPATNAM (AP) • THIRUVANANTHAPURAM (KERALA) • CHENNAI (TAMIL NADU) • KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL) • PURI (ORISSA) • TRIPURA • KOZHIKODE • GULF OF KUTCHH THIS TYPE OF CLIMATE IS ALMOST PERENNIAL AND DOMINANT IN THESE REGIONS.
  8. 8. TEMP. VARIATIONS THROUGHOUT INDIA CITY SUMMER DAY SUMMER NIGHT WINTER DAY WINTER NIGHT CHENNAI 37.3 27.6 28.2 21 KOLKATA 34.1 26.7 27 14 MUMBAI 31.9 26.3 30.9 20.8 PURI 31.7 27.4 27.2 17.7 TRIVANDRUM 29.4 23.6 30.9 22.5 TRIPURA 36.2 20.5 27.1 7 GOA 30 20 25 15
  9. 9. The climate of Goa is equable and humid throughout the year. It is very pleasant and temperate from October to May. It is wet only during the monsoon or rainy season, from June to September. Rainfall- The monsoon bursts over the territory in the beginning of June and withdraws from it by early October. The annual rainfall is 350 cm. Temperature- Temperature variations through the seasons are mild. May is the warmest month when the temperature is around 30 deg. Celsius and January the coolest with a mean daily temperature of 25 deg. Celsius. Humidity- Due to the proximity of the sea, the territory is generally humid. Even during the summer months it is generally above 60 %. Cloudiness- Skies are clear to lightly clouded from November to May. There is a sharp increase in cloudiness with the advance and onset of the monsoons GOA
  10. 10. G O A
  11. 11. MUMBAI MONTH MAX .TEMP. MIN. TEMP. HUMIDITY PRECIPITATION JANUARY 27 15 61-73 FOG FEBRUARY 29-30 17 SMOG↑ MARCH 30 – 33 18 – 22 95 SMOG AFFECTS CITY APRIL 35 24 MAY 37 27 67 - 77 JUNE 32 27 PRE MONSOON JULY 30 25 MAX. RAINFALL OF 944 mm. AUGUST 30 25-24 LESSER RAIN SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER 30 25 NON-CONTINUOUS NOVEMBER & DECEMBER 28 18-12 LOW NO PRECIPITATION
  12. 12. C O L A B A
  13. 13. S A N T A C R U Z
  14. 14. THERMAL COMFORT • Comfort has been defined as the condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the environment.
  15. 15. BIOCLIMATIC CHART Bioclimatic charts facilitate the analysis of the climate characteristics of a given location from the viewpoint of human comfort, as they present, on a psychrometric chart, the concurrent combination of temperature and humidity at any given time. They can also specify building design guidelines to maximize indoor comfort conditions when the building’s interior is not mechanically conditioned.
  16. 16. CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE • Since beginning, climate has its effects on man, surroundings and architecture • Weather elements forced man to look for shelters • A climate responsive architecture takes advantage of the free energy in the form of heat and light. • An adaptive thermal comfort design is essential.
  17. 17. REQUIREMENTS IN A HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • Minimization of the high day temp. • Avoidance of direct exposure of facades to solar radiations • Reduction in the humidity levels • Continuous air circulation to reduce heat and relief from stickiness! • To create a temp. difference between the inside and outside environments to facilitate evaporation and heat dissipation.
  18. 18. To define climatic design process according to comfort zone, it could be divided to four main parts: A. Study of the design subject (climate-activities-clothing-etc.) Designer should be able to fully understand the climate and comfort needs as well as all architectural issues related to the project. B. Defining the comfort zone (monthly-daily) The monthly or daily comfort zone should be defined C.Gathering the climatic design advices (shading-thermal mass-evaporative cooling-thermal insulation- suitable orientation.) Clear design advices could be derived from previous studies to give directions for each issue in building such as site design, form, ventilation, solar gains, window sizing, thermal mass, passive heating and cooling, materials D. Designing the project (a climatic building) Architect is able to form a climatic building. CLIMATIC DESIGN PROCEDURE
  19. 19. •Larger windows for ventilation. INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURE FENESTRATION •Semi – open spaces for light and air movement
  20. 20. FACADE ARTICULATION •Max. ventilation •Orientation of smaller side of structure along east-west •North-south orientation for max. air movement •High density of façade that is open and yet shaded. •Faint/pale colours on outer surfaces •Building materials with insulating/reflecting properties that resist heat transfer.
  21. 21. ROOFING PATTERN  Voids in roof and courtyards provide max. light and cross ventilation  Houses are tall with large openings to catch breeze  Light colors and reflective surfaces on roofs will deflect solar radiations and keep the building cool. Light materials such as timber are used in construction Sloping roof is a characteristic of these regions as it drains off rain water. Barrel-vaulted roof can also be seen. Dense growth of plantations in the outdoors
  22. 22. KERALA: ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE WIND: • In most parts of the State flow of wind is mainly governed by differential heating of land and water mass together with mountain winds. • Winds have westerly component during the day and easterly components during the night throughout the year. • In general, winds are quite strong during daytime when thermal circulation is best developed and weak during night. HUMIDITY: • Relative humidity ranges from 53% to 72% during the hot weather season. • It is about 85% or above during the monsoon season. AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL: • Receives an average annual rainfall of 3300mm.
  23. 23. Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Trivandrum city 23.5 23.4 23.3 23.5 24.1 23.4 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.1 Kozhikode city 24.0 24.3 24.2 24.5 24.9 24.2 24.2 24.4 24.5 24.7 Punalur dna 22.2 22.1 22.1 23.0 22.3 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.1 Trivandrum (AP) 23.8 23.9 23.7 24.0 24.1 23.9 24.2 23.8 23.4 24.1 Kottayam 22.9 23.6 23.3 23.5 23.6 22.8 21.4 22.7 22.8 22.9 Kannur 23.4 23.5 23.4 23.7 24.1 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.7 23.7 Palakkad 22.7 23.4 23.6 23.6 24.1 23.4 dna dna dna dna Kochi (AP) 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.7 24.4 24.1 24.5 24.7 24.1 Alappuzha 24.1 24.3 24.1 24.3 24.6 23.9 23.9 23.6 23.3 22.6 Karipur 23.4 23.6 23.4 23.7 24.2 23.6 23.4 23.5 23.3 23.5 Vellanikkara dna 22.5 23.2 33.7 23.1 23 23.1 23.4 23.3 23.5 MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURE KERALA
  24. 24. Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Trivandrum city 31.6 31.9 31.5 31.9 31.8 31.5 32 31.7 32 32.5 Kozhikode city 31.2 31.4 31.3 32.1 32.3 31.3 31.5 31.4 32 32.2 Punalur 33.2 33.4 33.4 32.9 33.1 31.9 33.1 33 33.6 34.1 Trivandrum (AP) 31.3 31.4 30.9 31.6 31.7 31 31.3 30.9 31.3 31.6 Kottayam 31.9 32.2 32.4 33 32 31.8 31.7 31.7 32 32.3 Kannur 31.7 32.3 32.1 32.6 32.3 31.8 31.9 31.9 32.7 32.8 Pallakkad 32.1 32 31.4 31.1 31.2 30.9 32.6 Dna dna Dna Kochi (AP) 31.1 31.3 31.1 31.4 31.3 31 30.9 30.9 31.1 31.5 Allappuzha 31.6 31.8 31.6 32.2 32.2 31.4 30.3 31.6 31.6 31.9 Karipur (AP) 31.6 31.8 31.7 32.2 31.9 31.4 31.6 31.5 32 32.2 Vellanikara Dna 32.1 31.8 33.7 32.1 31.6 31.9 31.8 31.3 32.3 MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
  25. 25. THANK-YOU

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