7 th largest nation by geographical area. India has an area of 3.1 million square kilometers (1.2 million square miles).
2 nd most populous nation. India has a population of 1.1 billion (UN, 2005).
Constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.
Gained independence from British rule in 1947 when India and Pakistan were created.
Has a history extending 5000 years dating back to Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization.
Pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society.
Indian constitution recognizes 23 official languages. English and Hindi are the official languages for government.
India has GDP of US $ 4.042 trillion which is 4 th largest and had a GDP growth rate of 9.2% in 2006.
Per capita income is $3700 per year and the wealth distribution is very uneven with top 10% income groups earning 33% of the income. 46% of the Indian children suffered from malnutrition.
India has a literacy rate of 64.8% (53.7% for females and 75.3% for males). The literacy rate was 12.2% in 1947.
EDUCATION IN INDIA
Long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education is among the oldest educational systems. Gurukuls were traditional residential schools of learning.
Nalanda which at its peak housed 10000 students is considered the oldest established university.
The current system of education with its western style and content was introduced and founded by the British in the 20 th century.
India is faced with challenges in primary education in order to achieve 100% literacy rate.
Universal Compulsory Primary Education has been a challenge with its goal of keeping poor children in schools and also maintaining quality of education.
Children from poor and economically disadvantaged backgrounds are forced to drop-out of the school system due to economic reasons.
All levels of education from primary to higher education are overseen by the Department of School Education and Literacy and the Department of Higher Education.
India has a large formal education system with a target group (6-24 years of age) of 411 million in 2003 (40% of Indian population) that is ever growing. The total number of enrolment in educational institutions was 224 million, with about 6.2 million teachers. The formal system is augmented by the private educational institutes and non-formal education system that includes adult and distance education.
The Department of Higher Education has established various Colleges and Universities. Some of the institutes of higher learning have worldwide reputation like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) etc.
In India over 130000 students graduate in Engineering and another 65000 with MBAs every year. The global software industry depends heavily on software outsourcing to India with huge percentage of large and medium sized corporations having operations in India.
Constitution of India has various provisions for education
Right to education for all
Prohibition of discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth.
Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Directive Principles of state policy
Provisions for free and compulsory education for children for all children up to age 14 year.
Provision for early childhood care and education for children below the age of six years.
Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.
Federal funded institutions have reservations
Scheduled Castes (15%)
Scheduled Tribes (7.5%)
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas established in over 500 districts to provide education for rural children and especially girls.
Decision regarding the organization and structure of education are largely the concern of the states and the union territories.
Stages of education in India
Schooling - Primary, Middle/Secondary and Higher Secondary (6-18 years of age)
College and University - Professional/Non-Professional degree and diploma (18-24+ years of age)
National Policy on Education (NPE), 1968 and 1986 formulated uniform pattern of school education with the 10+2 system.
Member of the World EFA (Education for All) Forum, South Asian Regional EFA Forum and the E-9 initiatives of the UNESCO.
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
Holistic and integrated approach that focuses on health, psychological and nutritional development in addition to the three R’s (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic).
Implementation of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) program.
Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE)
Universal enrolment of all children including girls
Provision for school drop-outs, working children and girls who cannot attend formal schools.
Reduction of drop-out rates between classes I-V and I-VIII from existing 36.3% and 56.5% in 1994 to 20% and 40% respectively (goal of the ninth 5-year plan)
Improvement in quality
Additional schooling facilities for primary children
Minimum Levels of Learning standards set for the primary school children.
Teacher capacity building
National Literacy Mission (NLM)
Targets literacy of non-literates in the 15-35 age group.
Facilities for skill development to improve economic status and well-being.
Establishment of Continuing Education Centers
Language Policy in Indian Education
Medium of instruction is English, Hindi or a regional language. The examinations can be taken in the medium of instruction followed.
Study of one or two additional languages in addition to the medium of instruction.
Science and Social Sciences instructions and books are usually in English so many students prefer to select English as medium of instruction in urban and semi-urban areas.
The National Policy on Education
To ensure UEE, the National Policy of Education was written in 1986.
In need of fresh ideas and initiatives, the policy was revised in 1992 to supplement the states efforts with additional government programs.
Global influence and support for universalization was strengthened by the 1990 International Conference on Education for All EFA in Jomtien, Thailand.
The 73 rd and 74 th Amendments to the Constitution in 1992 mandated decentralized management in elementary education through local self-government.
The Supreme Court in 1993 came forth with a landmark judgement that education was a fundamental right of every child up to 14 years of age.
Initiatives addressing the objectives and strategies of the NPE 1986
National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education
District Primary Education Programme
Bihar Education Project
Uttan Pradesh Basic Education Programme
Community Mobilization and Participation
Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project
Shiksha Karmi Project
Lok Jumbish Project
Core Principles of the District Primary Education Programme DPEP
Decentralized design and management with community participation
District Primary Education Programme
Launched in 1994, the DPEP is an ambitious programme for overhauling the primary education system in India.
Basic objectives to run in three phases of implementation:
1. Reduce differences in enrollment, dropouts and learning achievement between genders and across different social classes to less than 5 percent;
2. Reduce overall primary dropout rates for all students to less than 10 percent;
3. Raise average learning achievement levels by at least 2 percent over measured baseline levels; and
4. Provide access to all children for primary schooling or its equivalent non-formal education.
Making it happen…
Academics, teachers, NGOs, managers and state reps were consulted; they wanted to ensure that they took full advantage of previous efforts in basic education
85% of the program cost was covered by the government of India, along with financial support from the EU, the Government of the Netherlands, DFID, UNICEF and the World Bank
Responsibility was given and held by all levels of government
Challenges and Successes of DPEP
Opposition to DPEP and points of criticism of the programme were parallel structure, reliance on foreign aid, elitist program, too much “play” in schools, all planning—no action, project mode “inappropriate for education sector”, incomplete focus and a teacher resistance to a decentralized approach.
While there was much criticism, the positive and enthusiastic support from various sectors was very strong
Teachers involvement generated a fresh wave of energy and enthusiasm
Parents and community members were involved from the beginning and this created a sense of ownership and pride
DPEP is meeting its goals and is bringing success to those students who need it most.
The target of universal primary enrollment is close to being met in the phase I districts
Enrollment of phase II districts is above the national average and schools are continuously being added to the program
Enrollment of girls has been achieved by most of the districts
Social equity has improved and DPEP continues to reach out to tribal areas
Future educational reform
Countries that are seeking to reform their own
policies can learn from India and DPEP
Strong focus on student learning
Decentralization and local empowerment
Emphasis on continuous learning and innovation
Use of outside change agents and consultants
Flexible design and implementation across states and districts
Sufficient preparation time before launch
Constant concern with building capacity
India: Implications of Globalization
Economics and Outsourcing
“ Third Revolution”
Multiethnicity and Language
The “Other” India
India as a Model for the World
India: Implications of Globalization
"In finding the solution to our problem, we shall have helped to solve the world problem as well....If India can offer to the world her solution, it will be a contribution to humanity." Rabindrinath Tagore Novel Laureate on Nationalism, 1917