1650 BC – 2000’s AD
Through the ages,
Practitioners have used a wide
range of materials and
techniques for closing tissue…
The origins of surgery can be
traced back many centuries
In the 10th
century BC, ANTS was held over the wound until it
seized the wound edges in its jaws. It was then decapitated.
The thorn, used by African
tribes to close tissue,
was passed through the skin
on either side of the wound.
A strip of vegetable fibre
was then tied
around the edge in a figure eight.
The tough membrane of sheep intestine was provided
to the surgeon pre-sterilised and required threading
through the eye of the needle before use.
Post World War II brought the swaged-on needle. The thread fits
into the hollow end of the needle, allowing it to pass through tissue
without the double loop of thread that exists with a conventional
needle, reducing tissue trauma.
Usually lose their tensile strength within
Hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation
Derived from the small intestine
of healthy sheep.
Loses 50% of tensile strength by
Used on mucosal surfaces.
Treated with chromic acid to
delay tissue absorption time.
50% tensile strength by 10-14
Used in episiotomy repairs.
50% tensile strength = 30+ days
Sites = need for prolonged
Braided, synthetic polymer
50% tensile strength for 30 days
Permanent, used for long term strength
Appears to be stronger then
nylon and has better overall
Before the advent of synthetic fibers,
silk was the mainstay of wound closure.
Easy handling, excellent knot security.
High reactivity and infection due
to the absorption of body fluids
by the braided fibers.
USP (United States Pharmacopoeia)
“Place where life saving or life improving
invasive procedures are performed on human
body under strict aseptic measures!!!!!!”
History of Hygiene
• Aristotle Greek Philosopher recommends
Boiling water to armies. Advises the Alexander.
Recommends hygiene for healthy living
the importance of
washing hands with
chlorinated water in
Obstetrics to reduce
Florence Nightingale creates
fundamentals in Nursing care
“The Very First Requirement in hospitals that should do the
sick no harm”
Florence Nightingale 1860
• 1867 –Dr.Joseph
Lister first identifies
and uses Carbolic
acid spray in
• 1880 – Johnson and
dressings.Beginning of Safe Operation Theatre
“Soap, Water and Common Sense Yet the best
Factors which influence Safety in
WET HANDS &
OVER LEFT, LEFT
PALM TO PALM
RIGHT THUMB IN
LEFT PALM &
• Which suits the
• Availability of Resources.
• Safe to you.
• Some chemical
can cause sensitization
and Allergic reactions.
BEST HAND WASH IS….
is absolute, removes microbes and spores too.
To achieve Sterilization is Expensive, not
sustainable, many times not needed.
reduces the infections drastically.
• Paying great attention
to Floors Using
many chemical not
• Keep the floor Clean
and Dry - Bacteria are
• Most Important
component of Bacteria
is water a dry areas
causes natural death
• Do not disturb
• Do not use ceiling fans
they cause aerosol
• Clean only when
amount of dust.
Do not disturb the Roof
Who/What is Important in prevention of