2Business CommunicationBusiness Communication• Studies have found that people spend 70 toStudies have found that people spend 70 to85 percent of their work time deliberately85 percent of their work time deliberatelycommunicating through writing, reading,communicating through writing, reading,speaking, and listening.speaking, and listening.• Communication is the lifeblood of anyCommunication is the lifeblood of anyorganization.organization.• In an organization, people communicate inIn an organization, people communicate inmany ways.many ways.
3Organization CommunicationOrganization Communication• Face-to-faceFace-to-facecommunication takescommunication takesplace during one-on-place during one-on-one discussions, inone discussions, informal groups, andformal groups, andduring meetings.during meetings.• Face-to-faceFace-to-facecommunication is thecommunication is themost effective form ofmost effective form ofcommunication.communication.• Both nonverbal cues andBoth nonverbal cues andverbal communicationverbal communicationsupply immediate feedback.supply immediate feedback.• Individuals alsoIndividuals alsocommunicate orally on thecommunicate orally on thephone and duringphone and duringpresentations, and in writingpresentations, and in writingusing desktop computers orusing desktop computers orterminals to compose letters,terminals to compose letters,memos, and reports.memos, and reports.
4The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• The communication process includes:The communication process includes:sender or encoder, receiver or decoder,sender or encoder, receiver or decoder,message, channel or medium, feedback, andmessage, channel or medium, feedback, andenvironment.environment.
5The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process
6The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• Sender or EncoderSender or Encoder– The sender initiates a communication-andThe sender initiates a communication-anddetermines the intent of the message, how todetermines the intent of the message, how tosend it, and what if any response is required.send it, and what if any response is required.– The sender bears the burden in this process,The sender bears the burden in this process,communicating not only the content of thecommunicating not only the content of themessage, but information about history andmessage, but information about history andattitude toward the receivers as well.attitude toward the receivers as well.
7The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• Receiver or DecoderReceiver or Decoder– Receivers comprise the target audience of a messageReceivers comprise the target audience of a messagetransmitted by the sender.transmitted by the sender.– The message the sender encodes may not be theThe message the sender encodes may not be themessage received.message received.– Receivers interpret messages based upon their frame ofReceivers interpret messages based upon their frame ofreference: includes their life experiences, their culturalreference: includes their life experiences, their culturalbackground, and the values and beliefs they hold.background, and the values and beliefs they hold.– Feedback may help to prevent misunderstandings.Feedback may help to prevent misunderstandings.
9The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• MessageMessage– Contains ideas expressed to other individualsContains ideas expressed to other individuals– Messages generally take one or more of threeMessages generally take one or more of threeforms:forms: informative, persuasive, and actuative.informative, persuasive, and actuative.
10The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• Channel or MediumChannel or Medium– The channel conveys the message to theThe channel conveys the message to thereceiver, either verbally and face-to-face, or inreceiver, either verbally and face-to-face, or inanother mediated fashion.another mediated fashion.– The medium can impact the message positivelyThe medium can impact the message positivelyor negatively, so the sender must choose theor negatively, so the sender must choose thebest medium for assuring effectivebest medium for assuring effectivecommunication.communication.
11The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• FeedbackFeedback– Reports back to the sender that the receiver, theReports back to the sender that the receiver, thedecoder, received and understood the message.decoder, received and understood the message.– Feedback makes communication a two-wayFeedback makes communication a two-wayprocess, allowing the sender to become aprocess, allowing the sender to become areceiver and vice versa.receiver and vice versa.
12Tips for Improving FeedbackTips for Improving Feedback• Feedback should occurFeedback should occurimmediatelyimmediately• Supervisory feedbackSupervisory feedbackshould complementshould complementwork-related behaviorwork-related behavior• Positive feedbackPositive feedbackproduces the bestproduces the bestresults, but neg.results, but neg.feedback can be betterfeedback can be betterthan no feedbackthan no feedback• Verbal feedbackVerbal feedbackshould accompany andshould accompany andsupport or verifysupport or verifynonverbal signalsnonverbal signals• Workers rememberWorkers rememberwhat they hear firstwhat they hear firstand last in a messageand last in a message• Feedback allows us toFeedback allows us tolearn how people thinklearn how people thinkand feel about thingsand feel about things
13The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process• EnvironmentEnvironment– The environment in which the communicationThe environment in which the communicationprocess occurs may influence the probability ofprocess occurs may influence the probability ofsuccess or failuresuccess or failure– This environment includes room color,This environment includes room color,temperature, lighting, furniture, and timing, astemperature, lighting, furniture, and timing, aswell as organizational climate and superior-well as organizational climate and superior-subordinate and peer relationships.subordinate and peer relationships.
14Causes of MiscommunicationCauses of Miscommunication• InferencesInferences• Word-meaning confusionWord-meaning confusion• Differing perceptionsDiffering perceptions• Information overload and timingInformation overload and timing• Nonverbal messagesNonverbal messages• NoiseNoise• ListeningListening• Intercultural differencesIntercultural differences
15InferencesInferences• Draw a conclusion based onDraw a conclusion based onfactsfacts• As a communicator, youAs a communicator, youmust be conscious of themust be conscious of theinferences you make.inferences you make. BeBecareful to label yourcareful to label yourinferences.inferences.• Your audience must be ableYour audience must be ableto distinguish between whatto distinguish between whatyou know and what youyou know and what youthink, assume, believe, orthink, assume, believe, orjudge to be truejudge to be true
16Inferences ExampleInferences Example• The sun shines brightly today.The sun shines brightly today.– Contains fact because you can easily verify it byContains fact because you can easily verify it bylooking out the window.looking out the window.• The sun shines here, therefore, it shinesThe sun shines here, therefore, it shines50 miles north of here.50 miles north of here.– This is an inferences statement, involvesThis is an inferences statement, involvesdrawing conclusion based on more than whatdrawing conclusion based on more than whatyou observe.you observe.
17Word-Meaning ConfusionWord-Meaning Confusion• When a sender and receiverWhen a sender and receivergive the same word differentgive the same word differentmeanings or give differentmeanings or give differentwords the same meaning.words the same meaning.• Words have both denotativeWords have both denotativeand connotative meaningsand connotative meanings• To avoid a similar word-To avoid a similar word-meaning confusion, considermeaning confusion, considerthe person with whom youthe person with whom youcommunicate, ask questions,communicate, ask questions,and paraphrases importantand paraphrases importantstatements.statements.• ExampleExample– If you look up the wordIf you look up the wordillill in the dictionary,in the dictionary,you probably wouldyou probably wouldfind a definitionfind a definitionmeaning sick, but in themeaning sick, but in thesouthern region of thesouthern region of theUnited States,United States, illill couldcouldrefer to a misbehavingrefer to a misbehavingchild.child.
18Differing PerceptionsDiffering Perceptions• Your perceptions provideYour perceptions provideyour view of reality, but theyyour view of reality, but theydepend on how you interpretdepend on how you interpretwhat you see and hearwhat you see and hear• Perceptions are influenced byPerceptions are influenced bya variety of factors includea variety of factors includepersonal background,personal background,education, age, andeducation, age, andexperiencesexperiences• 2 categories of perception:2 categories of perception:sensory perception andsensory perception andnormative perceptionnormative perception
19Information Overload & TimingInformation Overload & Timing• Advance technology has made it easy to send aAdvance technology has made it easy to send afax, make a copy, or print a reportfax, make a copy, or print a report• Unfortunately you have only a limited capacity toUnfortunately you have only a limited capacity tohandle and process this communication. Becausehandle and process this communication. Becauseso much info must be processed, some of it getsso much info must be processed, some of it getslost.lost.• You can prevent such information loss byYou can prevent such information loss bybecoming concerned more with thebecoming concerned more with the qualityquality of yourof yourcommunication than with its quantity.communication than with its quantity.
21Information Overload & TimingInformation Overload & Timing• When communicating with employees, whetherWhen communicating with employees, whetherface to face or over the telephone, effectiveface to face or over the telephone, effectivecommunicators always check with their timing.communicators always check with their timing.• If an individual rules in, interrupts, and demandsIf an individual rules in, interrupts, and demandstime, the receiver may feign listening or listentime, the receiver may feign listening or listenhalfheartedlyhalfheartedly• This behavior could costly to an organization if itsThis behavior could costly to an organization if itsresults in miscommunication and wrong action.results in miscommunication and wrong action.
22Nonverbal MessagesNonverbal Messages• Senders sometimes forgetSenders sometimes forgetthe importance of nonverbalthe importance of nonverbalmessages, but, as amessages, but, as acommunicator, you shouldcommunicator, you shouldpay careful attention to thepay careful attention to thenonverbal communicationnonverbal communicationof the sender and listen forof the sender and listen forthe message “between thethe message “between theline.”line.”• When assessing nonverbalWhen assessing nonverbalmessages, you should bemessages, you should becareful not to place toocareful not to place toomuch importance on amuch importance on asingle, isolated nonverbalsingle, isolated nonverbalbehavior; instead, look forbehavior; instead, look forseveral nonverbal cues.several nonverbal cues.• Nonverbal actions provideNonverbal actions providea key to a person’s truea key to a person’s truefeelings and attitudes.feelings and attitudes.
23NoisesNoises• Noise can be interfere with every aspect of theNoise can be interfere with every aspect of thecommunication process. Noise may be external orcommunication process. Noise may be external orinternalinternal• External Noise: comes from you surroundingsExternal Noise: comes from you surroundings– Phone line crackling with staticPhone line crackling with static– A telephone ringing or a co-worker laughing in aA telephone ringing or a co-worker laughing in acubical next to youcubical next to you• Internal noise: comes from withinInternal noise: comes from within– Such factors as dislike of your receiverSuch factors as dislike of your receiver– Distraction by another problemDistraction by another problem– Prejudice against a personPrejudice against a person
24ListeningListening• Without training, a listener retains only 25% ofWithout training, a listener retains only 25% ofwhat he or she hears.what he or she hears.• Based on Hamilton and Kleiner: when eyesBased on Hamilton and Kleiner: when eyeswander, your retention of what has been said iswander, your retention of what has been said isaffected.affected.• If you focus too hard on little facts, you can missIf you focus too hard on little facts, you can missthe overall message.the overall message.• If you assume the speaker or subject to beIf you assume the speaker or subject to beuninteresting, you may miss outuninteresting, you may miss out• If you pretend to listen, you may get caughtIf you pretend to listen, you may get caught
26Listening GuidelinesListening Guidelines• Look at the person speaking to show interestLook at the person speaking to show interest• Ask questions to help clarify what the speaker saidAsk questions to help clarify what the speaker said• Don’t interrupt the speaker without reasonDon’t interrupt the speaker without reason• Don’t change the subject, because the speaker mayDon’t change the subject, because the speaker mayhave no thoughts on the new subjecthave no thoughts on the new subject• Control your emotions about the subject matterControl your emotions about the subject matter• Be responsive and let the speaker know he or sheBe responsive and let the speaker know he or shehas communicated effectivelyhas communicated effectively
27ListeningListening• Another listening barrier occurs because we haveAnother listening barrier occurs because we havedifferent rates of listening and speaking.different rates of listening and speaking.• Speakers generally talk at about 125 to 150 wordsSpeakers generally talk at about 125 to 150 wordsa minute, while receivers can listen to about 400 toa minute, while receivers can listen to about 400 to500 words per minute.500 words per minute.• Receivers must work at listening and try to avoidReceivers must work at listening and try to avoidbecoming distractedbecoming distracted• To be an effective managers, you must be anTo be an effective managers, you must be aneffective listenereffective listener
28ListeningListening• Longenecker and Liverpool theory of behaviors displaying poorLongenecker and Liverpool theory of behaviors displaying poorlistening skillslistening skills– Looking out the window or at your watch while someoneLooking out the window or at your watch while someonetalkstalks– Continuing to work during the conversationContinuing to work during the conversation– Appearing rushed during a conversationAppearing rushed during a conversation– Walking away from a person who is speakingWalking away from a person who is speaking– Continuing playing with pens, papers, and other itemsContinuing playing with pens, papers, and other items– Finishing another person’s sentencesFinishing another person’s sentences– Answering incoming phone callsAnswering incoming phone calls– Inserting humorous remarks in response to serious problemsInserting humorous remarks in response to serious problems– And looking at a person other than the individual speakingAnd looking at a person other than the individual speaking
29Steps to become a better listenerSteps to become a better listener• Identifying your shortcomingIdentifying your shortcoming• Postpone the meeting if you don’t have timePostpone the meeting if you don’t have time• Show the employee you want to listenShow the employee you want to listen• Do not prejudice the employeeDo not prejudice the employee• Empathize with the employeeEmpathize with the employee• Be patient with the employeeBe patient with the employee• Resist arguments and criticismsResist arguments and criticisms• Ask questions and show understandingAsk questions and show understanding
30Intercultural DifferencesIntercultural Differences• Individuals from different cultures bring differentIndividuals from different cultures bring differentperceptions, value systems, and languages to theperceptions, value systems, and languages to theworkplaceworkplace• To be successful in business dealings, you must beTo be successful in business dealings, you must beaware of and sensitive to cultural differences, useaware of and sensitive to cultural differences, useappropriate language, correctly interpret nonverbalappropriate language, correctly interpret nonverbalcommunication, and value individual and culturalcommunication, and value individual and culturaldifferencesdifferences
31Being Aware and SensitiveBeing Aware and Sensitive• Be aware that anBe aware that anindividual’sindividual’sbackground andbackground andexperience can impactexperience can impacthis or herhis or herinterpretation andinterpretation andperception of aperception of amessagemessage• Check to see if you haveCheck to see if you haveany hidden biases and seeany hidden biases and seeif you have formed anif you have formed anopinion about how peopleopinion about how peopleof a certain sex, religion,of a certain sex, religion,or race appear, think, andor race appear, think, andact based simply on theiract based simply on theirbelonging to particularbelonging to particulargroupgroup• Try to avoid stereotypingTry to avoid stereotypingand the use of sexist,and the use of sexist,racist, or ethnic remarksracist, or ethnic remarks
32Using Appropriate LanguageUsing Appropriate Language• The same word mayThe same word maymean different thingsmean different thingsto people from otherto people from othercountriescountries• Some words maySome words mayhave differenthave differentmeanings in othermeanings in otherlanguageslanguages• Use feedback toUse feedback toclarify your messageclarify your message
33Interpreting Nonverbal CommunicationInterpreting Nonverbal Communication• Almost about 70% of our communication occursAlmost about 70% of our communication occursnonverbally and each culture interprets andnonverbally and each culture interprets anddisplays body language differentlydisplays body language differently• Certain nonverbal signs can be clues that theCertain nonverbal signs can be clues that thereceiver does not understand and is trying to savereceiver does not understand and is trying to savefaceface• The body language may tell you what the wordsThe body language may tell you what the wordsdon’tdon’t
34Valuing DifferencesValuing Differences• As an effective communicator, you mustAs an effective communicator, you mustlearn to value, appreciate, and acceptlearn to value, appreciate, and acceptindividual differencesindividual differences• Approximately 49.5 percent of new workersApproximately 49.5 percent of new workersare expected to be women, while people ofare expected to be women, while people ofcolor will comprise 34.7 percent.color will comprise 34.7 percent.