Class q ch03
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Class q ch03

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Class q ch03 Class q ch03 Presentation Transcript

  • The sun moves
    • about one degree westward each day.
    • about one degree eastward each day.
    • about 360 degrees westward each day.
    • about 360 degrees eastward each day.
    • along the celestial equator.
  • The diagram shows three approximate locations of the setting sun along the western horizon. Which number indicates the location of the sun at sunset on December 21 (winter sun) for an observer at a latitude of 48° North of the equator?
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • The sun will set in the east for an observer in the southern hemisphere.
    • The sun will not set on December 21 at this latitude.
  • Northern Hemisphere winters are colder than Northern Hemisphere summers because
    • Earth is closer to the sun during the summer than it is during the winter.
    • the snow that falls in the northern latitudes cools Earth during the winter.
    • the light from the sun shines more directly on the Northern Hemisphere during the summer.
    • the period of sunlight is longer during the summer than during the winter.
    • C and D.
  • The sun is on the celestial equator at the times of the
    • vernal equinox and the summer solstice.
    • autumnal equinox and the vernal equinox.
    • summer solstice and the winter solstice.
    • autumnal equinox and the winter solstice.
    • sun is on the ecliptic and is never on the celestial equator.
  • The ecliptic is
    • the centerline of the zodiac.
    • the projection of Earth's orbit on the sky.
    • the apparent path of the sun around the sky.
    • all of the above.
    • none of the above.
  • The observed amount of difference between the perihelion of Earth in early January and aphelion in early July results in the northern hemisphere being _____
    • cold in January and hot in July
    • hot in January and cold in July
    • equally cold in both January and July
    • equally hot in both January and July
    • Wrong! The seasonal differences in northern hemisphere temperatures is not caused by differences in distance from the sun
  • A(n) ____ is a set of beliefs that appears to be based on scientific ideas, but which fails to obey the most basic rules of science.
    • theory
    • hypothesis
    • pseudoscience
    • allegory
    • scientific model
  • The point in Earth's orbit where Earth is farthest from the sun is known as
    • aphelion
    • perihelion
    • precession
    • the winter solstice
    • A and D
  • ____ is the point in Earth's orbit where Earth is closest to the sun.
    • Aphelion
    • Perihelion
    • Precession
    • The winter solstice
    • A and D
  • The planet(s) of our solar system that are usually or never visible to the naked eye are
    • Mars
    • Mercury and Neptune
    • Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune,
    • Uranus and Neptune
    • Mercury and Venus
  • On the vernal equinox the Sun is
    • 23 ½° north of the celestial equator.
    • 23 ½° south of the celestial equator.
    • on the celestial equator and moving north with respect to the equator.
    • on the celestial equator and moving south with respect to the equator.
    • closest to the north celestial pole.
  • On the autumnal equinox the sun is
    • 23 ½° north of the celestial equator.
    • 23 ½° south of the celestial equator.
    • on the celestial equator and moving north with respect to the equator.
    • on the celestial equator and moving south with respect to the equator.
    • closest to the north celestial pole.
  • A solar eclipse may occur
    • when the Moon is first quarter phase.
    • when the Moon is 3rd quarter phase.
    • when the Moon is full.
    • when the Moon is new.
  • A lunar eclipse may occur
    • when the Moon is first quarter phase.
    • when the Moon is 3rd quarter phase.
    • when the Moon is full.
    • when the Moon is new.
  • A solar or lunar eclipse may occur when the line of nodes (intersection of orbit planes of the Moon around the Earth and the orbit plane of the Earth around the Sun)
    • points at the Sun.
    • is 90 degrees to the Sun’s direction.
    • Wrong! The line of intersection is irrelevant.
  • An eclipse season is the period of time during which the
    • moon crosses a node in its orbit.
    • sun crosses a node in the moon's orbit.
    • line of nodes crosses the moon's orbit.
    • the moon is new or full.
    • the moon is visible during the day.
  • The ____ of the moon is the period of time for the moon to complete a cycle of the lunar phases and is approximately 29.5 days long.
    • sidereal period
    • saros cycle
    • synodic period
    • eclipse season
    • umbral period
  • The sidereal period of the moon
    • is about 27.32 days long.
    • is the period of time for the moon to orbit Earth once with respect to the stars.
    • is the period of time between successive eclipses at a given location on Earth.
    • is the period of time from when the moon rises until the moon rises again the next night.
    • A and B above.
  • The synodic period of the moon
    • is about 27.32 days long.
    • is the period of time for the moon to orbit Earth once with respect to the stars.
    • is the period of time between successive eclipses at a given location on Earth.
    • is the period of time from when the moon rises until the moon rises again the next night.
    • none of the above.
  • A solar eclipse that occurs when the moon's umbra does not reach Earth's surface is called
    • a total solar eclipse.
    • a partial solar eclipse.
    • an annular solar eclipse.
    • a penumbral solar eclipse.
    • an umbral solar eclipse.
  • A solar eclipse that occurs when the moon's umbra reaches Earth's surface is called
    • a total solar eclipse.
    • a partial solar eclipse.
    • an annular solar eclipse.
    • a penumbral solar eclipse.
    • an umbral solar eclipse.
  • A lunar eclipse that occurs when the moon moves completely into Earth's umbral shadow is called
    • a total solar eclipse.
    • a partial solar eclipse.
    • an annular eclipse.
    • a penumbral lunar eclipse.
    • a total lunar eclipse.
  • The saros cycle
    • was used in ancient times to predict eclipses.
    • is 18 years, 11 ⅓ days long.
    • comes from a Greek word that means repetition.
    • all of the above.
    • none of the above.
  • The ____ moon is visible above the western horizon a couple of hours before sunrise.
    • waning gibbous
    • waxing gibbous
    • waxing crescent
    • waning crescent
    • new moon
  • The ____ moon is visible above the eastern horizon a couple of hours before sunrise.
    • waning gibbous
    • waxing gibbous
    • waxing crescent
    • waning crescent
    • new moon
  • A waxing crescent moon is visible
    • near the eastern horizon just before sunrise.
    • near the eastern horizon just after sunset.
    • near the western horizon just before sunrise.
    • near the western horizon just after sunset.
    • from sunset until sunrise.
  • A third quarter moon is visible
    • near the eastern horizon just before sunrise.
    • near the eastern horizon just after sunset.
    • in the southern sky at sunrise.
    • in the southern sky at sunset.
    • from sunset until sunrise.
  • Relative to the stars, the moon moves about ____ eastward in the sky each night.
    • 13°
    • 27.3°
    • 29.5°
  • During a total lunar eclipse,
    • the moon must be new.
    • the observer must be in the path of totality.
    • the moon's color will be affected by Earth's atmosphere.
    • the moon must be at about its greatest distance from Earth.
    • it must be near the time of one of the equinoxes.
  • A totally eclipsed moon glows coppery red because
    • the moon' surface is made of iron ore which is red in color.
    • red light is cooler than blue light.
    • during a lunar eclipse the sun is cooler than normal and its light is more red.
    • only red light is able to pass completely through Earth's atmosphere and reach the moon.
    • the moon appears red during a total solar eclipse, not a total lunar eclipse.
  • Typically, the new moon's shadow _______ a solar eclipse
    • passes north of the earth so as NOT to produce
    • passes south of the earth so as NOT to produce
    • passes either north or south of the earth so as NOT to produce
    • touches the sun so as to produce
    • touches the earth so as to produce
  • A total lunar eclipse is
    • visible only from the path of totality.
    • visible only during a new moon.
    • visible to all observers on the side of Earth from which the moon would be visible at that time.
    • an opportunity to study the corona of the sun.
    • none of the above.
  • The first quarter moon rises
    • at about noon.
    • at sunset.
    • at sunrise.
    • at about midnight.
    • during the second week of each calendar month.
  • Total lunar eclipses always occur
    • at the time of new moon.
    • at the time of full moon.
    • during either equinox.
    • during either solstice.
    • at the time that the sun is directly overhead.
  • During a total lunar eclipse, which of the following are true? I. The photosphere of the sun is obscured by the moon. II. The moon is in Earth's umbra. III. The moon is new. IV. The moon is full.
    • I, III
    • II, IV
    • I, II, III
    • II, III
    • I, II, III, IV
  • At sunset, the ____ moon phase will be highest above the southern horizon for an observer in the Northern Hemisphere?
    • new
    • waxing crescent
    • first quarter
    • full
    • third quarter
  • The moon has an angular diameter of 0.5°. What is the moon's angular diameter in minutes of arc?
    • 0.5
    • 30
    • 50
    • 1800
    • 60.5
  • A total solar eclipse occurred in Wolf Point, Montana, on Feb. 26, 1979. When was (will) an eclipse like this eclipse next be visible again in Montana? Hint: A Saros is 18 years and 11 1/3 days. Twice a Saros is 36 years 22 2/3 days. Three times a Saros is 56 years 34 days. So the best choice answer of these listed will be late
    • August of 1979
    • March of 2033
    • March of 1997
    • March of 1979
    • January of 2000
  • Assume all else is unchanged but the Earth's rotational axis is perpendicular to the ecliptic. As a result, seasonal variations on the Earth would
    • be practically non-existent.
    • remain the same as they are at now.
    • have the same severity but each season would last twice as long.
    • be much more severe.
  • Assume you lived on the Moon and noticed the Earth high in the sky. From that location, how often would the Earth set below your horizon?
    • Every 24 hours
    • Once a sidereal period (27.3 days)
    • Once a synodic period (29.5 days)
    • Every year
    • Never
  • If the plane of the Earth's equator were not tilted with respect to the ecliptic plane
    • the daylight period of Earth would be the same year-round.
    • there would be no seasonal changes.
    • Earth's poles would not experience six month long nights.
    • All of the above.
  • The phase of the Moon on a particular night is determined by
    • the season of the year.
    • the speed of the Moon in is orbit.
    • the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
    • how the Earth's shadow hits the Moon.
    • the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
  • On a clear night when an observer in Los Angeles sees a first quarter Moon, an observer in London would see
    • a full moon.
    • a first quarter moon.
    • a new moon.
    • a third quarter moon.
    • any of the above, depends on the time.
  • If the Moon's orbital plane was aligned with the celestial equator we could
    • have eclipses every month.
    • never have eclipses.
    • have eclipses only at solstice.
    • have eclipses only at the equinoxes.
  • Earth doesn't experience a solar eclipse every month because
    • of unpredictable weather patterns.
    • the moon always keeps its same side toward the Earth.
    • the moon's orbit plane is not aligned with the Earth's orbit plane.
    • its sometimes nighttime when the eclipse occurs.
    • sometimes the moon is too far away.
  • The Moon's angular diameter in our sky as observed from the earth is measured to be 0.5°. From this, we can find the diameter of the moon in kilometers if we also know the moon’s
    • distance from the Earth.
    • element composition.
    • distance from the sun.
  • The ecliptic can be defined as
    • the plane that is perpendicular to the Earth's axis of rotation.
    • the projection of the Earth's equator onto the sky.
    • the path traced out by the Moon in our sky in one month against the background stars.
    • the path traced out by the Sun in our sky over one year against the background stars.
  • The lowest amount of solar energy per square meter is incident upon the surface of Earth in the northern hemisphere on or about
    • December 21, the winter solstice.
    • March 21, the vernal equinox.
    • September 21, the autumnal equinox.
    • June 21, the summer solstice.
  • Full Moon always occurs
    • on the 15 th of ever month.
    • when the Moon is at right angles to the direction of the Sun.
    • when the Moon is closer to Sun than the Earth is.
    • when the Moon is directly opposite the position of the Sun.
  • In which direction does the daily motion of the Moon occur in the sky, against the background stars, when viewed from the Earth?
    • Toward the west
    • Toward the east
    • Toward the north celestial pole in the summer and the south celestial pole in the winter
    • No predictable pattern can be discerned
  • If the Sun passes directly overhead on at least one day per year, then
    • you are within 23 ½ ° latitude of the equator.
    • you are within 66 ½ ° latitude of the equator.
    • you must be exactly on the equator.
    • you could be anywhere because this occurs at least once per year at any location on the Earth.
  • In Brazil, the longest period of daylight and the start of summer occurs during the month of
    • December.
    • March.
    • September.
    • June.
  • The third quarter moon rises at noon.
    • True
    • False
  • During an annular eclipse of the sun, the corona of the sun is visible.
    • True
    • False
  • The path of totality for a solar eclipse is swept out by the tip of the moon's umbra as the umbra moves over Earth.
    • True
    • False
  • A total lunar eclipse is visible only from the path of totality.
    • True
    • False
  • If you were on the moon during a total lunar eclipse, the sun would be hidden behind Earth.
    • True
    • False
  • The totally eclipsed moon glows coppery red because sunlight reaches the moon's surface after passing through Earth's atmosphere.
    • True
    • False
  • An eclipse season is the interval during which the sun crosses a node of the moon's orbit.
    • True
    • False
  • The umbra of the moon's shadow is the region from which no part of the photosphere is visible.
    • True
    • False
  • The moon and visible planets are always within a few degrees of the ecliptic.
    • True
    • False
  • Precession of Earth's axis causes the date at which perihelion of Earth's orbit occurs to slowly change.
    • True
    • False
  • Polaris has always been the star nearest the north celestial pole.
    • True
    • False
  • The seasons are caused by the precession of the Earth's axis.
    • True
    • False
  • A lunar eclipse can only occur during the full phase.
    • True
    • False