Apm 02 final

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Apm 02 final

  1. 1. Good Morning!
  2. 2. SEATTSA , 2008 A LTERNATIVE P EST M ANAGEMENT ( APM )
  3. 3. APM supports……….. <ul><li>7 dimensions of SA </li></ul><ul><li>* Ecologically Sound </li></ul><ul><li> no synthetic pesticides applications </li></ul><ul><li>* Economically Viable </li></ul><ul><li>less cost </li></ul>
  4. 4. APM Principles
  5. 5. PEST <ul><ul><li>An unwanted organisms which compete with people for food and shelter, or threatens their health, comfort or welfare. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> * Rodents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Birds </li></ul></ul>Mollusk
  6. 6. LIFE CYCLE OF THE INSECTS egg adult pupa Larva/ worm COMPLETE STAGES
  7. 7. LIFE CYCLE OF THE INSECTS INCOMPLETE STAGES egg nymph adult
  8. 8. Why pest exist? ? WHY PEST EXIST
  9. 9. <ul><li>THE ENERGY FLOW OF RICE ECOSYSTEM IN RELATION TO PEST MANAGEMENT </li></ul>SUN RICE PEST VEGETABLES Beneficial Insects
  10. 10. B . FACTORS THAT AFFECT PEST POPULATION <ul><li>SOCIAL </li></ul><ul><li>No damage </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer application </li></ul><ul><li>Water management </li></ul><ul><li>Planting Distances </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Monocrop </li></ul>PEST
  11. 11. DIFFERENT PEST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ECOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATIVE PEST MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  12. 12. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Combination of different farm management practices to minimize pest population to a non destructive level without extravagant use of pesticides. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Basis to spray chemicals: <ul><li>AGROECOSYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>(AESA) </li></ul>Population of beneficial insects Population of destructive insects
  14. 14. ECOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>A combination of all farm management practices to minimize pest population to a non destructive level without a single application of any of pesticides application even botanical application. </li></ul><ul><li>Let the nature work on it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. ALTERNATIVE PEST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>A combination of all farm management practices to minimize pest population to a non destructive level without a single application of synthetic pesticides ( ZERO PESTICIDES APPLICATION ). </li></ul><ul><li>Last resort to combat the pest occurrence is to utilize the botanical control </li></ul>
  16. 16. DIFFERENT ALTERNATIVE PEST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>CULTURAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>MECHANICAL CONTROL </li></ul>
  17. 17. DIFFERENT ALTERNATIVE PEST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>BIOLOGICAL CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTANICAL CONTROL </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>CULTURAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest and the cheapest methods of controlling pest which includes the agronomic practices and even the indigenous knowledge system (IKS) to reduce pest population. </li></ul>
  19. 19. A. Traditional beliefs <ul><li>Planting by phases of the moon. </li></ul>
  20. 20. B. Magical and Superstitious Practices <ul><li>Food offering to rats in return for sparing the crops </li></ul>
  21. 21. C. Practices Effective in Community Level <ul><li>CROP ROTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating rice with a non host crop will remove a pest food and reverse its population build-up . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Practices effective in community level……. <ul><li>2. PROPER LAND PREPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>Kill the pupal stage of insect pest in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Buries weed seeds deep in the soil where they cannot germinate. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practices effective in community level…….. <ul><li>3. TRANSPLANT OLDER SEEDLING </li></ul><ul><li>More competitive with weeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize golden apple snail attack </li></ul>
  24. 24. Practices effective in community level…… <ul><li>4.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wider planting distance . </li></ul><ul><li>30x10 cm ( dry season) </li></ul><ul><li>40x10 cm ( wet season) </li></ul><ul><li>? Closer planting distance, provide better canopy cover to shade out weeds but increase Green leafhopper and brown plant hopper oviposition sites and lead to higher population and greater damage. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Practices effective in community level ….. <ul><li>5. PLANTING ORIENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Following the EAST- WEST planting orientation. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Practices effective in community level….. <ul><li>6. ELIMINATION OF ALTERNATE HOST </li></ul><ul><li>Remove plants (weeds) that look like rice such as grasses family </li></ul><ul><li>“ Echonocloa species ” </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce nesting sites and shelter of rats. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Practices effective in community level….. <ul><li>7. PROPER WATER MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid too much water </li></ul><ul><li>? Maintaining standing water in the paddy control most weeds but encourages whorl maggot, caseworm, and brown plant and leaf hopper attack </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding = Drives away the green leaf hopper and the brown plant hopper. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Practices effective in community level…… <ul><li>8. STUBBLE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>* Cut the crop close to the ground and spreading the plants to expose them to the sun to kill insects especially the stem borers inside the stem. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Practices effective in community level…… <ul><li>9. AVOID PLANTING IN SHADY AREA </li></ul><ul><li>* Cut excess tree branches, twigs of plant that surround the area. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Practices effective in community level….. <ul><li>10. PLANTING OF TWO OR MORE LINES/VARIETIES OF CROPS. </li></ul><ul><li>* Minimize insect pest infestation. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Practices effective in community level…… <ul><li>11. REDUCTION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER APPLICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>High application of nitrogen fertilizer: </li></ul><ul><li>= increases weed population in the current and subsequent crops . </li></ul><ul><li>= Increase the incidence of fungal and bacterial diseases by increasing tissue susceptibility and tiller density that favors dew formation. </li></ul><ul><li>= Encourages the multiplication of brown plant hopper and leaf folder insects which lead to higher populations and greater damage. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 2. PHYSICAL CONTROL <ul><li>HAND PICKING </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of infested plant parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of different stages of different insect pest </li></ul><ul><li>( egg-larvae-pupae-adult) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>MECHANICAL CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>SMUDGING </li></ul><ul><li>* Repel the adult insects only. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Mechanical…… <ul><li>B . LIGHT TRAPPING </li></ul><ul><li>Attract the adult insects </li></ul><ul><li>Full moon </li></ul><ul><li>*green leafhopper </li></ul><ul><li>* Brown plant hopper </li></ul><ul><li>* Gall midge </li></ul><ul><li>*Black bug </li></ul><ul><li>New moon </li></ul><ul><li>*Cutworm </li></ul><ul><li>*Armyworm </li></ul><ul><li>*Stem borer </li></ul><ul><li>* Leaf folder </li></ul><ul><li>*Hairy caterpillar </li></ul>
  35. 35. c. Natural insects attractant <ul><li>Pheromone traps </li></ul><ul><li>= methyl eugenol </li></ul><ul><li>(scented chemical or compounds/substance) </li></ul><ul><li>found in the female insects that attract the </li></ul><ul><li>male insects whereby disrupting the insect </li></ul><ul><li>life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic insect attractant (AIA) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature farming/organic farming practice in pest control </li></ul><ul><li>* coco toddy/coconut wine </li></ul><ul><li> * moscovado sugar </li></ul><ul><li>* boiling water </li></ul>Male insects
  36. 36. 4. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL <ul><li>Utilization of natural enemies (predators, parasites and pathogens) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Biological control…….. <ul><li>PREDATORS </li></ul><ul><li>A helpful insects known as generalist which feed on all stages of different insect pest. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the immature and adult stages prey upon/feed on its host. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a chewing and piercing sucking type of mouthparts. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Biological control ….predator <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>COCCINILID BEETLES ( LADY BIRD BEETLES ) </li></ul><ul><li>EARWIGS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER STRIDER </li></ul><ul><li>DRAGONFLIES </li></ul><ul><li>DAMSELFLIES </li></ul><ul><li>LONGHORNED GRASSHOPPER </li></ul><ul><li>LONGHORNED CRICKETS </li></ul><ul><li>GIANT WATER BUG </li></ul><ul><li>MIRID BUG </li></ul><ul><li>KATYDID </li></ul><ul><li>PRAYING MANTIS </li></ul><ul><li>GROUND BEETLES </li></ul><ul><li>SPIDERS ( LONG JAWED, DWARF, JUMPING, LYNX, LYCOSA) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Biological control…. <ul><li>B. PARASITES </li></ul><ul><li>An insects (commonly wasp and flies) whose larvae develop within the body of its host and usually feed on a single host and destroy it gradually. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Biological control… parasites <ul><li>3 kinds of parasites </li></ul><ul><li>1. Egg parasites </li></ul><ul><li>An insects (wasp/flies) </li></ul><ul><li>that destroy the eggs of the destructive insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Trichogramma wasps </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrastichus wasp </li></ul><ul><li>Telenomus wasp </li></ul>
  41. 41. Biological control…parasites <ul><li>2. Larval parasites </li></ul><ul><li>An insects that destroy the larvae of many destructive insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Ichneumonid wasp </li></ul><ul><li>Braconid wasp </li></ul><ul><li>Tachinid fly </li></ul>
  42. 42. Biological…..Parasites <ul><li>3. Pupal parasites </li></ul><ul><li>An insects that destroy the pupae of the destructive insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Chalcid wasps </li></ul>
  43. 43. Summary of Biological Control 99% effective Works 24 hrs a day Feed on insect pest not on plants Cost free Can kill 10-45 insect pest a day DRAGONFLY
  44. 44. 5. BOTANICAL PLANTS <ul><li>Utilization of plants with insecticidal properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Either through spray application or as repellent. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Botanical…… <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Madre de cacao </li></ul><ul><li>Neem tree </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon grass </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet basil </li></ul><ul><li>Marigold flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Hot pepper </li></ul><ul><li>Chysanthemum flower </li></ul><ul><li>Derris </li></ul>
  46. 46. Botanical control application… <ul><li>Will only be applied in spot treatment . </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the botanical plants can kill the beneficial insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, application is only recommended when the population of beneficial insects is very low upon monitoring. </li></ul>INFESTED
  47. 47. Proper pest management ….... FOOT PRINTS
  48. 48. FOOT PRINTS <ul><li>Constant </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring… </li></ul>
  49. 49. Thank you………… <ul><li>Mabuhay! </li></ul>
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