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    7.1 7.1 Presentation Transcript

    • 7.1 The Respiratory Process in energy Production
    • What is Respiration?
      • Respiration refers to the process of obtaining oxygen and delivering it to the cells for cellular respiration and removing carbon dioxide produced by the cells.
      • Occurs in two main stages:
        • External respiration
          • Mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases between the respiratory surfaces of an organism and its environment.
        • Internal respiration (cellular respiration)
          • Biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cells.
    • Energy requirement in living process
      • Energy required in:
        • Muscle contraction
        • Active transport of biochemical substances
        • Transmission of nerve impulses
        • Synthesis of proteins
        • Formation of new protoplasm for growth
        • Cell division
      • Heat released during cellular respiration helps maintain body temperature.
    • What is the main substrate to produce energy?
      • Glucose.
      How is the chemical energy stored within glucose made available to living cells?
      • The energy is released during cellular respiration.
      • Two types of cellular respiration:
        • AE robic respiration
        • ANAE robic respiration
    • Aerobic respiration
      • Requires continuous supply of oxygen which is obtained from the air during external respiration.
      • Occurs in mitochondria in cells.
      • Summary for aerobic respiration:
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 2898 kJ
      • Release all available energy stored in glucose molecule.
      • CO 2 and H 2 O are produced as waste products.
      glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water energy
      • Energy released is used to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine triphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate.
      • ATP acts as an instant sources of energy which drives cellular processes as and when needed .
      • ATP consists of phosphate bonds which can be easily broken down to release energy when required by the body.
      • How do cells overcome the shortfall in oxygen supply?
        • Cells undergo ana erobic respiration, a process in which the cells continue to generate ATP without utilizing oxygen.
    • Anaerobic respiration
      • Organisms that respire anaerobically known as anaerobes .
      • Eg: bacteria, yeast
      • Occurs in cytoplasm.
      • Temporary anaerobic respiration may occur in our own body in the fast working skeletal muscles, as in fast running, walking, swimming etc.
    • Anaerobic respiration in human muscles
      • During vigorous activity, blood cannot supply enough oxygen to meet demand for ATP.
      • Muscles are in a state of oxygen deficiency and said to incur oxygen debt and obtain extra energy from anaerobic respiration.
      • Glucose molecules break down partially into intermediate substance called lactic acid .
      • Energy released much less than aerobic respiration.
      • When acid lactic concentration reach high level causing muscular cramps and fatigue.
      • Body need to rest and recover.
      • Getting rid of lactic acid:
        • Lactic acid has to be oxidised to CO 2 and water after exercise but this step requires O 2 .
        • Extra O 2 is absorbed from the air we breath in.
        • Oxygen debt is the amount of O 2 needed to remove the lactic acid from the muscle cells .
        • This is why we breath heavily after strenuous exercise.
      • Oxidation of lactic acid occurs in liver.
      • Oxygen debt is said to “have been paid” when all lactic acid has been eliminated through increased breathing.
    • Anaerobic respiration in yeast
      • Produces ethanol .
      • Process known as fermentation and catalyzed by enzyme zymase .
      • Application:
        • Wine and beer production (production of ethanol)
        • Bread making (CO 2 causes dough to rise)
    • Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic respiration