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  1. 1. 7.1 The Respiratory Process in energy Production
  2. 2. What is Respiration? <ul><li>Respiration refers to the process of obtaining oxygen and delivering it to the cells for cellular respiration and removing carbon dioxide produced by the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in two main stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases between the respiratory surfaces of an organism and its environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal respiration (cellular respiration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cells. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Energy requirement in living process <ul><li>Energy required in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active transport of biochemical substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of nerve impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of new protoplasm for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat released during cellular respiration helps maintain body temperature. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the main substrate to produce energy? <ul><li>Glucose. </li></ul>How is the chemical energy stored within glucose made available to living cells? <ul><li>The energy is released during cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of cellular respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AE robic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANAE robic respiration </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Aerobic respiration <ul><li>Requires continuous supply of oxygen which is obtained from the air during external respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in mitochondria in cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary for aerobic respiration: </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 2898 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>Release all available energy stored in glucose molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 and H 2 O are produced as waste products. </li></ul>glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water energy
  6. 6. <ul><li>Energy released is used to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine triphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP acts as an instant sources of energy which drives cellular processes as and when needed . </li></ul><ul><li>ATP consists of phosphate bonds which can be easily broken down to release energy when required by the body. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>How do cells overcome the shortfall in oxygen supply? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells undergo ana erobic respiration, a process in which the cells continue to generate ATP without utilizing oxygen. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Anaerobic respiration <ul><li>Organisms that respire anaerobically known as anaerobes . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: bacteria, yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary anaerobic respiration may occur in our own body in the fast working skeletal muscles, as in fast running, walking, swimming etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Anaerobic respiration in human muscles <ul><li>During vigorous activity, blood cannot supply enough oxygen to meet demand for ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles are in a state of oxygen deficiency and said to incur oxygen debt and obtain extra energy from anaerobic respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose molecules break down partially into intermediate substance called lactic acid . </li></ul><ul><li>Energy released much less than aerobic respiration. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>When acid lactic concentration reach high level causing muscular cramps and fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>Body need to rest and recover. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting rid of lactic acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid has to be oxidised to CO 2 and water after exercise but this step requires O 2 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra O 2 is absorbed from the air we breath in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen debt is the amount of O 2 needed to remove the lactic acid from the muscle cells . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is why we breath heavily after strenuous exercise. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Oxidation of lactic acid occurs in liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen debt is said to “have been paid” when all lactic acid has been eliminated through increased breathing. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Anaerobic respiration in yeast <ul><li>Produces ethanol . </li></ul><ul><li>Process known as fermentation and catalyzed by enzyme zymase . </li></ul><ul><li>Application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wine and beer production (production of ethanol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread making (CO 2 causes dough to rise) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic respiration