What is meiosis? The process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number of chromosomes in parent cell. 2n (diploid) [parent cell] n (diploid) [new cell]
Necessity of trait inheritance SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Involves: Fusion of TWO haploid gametes Results in : Formation of a DIPLOID zygote. Means: Offspring (child) will inherit traits from both parents to continue life. n n 2n
The Significance of MEIOSIS Sexual reproduction leads to genetic variation among the offspring. Meiosis makes genetic variations possible in three ways: Cross-over Reduction and fusion of gametes Independent (random) assortment
Where does Meiosis Takes Place? Human Testes (male) Ovaries (female) Plant Anthers Ovaries Flowers
Stages of MEIOSIS Consists of TWO separate divisions:
Begins with single diploid parent cell.
Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anapphase I, Telophase I
At the end, four haploid daughter cells produced.
Prophase II, Metaphase II ,Anaphase II, Telophase II
MEIOSIS I MEIOSIS II
5.2 SELF TEST 1) _________ cells contain two copies of each chromosome. a) haploid b) diploid c) aneuploid d) homologous 2) In general, gametes are ___________ and somatic cells are ____________. a) diploid, haploid b) haploid, diploid c) diploid, diploid d) haploid, haploid
3) Pairs of matching chromosomes are termed ______________, and each member of the pair is called a _____________. a) paired, haploid b) diploid, haploid c) homologous chromosomes, homolog d) homolog, homologous chromosomes 4) Which of the following represent the correct sequence of steps in meiosis? a) telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase b) anaphase, metaphase, telophase, prophase c) prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase d) metaphase, anaphase, prophase, telophase
5) What structures separate from one another during meiosis I? a) sister chromatids b) homologous chromosomes c) centromeres d) Synapsis 6) During what stage of meiosis I does synapsis occur? a) prophase b) metaphase c) anaphase d) telophase
7) During what stage of meiosis I does crossing over occur? a) prophase b) metaphase c) anaphase d) telophase 8) Human males have a) 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes b) 22 pairs of sex chromosomes and 1 pair of autosomes c) 22 pairs of autosomes, one X chromosome and one Y chromosome d) 1 pair of autosomes and two X chromosomes
9) State fivesimilarities and fivedifferences between mitosis and meiosis. Similarities 1. Both involve cell divisions 2. Both start from diploid cells 3. Chromosomes duplicate only once 4. Both involve the separation of chromatids in anaphase of mitosis and in anaphase II 5. Both follow similar phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.