პატრიარქატი_და_ნაციონალურისა_ზოგადოება

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\’qaluri_homoseqsualoba_patriarqati_da_nacionaluri_sazogadoeba პატრიარქატიდანაციონალურისაზოგადოება

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პატრიარქატი_და_ნაციონალურისა_ზოგადოება

  1. 1. feministuri biblioTeka qaluri homoseqsualoba, patriarqati da nacionaluri sazogadoeba iren daioli Sesavali qaluri homoseqsualoba iSviaTad aRiqmeba patriarqaluri wyobis mxridan potenciur safrTxed. igi, rogorc ori arasubieqtis kavSiri, advilad inacvlebs uxilav sferoSi. gana SeiZleba ori qali arsebobdes da urTierTobdes maTi energiis mapolarizebeli faqtoris, mamris gareSe? ZiriTadad qaluri homoseqsualobis gageba maskulinur kategoriebze dayrdnobiT xdeba. miiCneva, rom urTierToba xorcieldeba wyvilis erT-erTi mxaris mier maskulinobis miTvisebis xarjze, maSin roca meore iTavsebs qalur, pasiur rols. homoseqsualuri urTierTobis amgvari interpretacia, gansazRvravs mas, rogorc patriarqalur sistemaSi aRmocenebul protests da reaqcias amave sistemis mimarT. gamodis rom mamri mxolod zedapirulad aris gamoricxuli, realurad ki am saxis urTierTobaSicAaris SenarCunebuli maskulinobis principi, Tan ara mxolod SenarCunebulia, aramed sayrden da ganmsazRvrel faqtorad gvevlineba... amitom am perspeqtiviT ganxiluli qaluri homoseqsualoba aranair safrTxes ar uqmnis patriarqalur wyobas, is aris mxolod gamonaklisi, romelic kidev erTxel adasturebs qalisa da mamakacis ierarqiuli urTierTmimarTebis wess. esses mizans amgvari aRqmis kritika warmoadgens. pirvel rigSi igi kiTxvis niSnis qveS svams im daSvebas, rom qaluri homoseqsualobis principi mamakacuri prerogativebis uzurpaciaSi mdgomareobs da surs daamtkicos, rom homoseqsualuri kavSiri or qals Soris ki ar ireklavs an iRebs, aramed erTgvar gamowvevasac ki ucxadebs urTierTobis diqotomiur, winaswargansazRvrul rolebze awyobil ierarqiul models. es modeli, Tavis mxriv patriarqaluri sazogadoebis struqturis mTavari sayrdenia, urTierTobis erTaderT legitimur da “bunebriv” principad aRiqmeba da rogorc wesi, aranair ganxilvas ar eqvemdebareba. misi kiTxvis niSnis qveS dasma patriarqaluri faseulobebis mTels wyebas ayenebs safrTxis winaSe. amitom qalisa da mamakacis homoseqsualobis am WrilSi gaazreba, am movlenas warmogvidgens, rogorc erTgvar socialur praqtikas, romlis analizs SeuZlia didi daxmareba gagviwios ierarqiuli sazogadoebrivi struqturebis rRvevaSi. es rom asea gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans, roca genderuli rolebisa da nacionaluri ideologiis urTierTmimarTebas vakvirdebiT. homoseqsualoba safrTxes uqmnis sazogadoebis patriarqalur models da nacionalur homogenurobas. nacionalur sazogadoebas homoseqsuali da feministi eris erT-erT yvelaze saSiS moRalated
  2. 2. qaluri homoseqsualoba, patriarqati da nacionaluri sazogadoeba iren daioli esaxeba. homoseqsuali ver Tavsdeba genderuli rolebis iseT nacionalur ritorikaSi, rogoricaa jariskacis da dedis roli... amas garda homoseqsuali wyvilis arsebobas, interpersonaluri da sociluri urTierTobebis modelebis pluralurobis aRiarebamde mivyavarT. xdeba genderuli rolebis kodifikaciis, kacisa da qalis diqotomiur-ierarqiuli urTierTmimarTebis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dayeneba. es ki safrTxes uqmnis mTels im ierarqiul struqtirebs romlebzedac daSenebulia nacionaluri sazogadoebis modeli. qaluri homoseqsualobis patriarqaluri interpretaciebi patriarqalur cnobierebis farglebSi, qali mxolod kacTan mimarTebaSi arsebobs, da arsebobs imdenad, ramdenadac masze dakisrebul specifiur funqciebs asrulebs. qalis arseboba am CarCos miRma an qmedeba, romelic scdeba dadgenil zRvrebs, partiarqaluri azrovnebisTvis konceptualur donezec ki problematuria. raTa raRac axsna moeZebnaT imisTvis, rac patriarqalur konteqstSi yovelgvar azrs moklebulia, qaluri homoseqsualobis interpretieba isev maskulinobasTan referirebis gziT moaxdines. misi gaazreba moxda, rogorc kacis imitirebis, mamkacebis prerogativebis miTvisebis survili, an rogorc ajanyeba patriarqatis winaaRmdeg. fsiqoanalizma kidev ufro gaamyara mosazreba imis Sesaxeb rom lesbosels “surs iyos kaci”. froidis mixedviT qaluri homoseqsualobis safuZveli swored am maskulinobis kompleqsSia. wyvili xom imTaviTve moiazreba, erTobad, romelic Sedgeba erTi aqtiuri wevrisgan, anu mamakacisgan, da meore pasiuri, ukmari seqsualuri ganviTarebis mqone wevrisgan, anu qalisgan. amitom iTvleba, rom homoseqsualuri wyvilic am CarCoSi moqmedebs da axdens kacisa da qalis, an deda- Svilis urTierTobis producirebas. es sakmaod didi gavlenis mqone ganacxadi, uaryofs urTierTobis raime sxva modelebis arsebobis SesaZleblobas, da dayavs isini reproduqciuli procesisTvis saWiro or sabaziso erTeulamde. sadac qali ganekuTvneba bunebis sferos da mowyvetilia socialur sferos. interpretacia, romelic aseT rolur gadanawilebazea dafuZnebuli, imTaviTve gamoricxavs or qals Soris interaqcias. ara mxolod patriarqaluri azrovnebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebali homoseqsualobis, rogorc legitimuri socialuri praqtikis uaryofa. feminizmic, tradiciulad lesboselobas, rezistentulobis gamovlinebad miiCnevs. magaliTad, erTerTi klasikuri feministuri teqsti, simon de bovuaris “meore sqesi”, marTalia upirispirdeba ierarqiul binarulobas, magram qalur homoseqsualobas gansazRvravs, rogorc ajanyebas dadgenili normebis winaaRmdeg, an rogorc seqsualurobis da feminurobis SiSiT gamowveul movlenas. bovuaris mixedviT seqsualuri interesi meore qalis mimarT kidev ufro uwyobs xels qalis pasiurobas da mis seqsualur obieqtad aRiarebas. WeSmaritad aqtori qali, misi azriT daupirispirdeboda mamakacs, da mas aqcevda seqsualur obieqtad. lesboseli ki itanjeba imiT, rom ver axdens Tavisi feminuri potencialis realizacias, mas surs iyos “sruli da 2
  3. 3. qaluri homoseqsualoba, patriarqati da nacionaluri sazogadoeba iren daioli normaluri” (normal and complete) magram ar SeuZlia mamakacTan urTierToba. sabolood bovuaris interpretacia didad ar scdeba froidiseuls, misTvisac lesboseloba aris erTgvari gaqceva, problemis gadaWris gza. xolo Tavad problemas da homoseqsualuri kavSiris saTaves kvlav qalisa da mamakacis urTierTobaSi eZebs. genderuli rolebi da nacionalizmi patriarqaluri falocentruli azrovnebisTvis or qals Soris urTierToba, sadac mamakaci gamoricxulia, ver aRiqmeba seriozul sakiTxad. qristianul moZRvrebaSic, romelic sakmaod mkacria qalis mimarT, qaluri homoseqsualoba ignorirebulia. qali mamakacisTvis arsebobs, amitom qalis morali ganisazRvreba imis mixedviT Tu rogor eqceva igi Tavis qmars, aqedan gamomdinare qalis codvebis Sinaarsic mamakacis Rirsebis sakiTxTanaa dakavSirebuli. samarTalic religiis paralelurad gaviTarda. avtoritarul konservatorul saxelmwifoebSi, sadac kacis homoseqsualoba kriminalizebulia, lesboseloba iSviaTad eqceva yuradRebis centrSi. magaliTad Tanamedrove xorvatiaSi, ultrakonservatoruli reaqciebis da reseqsualizaciis politikis miuxedavad, represiuli emfatika qalebis mimarT ufro feminizmiskenaa mimarTuli vidre alternatiuli seqsualuri praqtikebisken. lesboseloba kriminalizebuli ar aris. roca qalis homoseqsualobas vaRiarebT, rogorc socialur praqtikas amas e.w. “homo-sociumis” cnebamde mivyavarT, sadac yuradReba ara mxolod seqsualur qcevaze maxvildeba, aramed mTels socialur qselze da iseT sakiTxebze; rogoricaa myari wyvilis formireba, ojaxuri urTierTobebi da sxva... es ki did safrTxes uqmnis nacionalur sazogadoebas, radgan nacionaluri sazogadoebis simyaris SenarCunebaSi qalis rols sakmaod didi mniSvlneloba aqvs. qalis sxeuli ar aris mxolod misi an romelime konkretuli mamakacis sakuTreba, is sazogado sakuTrebaa.Epersonalur sivrces ki ar warmoadgens, aramed socialuri teritoriaa, romelic SeiZleba da unda iqnes gamoyenebuli da danawilebuli mamakacebis mier. rogorc frendlendi ambobs, qali aris uZvelesi valuta. socializaciis patriarqaluri modeli qalisgan konkurenciis reJimSi yofnas moiTxovs, romelic dominantur klasTan aliansze, anu mamakacTan daaxloebazea damyarebuli. aseTi sazogadoeba, bunebrivia safrTxis winaSe dgeba, roca qalebi eqskluziur socialur kavSirs qmnian. maT vinc ar isurva mamakacTan aliansi, gamoeTiSa am reJims, interesi sakuTari sqesisken mimarTa da Sinaganad aRiara Tavi subieqtad. amgvarad homoseqsualuri wyvili simbolurad emijneba patriarqats. qalebi, romlebic daqvemdebarebul poziciaSi iyvnen, aarseben alternatiul sazogadoebas, sadac isini damoukidebel subieqtebs warmoadgenen da sadac qalis sxeuli ukve aRar aris “mamakacis teritoria”. miuxedavad imisa rom nacionalur sazogadoebaSi qalebi gariyulni arian socialuri sferodan, maTi roli sazogadoebis struqturuli mdgradobis SenarCunebaSi Zalian didia. mTavari amocana romelic aseT sazogadoebaSi ekisreba qals, es aris 3
  4. 4. qaluri homoseqsualoba, patriarqati da nacionaluri sazogadoeba iren daioli reproduqcia, rogorc biologiur, aseve simbolur da ideologiur doneze. qalis funqcia eTnikur sazogadoebaSi SeiZleba ase Sejamdes: biologiuri reproduqcia, anu eris gagrZelebis da uwyvetobis uzrunvelyofa; ideologiuri reproduqcia, roca xdeba erovnuli ideologiis da moralis gavrceleba da ganmtkiceba, rogorc sakuTari qceviT aseve vaJebisa da qaliSvilebis Sesabamisi aRzrdiTa da ganaTlebiT; SezRudvebis reproduqcia, aq maxvili keTdeba reproduqciis procesis e.w. sisufTaveze, romelSic erovnuli aRrevisgan Tavis Sekaveba igulisxmeba. aseTi aqcenti reproduqciaze TavisTavad zRudavs qalis seqsualobas da sanqcirebuls xdis mis sxeuls, rogorc sazogadoebis legitimaciis mTavar wyaros. qalis gaupatiureba eris fizikur dasustebas da simbolur wabilwvas niSnavs, albaT amiT aixsneba, rom mas rogorc mtris dakninebis erTerT efeqtur xerxs, xSirad mimarTaven eTnikuri omebis dros. monik vitigis gancxadeba: “lesboselebi ar arian qalebi” zemoT aRweril konteqstSi unda gaviazroT. aq igulisxmeba rom qalis arsi am sazogadoebis mier masze dakisrebul funqciebSi mdgomareobs da swored es funqciebi gansazRvraven mas rogorc qals. am gagebiT is qalebi, romlebic homoseqsualur kavSirs amyareben da zemoTxsenebul funqciebs ar iTavseben, aRarc arian qalebi... maSinac ki roca maT yavT Svilebi, isini ar Seesatyvisebian dedobis idealizebul gagebas. dauqorwinebel qals ar aqvs adgili aseT sociumSi, is daibrunebs am adgils, mxolod saqorwino kontraqtze xelis moweris Sedegad, roca gadava ojaxis Tavkacis xelSi, romelic SeiTavsebs mediatoris rols pirad da sazogado sferoebs Soris, gaakontrolebs mas sazogadoebis saxeliT da mis sxeuls rogorc koleqtiur sivrces, rogorc socialur teritorias, patriarqaluri Rirebulebebisa da ideologiis gamtarad aqcevs. marTalia qalis sxeulze kontrolis dakargva asustebs nacionalizms, magram amaze did safrTxes misTvis mainc ierarqiuli binarulobis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dayeneba warmoadgens. nacionaluri ideologia or debulebas efuZneba: 1. binarul kategorizacias, romelic mamrobiTisa da mdedrobiTs, fsiqoanalizis doneze me-sa da sxvas, xolo politikur doneze dominantisa da daqvemdebarebulis dapirispirebaSi mdgomareobs. 2. eWvgareSe da kiTxvadausmeli ierarqiuli urTierTmimarTebas am kategoriebs Soris. rogorc rada ivekoviCi aRniSnavs genderuli kodebi da ierarqiuli binaruloba nacionalizmis birTvuli elementebia, radgan masze dayrdnobiT da misi analogiiT xdebas rasobrivi, klasobrivi Tu sxva saxis ierarqiebis ageba, sadac erTi dominantia, meore ki daqvemdebarebuli, sadac “sxva” dakninebuli da damcirebulia. es kargad vlindeba eTnikuri omebis dros, roca Zaladoba genderulad gansazRvrulia, da msxverpli avtomaturad feminuri maxasiaTeblebis matarebeli xdeba, maSin roca dominant mxares maskulinur Tvisebebs miaweren. meores mxriv ivan ivekoviCi balkaneTis neo-patriarqaluri reJimis magaliTze, paralelebs avlebs da analogiebs poulobs eTnikuri umciresobebisa da qalebis mimarT damokidebulebaSi da aCvenebs, rom iq qalebi, iseve rogorc sxvasxva umciresobaTa jgufebi, mTlianad gariyulni arian sazogadoebrivi sferodan. 4
  5. 5. qaluri homoseqsualoba, patriarqati da nacionaluri sazogadoeba iren daioli roca nacionalizmis erotikul maxasiaTeblebs vakvirdebiT, da im binarul sistemas, romelic nacionalur ideologias efuZneba, aSkara xdeba rom homoseqsualoba, mTlianad eWvqveS ayenebs am sistemis ucvlel, bunebriv Tu uryev xasiaTs. amitom igi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes, rogorc instrumenti ideologiuri Tu socialuri homogenurobis dasaZlevad da pluralizmis dasamkvidreblad socialur sferoSi. daskvna: socialuri struqturebis rRveva (queering) patriarqaluri sistemebis funqcionireba xdeba qalis winaswargansazRvruli feminuri modelis meSveobiT, romelic gulisxmobs xistad dadgenil funqciebs da ar rTavs maT sazogadoebriv sferoSi rogorc avtonomiur individebs. is ierarqia, romelic pirad sferoSia gamefebuli koleqtivis struqturalur models warmoadgens. nebismieri urTierToba, romelic ar aris am models morgebuli tovebs sivrces potenciurad Tanabari da ara prekodificirebuli interaqciisTvis. homoseqsualuri urTierTobis dros qali ar aris SezRuduli sakuTari anatomiiT da winaswargansazRvruli roliT, rogorc patriarqaluri wyoba moiTxovs amas. Tavad erTi sqesis warmomadgenlebs Soris urTierTobis idea, aTavisuflebs adamians savaldebulo anatomiur safuZvelze agebuli bediswerisgan. SeiZleba zogierTi homoseqsuali wyvili marTlac axdens tradiciuli rolebis imitirebas, magram TviTon faqti, rom es rolebi SegiZlia miiRo an uaryo, ganaxorcielo Sens yoveldRiur yofaSi an ubralod ignorireba gaukeTo maT, ukve axdens genderis performaciuli xasiaTis demonstrirebas da gasaqans aZlevs individulur arCevans. homoseqsualobis dekonstruqciuli potencia swored am rolebis pirobiTobis demostrirebaSi da sqesis ierarqiuli diqotomiis gabaTilebaSi mdgomareobs. xolo sqesobrivi stratifikacia aris sxva ierarqiuli daSrevebis safuZvelic, amitom misi kiTxvis qveS dasma safrTxes uqmnis rasobriv, erTnikur da klasobriv dayofasac. fuko sqess Zalauflebis WrilSi ganixilavs. TviTon Zalauflebac SeiZleba ganvixiloT sqesobrivi kuTxiT da farda avxadoT socialuri uTanasworobis genderul safuZvlebs. Tu miviRebT gansxvavebuls, da davicavT imis uflebas, rom iyo gansxvavebuli genderuli identobis Tu seqsualuri orientaciis sakiTxebSi, Tu gabaTildeba warmodgena qalis mamakacze damokidebulebis Sesaxeb, sqesi da genderi SeiZleba diskriminaciis instrumentebidan, socialuri pluralizaciis instrumentebad iqces. qalur homoseqsualoba marTalia konceptualur doneze, magram mainc cvlilebas uqvemdebarebs TiTqosda ucvlel avtoritaruli da ierarqiuli socialuri struqturebs da am gziT wvlili Seaqvs maT rRvevaSi da gviCvenebs socialuri da interpersonaluri urTierTobebis mravalferovnebis SesaZleblobas. inglisuridan Targmna nino xarCilavam 5

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