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heteroseqsualobis_dekonstruqcia ჰეტეროსექსუალობისდეკონსტრუქცია

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Transcript of "heteroseqsualobis_dekonstruqcia_"

  1. 1. feministuri biblioTeka heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia feministuri socialur-konsrtuqtivistuli analizi selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni heteroseqsualoba damkvidrebuli da dakanonebulia rogorc yofnis bunebrivi da normaluri forma, romlis legitimaciac biologiur da mecnierul argumentebze dayrdnobiT xdeba (Kitzinger, 1988.1995). miuxedavad imisa, rom heteroseqsulobis zogi gamovlineba sagangaSod iTvleba da misi zogierTi aspeqti kvlevis sagans warmoadgens, uSualod heteroseqsualoba iSviaTad xdeba debatebis obieqti. akademiur disciplinebsa da feministur TeoriaSi heteroseqsualoba umeteswilad ganixileba, rogorc mocemuloba. eqsplicituri mimarTva “heteroseqsuali”, iseTive iSviaTia, rogorc mimarTva “TeTrkaniani”, “mamakaci” an “SeuzRudavi SesaZleblobis mqone”. heteroseqsualoba warmoadgens erT-erT mniSvnelovan konstruqts, romelic xazs usvams genderul dayofas. TviTon terminic Tavisi definiciiT am dayofis amsaxvelia. “hetero” niSnavs “sxvas”, “gansxvavebuls”, heteroseqsualoba ki gulisxmobs erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebulebis urTierTobas, mamakacisas qalTan, an qalisa mamakacTan. ra Tqma unda, garda sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulebisa, bevri sxva Tvisebac arsebobs, rac adamianebs erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs da am logikiT heteroseqsualobis mniSvneloba SeiZleba aRviqvaT, rogorc seqsualuri kavSiri rasobrivi, socio-ekonomikuri, eTnikuri, religiuri Tu sxva niSniT gansxvavebul adamianebs Soris, magram heteroseqsualoba xazs usvams qalisa da mamakacis “gansxvavebulobas” da swored am “fundamenturi” gansxvavebis, genderuli dayofis markirebas axdens. dekadaze meti ar gasula, rac adrian riCis statia “savaldebulo heteroseqsualoba da lesbosuri arseboba” daiwera. rogorc edrian riCi ambobs: “statiis mizania, Seavsos is sicariele, rac feministur samecniero literaturaSi arsebobs, romlidanac gamoricxulia lesbosuri arseboba da rac, rogorc megona (da dRemde mgonia), ara mxolod antilesbosuria, aramed antifeministuric aris, Tu Sedegebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, radgan es heteroseqsuali qalis gamocdilebis damaxinjebasac iwvevs. statiis mizani ar aris gansxvavebebis xazgasma. igi daiwera imisTvis, rom Tavad heteroseqsuali
  2. 2. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni feministebis mier moxdes heteroseqsualobis, rogorc politikuri instituciis ganxilvis stimulireba - politikuri instituciisa, romelic xels uwyobs Zalauflebis CamoSorebas qalisgan da SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros cvlilebas. minda, feministebma mainc ar weron da ikiTxon eWvSeuvali heterocentristuli gadmosaxedidan.” (Rich, 1980:633) riCis azriT, heteroseqsualobis uryev mocemulobad aRqma xels uSlis im Zaladobrivi gzebis gamovlenas, romlis meSveobiTac xdeba heteroseqsualobis Tavs moxveva. es gzebi xSirad faruli an aSkara ZaladobiT xasiaTdeba. riCis mier warmodgenili CamonaTvalidan magaliTisTvis ramodenimes SemogTavazebT: heteroseqsualuri romantikis idealizacia, gaupatiureba, pornografia, lesboseli qalebisTvis Svilebis warTmeva sasamarTlos gziT, seqsualuri zewola, colis ekonomikuri damokidebuleba qmarze, lesbosuri arsebobis ugulebelyofa istoriasa da kulturaSi. edrian riCis azriT, “heteroseqsualobaze, rogorc mocemulobaze saubari da daSveba im azrisa, rom “qalTa umravlesoba heteroseqsualia” aferxebs feminizmis ganviTarebas rogorc Teoriuli, aseve politikuri TvalsazrisiT. mosazreba “qalTa umravlesobis heteroseqsualobis” Sesaxeb arc ise uryevia…Tu davuSvebT, rom heteroseqsualoba SeiZleba iyos ara qalis arCevani, aramed Tavsmoxveuli propagandis an Zaldatanebis Sedegi da qali TviTon SeiZleba sulac ar aniWebdes upiratesobas urTierTobis am formas. es daSveba warmoadgens did nabijs imis gacnobierebisken, xar Tu ara Tavisufali, namdvili, nebayoflobiTi heteroseqsuali.…am nabijis gadadgma da heteroseqsualobis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dasma ki heteroseqsuali feministebis mxridan erTi mxriv, did gambedaobas, meore mxriv ki, did inteleqtualur da emociur muSaobas moiTxovs.” (Rich, 1980: 633) aqamde feministebi adekvaturad ver gamoexmaurnen riCis mier wamoyenebul zemoxsenebul sakiTxebs. ar momxdara heteroseqsualobis Teoriuli damuSaveba da maT SromebSi jer kidev SenarCunebulia miTi heteroseqsualobis TavisTavadobisa da bunebriobis Sesaxeb. am TavSi Cven (araheteroseqsualebi) SevexebiT im gamocdilebas, romelic miviReT saerTaSoriso Jurnalis, “feminizmi da fsiqologia” heteroseqsualobis Temisadmi miZRvnili specialuri gamoSvebis gamocemisas. lesboselobaze mTeli rigi specialuri gamoSvebebiT Tavmobezrebulebma (Feminist Review, Sighs, Feminist Art News 3 5 1990, Textual practice 4 (2), 1990) gadavwyviteT, Segvebrunebina maTi Sida politika da fokusireba mogvexdina heteroseqsualobaze. Cven viTxovdiT statiebs iseT sakiTxebze, rogoricaa magaliTad: 2
  3. 3. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni 1. ras warmoadgens heteroseqsualoba da ratom aris is miRebuli forma? 2. ratom aris aseTi rTuli heteroseqsualebisTvis maTi seqsualuri orientaciis Secvla? 3. ra aris heteroseqsuluri seqsis arsi? 4. ra gavlenas axdens heteroseqsualuri qceva qalis cxovrebaze, mis TviTaRqmaze, urTierTobaze sxva qalebTan da politikur saqmianobaze? reaqciebma am kiTxvebze (romelic zogjer mxiarulebas iwvevda, magram xSirad SiSsa da mtrul damokidebulebaSic gadadioda) da pasuxebma, romlebic maTze miviReT am TemiT seriozulad dainteresebuli qalebis mier gamogzavnil statiebSi, rogorc Jurnalis specialuri gamoSvebisTvis, aseve mogvianebiT gamocemuli wignisTvis, kidev erTxel dagvanaxa heteroseqsualobis Teoriuli damuSavebis aucilebloba. davrwmundiT, rom heteroseqsualobis mimarTac aris saWiro yuradRebis gamoCena im doziT, ra doziTac es lesboselebisa da homoseqsuali mamakacebis TemasTan dakavSirebiT xdeboda bolo 100 wlis ganmavlobaSi. socialur-konstruqtivistul midgomas heteroseqsualobis mimarT, gansakuTrebiT feministuri perspeqtividan, bevris SemoTavazeba SeuZlia. socialur-konstruqtivistuli Teoriis gaviTarebam (mogvianebiT postmodernistulma da qvier Teoriam) didi gavlena moaxdina lesboselobasa da homoseqsual mamakacebTan dakavSirebul kvlevebze sxvadasxva disciplinis farglebSi. socialur mecnierebebSi mniSvnelovania simonis, gagnonisa (1967) da makintoSis (1968) naSromebi. maT homoseqsualobis mizezebis kvlevisa da gankurnebis gzebis Ziebisgan yuradReba gadaitanes iseT sakiTxebze, rogoricaa sociumis mier “homoseqsualis” konstruireba, am terminis mniSvnelobasa da homoseqsualis cnebasTan dakavSirebuli definiciebi. Semdgom kvlevebSi yuradReba gamaxvilda termin “homoseqsualis” ganviTarebis istoriaze (Weeks 1977,1981), socialuri gamoyenebis im gzebze, romlebsac es terminebi sxvadasxva kulturebSi poulobs (Plummer, 1981.1992) da im gzebze, romliTac individebi “lesboselis” an “geis” identobis konstruirebas axdenen socialur konteqstSi (Hart and Richarson. 1981: Kitzinger, 1987: Stein, 1990). Tuki aqamde seqsualuri gamocdileba da seqsualuri “praqtika” aerTianebda geebsa da lesboselebs adamianTa jgufSi garkveuli “seqsualuri orientaciiT”, axla pirovnebis da misi TviTgamoxatvis kavSiri seqsualobasTan ufro Sesustebulia, pirovnebis konceptualizacia xdeba rogorc performaciisa, subieqtisa, romlis identoba Sedgeba garkveuli qmedebebis performirebisgan, romelic an mihyveba socialurad konstruirebul scenars an arRvevs mas. (Butles 1990, 1993, Sedgwick 1990, 1994) imis nacvlad, rom ikvlion “simarTle” “homoseqsualebsa” da “lesboselebze”, Tanamedrove socialuri mecnierebebi interesedebian diskursuli praqtikebiT, naratiuli formebiT, socialuri da politikuri konteqstiT, romlis meSveobiTac da 3
  4. 4. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni romelSic xdeba “homoseqsualisa” da “lesboselis” warmoeba da kvlavwarmoeba (Kitzinger and Wilkinso. 1993b: Plummer. 1992). miuxedavad imisa, rom arsebobs kvlevebi, sadac warmodgenilia “lesboselisa” da “geis”, rogorc socialuri konstruqtis analizi, msgavsi analizi heteroseqsualobis socialurad konstruirebuli bunebis Sesaxeb ar mogvepoveba. tipuri viqtimizaciis xerxiT, mecnieruli interesis fokusSi gamudmebiT eqceva homoseqsualoba da ara heteroseqsualoba. socialur mecnierebebSi kiTxvebi yovelTvis homoseqsualis da ara heteroseqsualis cxovrebis stilTan dakavSirebiT Cndeba. aanalizeben homoseqsualobis problemebs, xdeba homoseqsualTa arsebobis problematizireba (Kitzinger and Coyle, 1995). amasTan dakavSirebiT, zogi aqtivisti acxadebda, rom “siyvaruli, romelic sakuTari saxeliT ver laparakobs”, dadumebulia ara mxolod Ria diskriminaciis da Cagvris Sedegad, aramed im mecnieruli midgomebis wyalobiT, romlebic amtkicebs, rom es saxeli istoriulad da socialurad konstruirebulia, meryevi, fragmentuli da aramdgradia, rom es saxeli, judiT batleris sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, “aCrdils” warmoadgens. postmodernisti da post-lesboseli avtorebi ukuagdeben iseT “esencialistur” lozungebs, rogoricaa “moxaruli var rom gei var”, an “yvela qals SeuZlia, gaxdes lesboseli” da es ukugdeba xdeba im radikaluri eWvis niadagze, romelic saerTod ramed “yofnas” ayenebs kiTxvis niSnis qveS. postmodernisti qvier Teoretikosi judiT batleri ambobs: “politikur viTarebaSi lesboselis niSniT rom aRmovCeniliyavi, gamudmebiT Sevecdebodi imis gabundovanebas, rasac es niSani aRniSnavs” (Butler, 1991:14). magram paralelurad arsebobs mosazreba, rom politikuri TvalsazrisiT aucilebelia, lesboselma da geim TviTsaxeldeba moaxdinon: “Cven davemorCilebiT dekonstruqcias, roca isini daemorCilebian dekonstruqcias”, acxadeben postmodernizmisa da qvier Teoriis oponentebi. (macDonald, 1990:89). socialuri konstruqtivistebi (postmodernistebi da qvier Teoretikosebi) amboben, rom “homoseqsualobis dekonstruqcia heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqciasac gulisxmobs” (Plummer, 1992:14). marTlac, bevri naSromi, romelic homoseqsualobis Temas exeba da ganixilavs mas, rogorc konstruirebul “deviacias”, “alternativas”, “variacias”, gulisxmobs heteroseqsualobis, rogorc konstruirebuli “normis” gagebasac. miuxedavad amisa, es xedva, romelic am naSromebSia nagulisxmevi, iSviaTad poulobs saTanado ganviTarebas, da masze ar xdeba fokusireba kvlevebSi. amjerad heteroseqsualobaze arsebuli naSromebi mcire, magram mzard sxeuls warmoadgenen. maTSi gamoyenebulia is analitikur xerxebi da cnebebi, romlebic homoseqsualobasa da normatul seqsualobebze Catarebul socialur-konstruqtivistul da postmodernistul SromebSi Camoyalibda. isini win wamoweven iseT kiTxvebs, rogoricaa: ”rogoria “heteroseqsualobis”, rogorc kategoriis ganviTarebis istoria?”; “riTi gansxvavdeba sxvadasxva istoriul da kulturul garemocvaSi heteroseqsualobis konstruireba?”; “rogor xdeba heteroseqsualobis warmoeba da kvlavwarmoeba 4
  5. 5. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni sxvadasxva socialur da politikur konteqstSi?”; “ras gveubneba heteroseqsualobis socialur da politikur funqciebze heteroseqsualobis iseTi gamovlinebebi, rogoricaa gaupatiureba da sanqciebi heteroseqsualobis winaaRmdeg (vTqvaT, qorwineba sxvadasxva rasis warmomadgenlebs Soris)?”; “rogor xdeba heteroseqsualuri identobis konstruireba?” da a.S. imisaTvis, rom kidev erTxel movaxdinoT am Tematikis politikuri da Teoriuli mniSvnelobis xazgasma, Cven SevexebiT im ramdenime sakvanZo sakiTxs, romelic konstruqtivistebma heteroseqsualobasTan dakavSirebiT wamoWres. es gaxlavT heteroseqsualobis Zaladobrivi xasiaTi (coercive nature), heteroseqsualuri TviTidentifikacia, urTierTmimarTeba heteroseqsualur qcevasa da seqsualur identobas Soris. heteroseqsualoba da Zaladoba socialuri konstruqtivizmi daupirispirda homoseqsualobis, rogorc calsaxad individualuri fenomenis gagebas, romelic genebiT, hormonebiT da aracnobieris bneli ZalebiTaa ganpirobebuli. (Kitzinger, 1995b). erTsqesiani seqsualuri kavSirisa da lesbosuri/gei identobis gaazreba moxda, rogorc socialuri fenomenisa, romelic kontrolirebadia socialuri da politikuri Zalebis mier. igive xedva SeiZleba mivusadagoT heteroseqsualobasac. naturalisturi diskursis nacvlad, romelic heteroseqsualobas ganixilavs rogorc bunebrivad gansazRvruls da reproduqciuli moTxovnilebiT, evoluciuri strategiebiT, an qalisa da kacis fiziologiuri sxvaobiT aris axsnili, SeiZleba isic, homoseqsualobis msgavsad, ganvixiloT socialurad ganpirobebul da kontrolirebul fenomenad. Teoretikosebis nawilma heteroseqsualobas “savaldebulo institucia” uwoda, romelSic mamakacebi da (gansakuTrebiT) qalebi ZaldatanebiT arian Cabmulni sxvadasxva Zalebis zemoqmedebiT, rogoricaa, magaliTad, gaupatiureba, bavSvebis qorwineba, seqsualuri zewola, pornografia da ekonomikuri sanqciebi (e.g. Rich, 1980). gansakuTrebiT cxadi da SesamCnevia heteroseqsualobis ZaldatanebiTi xasiaTi imaTTvis, vinc heteroseqsuali ar aris. magram isic unda aRiniSnos, rom xSirad heteroseqsualoba ara Tu “savaldebulo” instituciaa, aramed “akrZaluli” da sanqcirebulia. amis sailustraciod gamodgeba sxvadasxva situaciebi, magaliTad: 13 wlis mozardi, romelic wveulebidan adre unda dabrundes saxlSi; sqesobrivad segregirebuli palatebi saavadmyofoebSi; rasobrivad Sereuli wyvilebi, romlebic socialuri da sakanonmdeblo sanqciebis subieqtebs warmoadgenen. an, magaliTad, daqorwinebuli wyvilebi, mizezTa gamo didi xniT rom uwevT daSoreba: coli, romelic siRaribis gamo didi xniT tovebs qmar-Svils, raTa Sinamosamsaxured imuSaos, an yavis plantaciebSi wavides migrantad; jariskaci, romelsac aSoreben ojaxs da sazRvargareT uSveben 5
  6. 6. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni samxedro bazaze, an mSenebeli, romelsac samuSaod agzavnian Sua aRmosavleTSi. bevri heteroseqsuali TiTqos gamoricxulia heteroseqsualuri institutidan, radgan isini ar Tavsdebian sqesobriv-rolur stereotipebSi (Hunter, 1993), aseve bevrs devnis unarSeuzRudavi sxeulebis pirobiTi momxibvleloba (Appleby, 1993). heteroseqsualobis fenomenologiuri gamocdilebebis es mravalferovneba uCvenebs, magram mainc ver aryevs misi, rogorc “savaldebulo instituciis” statuss, iseve, rogorc saswavleblidan garicxuli calkeuli studentebis gamocdileba an genderuli, klasobrivi da rasobrivi diferenciaciis arseboba ganaTlebis sistemaSi, cvlilebas ver uqvemdebarebs 5-dan 14 wlamde arsebul savaldebulo saganmanaTleblo normas. amis mizezi aris isic, rom ganaTlebis sistemis rRvevis moTxovna (“deschooling society”) (Illich, 1971) ar warmoadgens mTavar problemas daunis sindromiT daavadebuli bavSvis mSoblisTvis, romelic ver Seiyvans mas sasurvel skolaSi, iseve rogor axalgazrda unarSezRuduli qalisTvis ar warmoadgens prioritetul sakiTxs savaldebulo heteroseqsualuri sistema da evgenisturi ideebi qorwinebasa da bavSvis aRzrdaze. (cf. Griffin, 1993). es paraleli aris ilustracia imisa, rom Zaldataneba da valdebuleba, romel sferosac ar unda Seexebodes is, struqturirebulia mravalgvari specifikuri mCagvrelobiTi ZalebiT, rogoricaa magaliTad genderuli, rasobrivi da klasobrivi Cagvra. heteroseqsualobaze weris dros bevri avtori saubrobs im eTnikur da klasobriv fonze, romelSic formirdeboda misi gamocdileba. ebraeli devnili hela belofi (Hella beloff 1993) aRwers mis gamocdilebas londonSi 1940-ian wlebSi da aRniSnavs, rom rogorc misi samuSao, aseve misi seqsualoba misi klasis, eTnikurobisa da warmomavlobis mixedviT formirdeboda. “gansxvaveba qalebs Soris iseTive mniSvnelovania, rogorc gansxvaveba qalsa da mamakacs Soris; nacionaluri, rasobrivi, klasobrivi da asakobrivi dayofebi urTierTmimarTebaSia da gadabmulia genderul dayofasTan”, ambobs is. nira iuval-devisi (Nira Yuval_davis (1993:53) ki acxadebs, rom misi politikuri cnobiereba, romelic israelSi Camoyalibda, verafriT ahyva “iseT feministur politikas, romelic mxolod qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris arsebul gansxvavebas aRiqvams mTavar gamyof xazad”. heteroseqsualoba, rogorc “savaldebulo” institucia, mravalgvarad ganpirobebulia, da imis gaazreba, Tu ra socialuri kontroli xorcieldeba da rogor xdeba heteroseqsualobis menejmenti, aucilebelia heteroseqsualobis funqciebisa da mniSvnelobis gacnobierebisTvis. heteroseqsualobis, rogorc “savaldebulos” aRqma Znelia imaTTvis, visTvisac es valdebuleba siamovnebaa. sasiamovno gamocdileba aRiqmeba, rogorc “Tavisufali arCevani”, (e.g. Roqland, 1993), “TavisTavadi” da “Tandayolili” (e.g. Bartky, 1993). vendi holvei (1993:414-15) wers heteroseqsualuri siamovnebis Sesaxeb: “miyvars, roca Cemi partnioris Zlier mklavebSi var moqceuli. am dros Tavs daculad da usafrTxod vgrZnob.… minda vasiamovno da TviTonac miviRo siamovneba. es aris 6
  7. 7. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni ormxrivi siyvarulis gamovlineba, romelic aZlierebs da amZafrebs vnebas.… me msiamovnebs, roca vgrZnob mis peniss Cems vaginaSi.… savse var seqsualuri surviliT da vxarob, roca SemiZlia viyo aseTi gaxsnili da Tan ase mWidrod dakavSirebuli masTan, roca ar vuwev Tavs kontrols da mexsneba yvelanairi pasuxismgebloba, rasac sxva dros ver ugulebelvyof da ver moviSoreb.” mxolod is faqtori, rom heteroseqsualuri aqti siamovnebis momgvrelia, ar gamoricxavs mis “savaldebulo” xasiaTs iseve, rogorc zog moswavles moswons swavla, magram es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom skolaSi siaruli savaldebulo ar aris. marTlac, sakmaod brZnuli saqcielia, roca swavlob siamovnebis miRebas valdebulebisagan. rogorc brauni (1993) ambobs, siamovneba xSirad atarebs Zalauflebrivi urTierTmimarTebebis maskirebis ideologiur funqcias da mis safarvels warmoadgens. ( ix,, Hollway, 1993,1995:126-30; Kitzinger and Wilkinson, 1994a, 1994c: and Thompson, 1994 momdevno debatebisTvis siamovnebis rolis Sesaxeb.) heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTi” istorikos jonaTan kaczis (1990) mixedviT terminebi “homoseqsuali” da “heteroseqsuali” 1868 wels Seiqmna karl maria kertbenis mier, romelic homoseqsualobis Sesaxeb kanonis ( German sodomy law) reformatori iyo germaniaSi. amave kanonTan dakavSirebiT gvxvdeba pirvelad gamoqveynebuli saxiT “homoseqsuloba” rogorc termini 1869 wels, xolo 11 wlis Semdeg termini “heteroseqsualobac” Cndeba homoseqsualobis dacvasTan dakavSirebul gamoqveynebul teqstSi. 1901 wlidan is mkvidrdeba inglisur enaSi mas Semdeg, rac v.a. niuman doraldi iyenebs Tavis ilustrirebul samedicino leqsikonSi, sadac homoseqsualoba gansazRvrulia, rogorc “normidan gadasuli perversiuli seqsualuri ltolva sapirisiro sqesis mimarT” (Penelope, 1993). heteroseqsualobis koncepti ki mogvianebiT viTardeba dasavlur sazogadoebaSi. aseve mogvianebiT Cndeba terminebi “lesboseli”, “gei”, “inverti”, “safisti” da a.S. ase rom, XIX saukunemde SeuZlebeli iyo “heteroseqsualis” iarliyi mogergo. niSnavs Tu ara es, rom XIX saukunis Sua ricxvebamde “heteroseqsualebi” ar arsebobdnen? es kiTxva gaismis im istorikosebis mosazrebis paralelurad (e.g. Faderman, 1981), romlebic kiTxvis niSnis qveS svamdnen “lesboselis” da “geis” arsebobis sakiTxs, sanam konstruirdeboda “homoseqsuali”, rogorc kategoria. “preistoriuli lesboselis” Ziebis parodirebiT julia penelopi (1993), adreul amerikul piqtogramebs aanalizebs, sadac msgavsi sakiTxebia ilustrirebuli da iq eZebs heteroseqsualobis mtkicebulebebs. is aRniSnavs, rom dResac ki heteroseqsualebi ar fiqroben, rom isini “heteroseqsualebi” arian da bevrma (maT Soris princesa dianam) arc icis am sityvis mniSvneloba. 7
  8. 8. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni xSirad lesboselebi da homoseqsuali mamakacebi amboben, rom maTi pirveli Sexeba am terminebTan “qamin auTTan” iyo dakavSirebuli (cf. Stanley and Wolfe, 1980. Kitzinger, 1987). heteroseqsualebTan iSviaTad gvxvdeba msgavsi gancxadebebi, TiTqos “heteroseqsualoba” maTi identobis mdumare nawilia. (Tumca, ix. rosenilis monacemebi heteroseqsuali qalebis qamin auTis Sesaxeb grinhamSi (Tavi4)). Jurnal “feminizmi da fsiqologiis” specialuri gamoSvebis momzadebis dros mivxvdiT, rom “heteroseqsuali feministebi”, romlebic isurvebdnen “heteroseqsualobaze” weras, TiTqmis ar arseboben. sajarod sakuTari Tavis, rogorc heteroseqsualis TviTidentifikacia cotam Tu moaxdina maSin, roca lesboseli feministebis ricxvi sakmaod didia. rodesac viTxovdiT avtorebs, romlebic Tavs heteroseqsualad Tvlis, sapasuxod miviReT sakmaod gaRizianebuli toniT mowerili werilebi, sadac ambobdnen: saidan iciT, rom heteroseqsualebi varT, an Cven rogor unda ganvsazRvroT varT Tu ara heteroseqsualebi, an ra aris saerTod “heteroseqsualoba”? avtorebi, romelTa mozidvac gvindoda, Seesabamebodnen qcevis im normebs, rac “heteroseqsualobad” aris cnobili. isini daqorwinebulebi arian, aqvT seqsi Tavis qmarTan, da/an sxva mamakacebTan, zrdian bavSvebs maT mamebTan erTad. miuxedavad amisa, identoba heteroseqsualisa (is arsi, rac am iarliys miRma imaleba) sakmaod iSviaTi da “aramdgradia”, amitom heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTi” bevr sirTulesTan aris dakavSirebuli. “ratom miwodebT ase kategoriulad heteroseqsuals?”- wers TeTrkaniani samxreT amerikeli feministi, fsiqologi meri kergeni (is socialur-konstruqtivistisa da fsiqologis kenet gergenis meuRlea): “ratom xarT ase darwmunebulni? imitom rom gaTxovili var? Tu imitom rom Cemi meuRle homoseqsuals ar gavs? iqneb Cems varcxnilobaSi, an fexsacmelebSia saqme, Tu imiT gansazRvravT rasac vambob an ar vambob?... rogor arCeven heteroebs?” (Gergern, 1993:62) sxvebi, rogoricaa rosalin jili da rebeka vokeri (1993:68) aRniSnavdnen, rom “Znelia Tavi heteroseqsual feministebad” miiCnion da rom maTTvis amaze wera “saganmanaTleblo procesia”. robin roulandi (1993):75) ambobs: “me ver vityvi, rom heteroseqsuali var. ver vaxden aseT TviTidentifikacias. Umjobesia, vTqva, rom vimyofebi heteroseqsualur urTierTobaSi.” feministi fsiqologi meri kroufordi (1993:43) aRwers Tavis monogamur qorwinebas, magram sakuTar Tavs uwodebs ara “heteroseqsuals”, aramed “qals, romelmac miiRo gadawyvetileba daemyarebina xangrZlivi sasiyvaruli kavSiri da seqsualuri urTierToba mamakacTan da amis gamo ganixileba heteroseqsualur konteqstSi.” sandra berni (1992a:50) ki aRniSnavs: “miuxedavad imisa, rom 26 welia monogamurad vcxovrob kacTan, romelic miyvars, arc axla da arc arasdros “heteroseqsuali” ar vyofilvar.” 8
  9. 9. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni feministebis diskomforti “heteroseqsualur” identobasTan kontrastSia lesbosur feminizmTan, sadac xazgasmulia lesbosuri identoba. iSviaTad Tu SegxvdebaT Tanamedrove lesboseli feministi, romelic robin roulernis msgavsad acxadebs, rom is sakuTar Tavs lesbosels ar uwodebda, aramed ityoda rom lesbosur urTierTobaSia, an lesbosel feminists, romelic ityvis, rom miuxedavad misi monogamuri Tanacxovrebisa qalTan, romelic 26 weliwadia uyvars, is arc axla da arc arasodes lesboseli ar yofila. aseTi gancxadebebi, rogorc wesi, axasiaTebT im lesboselebs, romlebic feministebi ar arian (cf. Kitzinger, 1887), heteroseqsualur-patriarqaluri struqturis zewolas ganicdian da uaryofen Tavis lesboselobas, an orientacias maTi identobis umniSvnelo nawilad aqceven (magaliTad :”me Semiyvarda adamiani, romelic qali aRmoCnda” an “ lesboseloba mcire nawilia Cemi identobisa, me pirvel rigSi pirovneba var”). magram lesboseli feministebisTvis lesbosuri identoba xazgasmulia da xSirad pirdapir kavSirSia feminizmis definiciasTan. Cven SegviZlia, bevri feministi davasaxeloT, visTvisac swored lesboseloba warmoadgens Zireul nawils Teoriuli naSromebisa da lesbosuri feminizmis perspeqtividan wers. (eg, Allen, 1990, Frye 1990, Hoaland, 1988; Penelope 1987, Wittig 1993) . feministuri moRvaweoba heteroseqsualuri perspeqtividan ufro Zneli warmosadgenia. “heteroseqsualoba” TiTqos Seuracxyofs feminizms da winaaRmdegobaSic ki modis masTan. Cven ver moviZieT kvlevebi, romlebic “heteroseqsualuri” identobis aRiarebis barierebs Seexeboda. Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT erTsqesiani urTierTobis xSir gamocdilebebs da genderuli maxasiaTeblebis gadakveTebs, bavSvobaSi an mozard asakSi unda iyos magaliTebi, heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTisa”, roca xdeboda sakuTari heteroseqsualobis gacnobiereba. alan hanteri, TeTri, heterosequsuali feminuri qcevebis mqone mamakaci aRwers, rogori qilikiT da agresiiT uwodebdnen homoseqsuals (Seuracxmyofeli formiT) da aRwers im moments, roca gaacnobiera Tavisi heteroseqsualuri orientacia. “me mixaroda, rom viyavi feminuri mamakaci, magram qalebi mizidavdnen. me gavacnobiere sakuTari heteroseqsualuri orientacia, ganvaxorciele “qamin auTi” sakuTari Tavis winaSe” (Hunter, 1993:158). kvlevebi heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTis” Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani wvlili iqneboda normatiuli identobis konstruirebis gagebisTvis. rogorc nensi Codorou ambobs: “heteroseqsualoba aRiqmeba rogorc mocemuloba da misi warmoSoba ar aris sakmarisad aRwerili. Cven ar gvaqvs ganviTarebadi monacemebi imaze, Tu ra aris “normaluri” heteroseqsualoba, rom SevadaroT Tavisi simdidriT da specifikurobiT imas, rac mogvepoveba homoseqsualobasa da perversiebze.” (Chodorow, 1992:266) 9
  10. 10. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni heteroseqsualuri qceva da heteroseqsualuri identoba lesboselisa (Ettore 1980, Kitzinger 1987, ponse 1978) da homoseqsuali mamakacis (Plummer 1981, Weeks 1981) identobis Taobaze arsebobs naSromebi, Cveni interesis sfero ki is gzebia, romliTac xdeba heteroseqsualobis rogorc pirovnuli da socialuri identobis konstruireba, magram kvlevebi am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ver moviZieT. momdevno dakvirvebebi eyrdnoba im heteroseqsuali feministebis nawerebs, romlebic Cvens wignze muSaobdnen. (Wilkinson and Kitzinger, 1993). zogi heteroseqsuali (isve, rogorc zogi homoseqsuali) esencialistur midgomas iziarebs da amtkicebs, rom “aseTi daibada”. Cven eWvi gvaqvs, rom msgavsi esencialisturi monacemebi farTodaa xalxSi gavrcelebuli, magram Cvens avtorebs Soris esencialisturi xedva umciresobaSi aRmoCnda. am mxriv gamonakliss warmoadgens TeTrkaniani samxreT-amerikeli feministis sandra li bartkis ganacxadi: “mec iseTive heteroseqsuali var, rogorc zogi homoseqsuali acxadebs: erTxel da samudamod” (bartky, 1993:41) sxvebi weren qaluri seqsualobis cvalebadobaze da uaryofen “heteroseqsualis” iarliys, radgan, maTi azriT, igi aramdgradi survilebis ugulebelyofas axdens: “imis Tqma, rom heteroseqsuali var, niSnavs, rom Cemi seqsualuri survilebi aris ucvleli da arsebiTi atributi Cemi pirovnebisa. magram seqsualoba ar aris aseTi calsaxa.… seqsualoba kompleqsuria.” (Jacklim, 1993:34) “seqsualuri identoba cvalebadia, seqsualuri qceva metismetad mravalferovania imisaTvis, rom ase xist kategorizacias daeqvemdebaros.…bevri qali misi sxeulis gamo miyvars, bevri misi gonebis, enamoswrebulobis, brwyinvale individualobis gamo. me vaRiareb Cems vnebas rogorc konkretuli qalebis, aseve konkretuli mamakacebis mimarT, Cemi cxovrebiseuli partnioris garda, Tumca mirCevnia ar vimoqmedo am mimarTulebiT.” (Crawford, 1993:43) es ori citata, romelic TeTrkanian samxreT amerikel feminist fsiqologebs ekuTvniT, waagavs socialist anti-rasist feminists nioa iuval-devisis sityvebs “bevri qali, visac yvela an TiTqmis yvela mniSvnelovani seqsualuri urTierToba (maT Soris erTi Ramis) mamakacTan hqoniaT, CemsaviT uars amboben sakuTari Tavis heteroseqsualad gamocxadebaze” nawilobriv imis gamo, rom Cven, yvelas met- naklebad gvaqvs biseqsualuri survilebi” (Yul_Davis, 1993:52). saerTo jamSi, es mosazrebebi midis raRac “gamWvirvale” iarliyis Seqmnisken, romelic ufro kargad miesadageba pirovnebis “namdvil mes”. bevri konstruqtivisti dainteresda “homoseqsualuri qmedebebisa” da homoseqsualuri identobis urTierTmimarTebiT. homoseqsualTa magaliTze 10
  11. 11. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni SegviZlia moviZioT mTeli repertuari im axsnebisa, romlebsac isini uyeneben sakuTar qmedebebs, rom qmedeba ar iqces identobad (magaliTad: “maSin nasvami viyavi”, “is aris garyvnili, me - ara”, “es mxolod eqsperimenti iyo” da a.S. ix Kitzinger and Wilkinson momdevno magaliTebisTvis). am magaliTebis paralelurad Cven SegviZlia, moviZioT axsnebis msgavsi repertuari heteroseqsuali feministebis SemTxvevaSic, roca isini cdiloben, am axsnebis meSveobiT distancireba moaxdinon maT heteroseqsualur qcevasa da heteroseqsualur identobas Soris (magaliTad: “erT mSvenier dRes SeiZleba qalTanac davamyaro seqsualuri kontaqti”). iqmneba iseTi STabeWdileba, rom heteroseqsuali feministebi gaurbian heteroseqsualur identobas, im albaTuri qcevis gamo, rom SeiZleba momavalSi lesbosuri (biseqsualuri) kontaqti ganaxorcielon. maTgan gansxvavebiT, lesboseli feministebi TavianT identobas maSinac ki ar ayeneben eWvqveS, rodesac sasiamovno seqsualur gamocdilebaze saubroben sapirispiro sqesTan. lesboselisTvis mamakacTan seqsi erTgvari gamowvevaa, cnobismoyvareobas aRZravs, mimzidvelia, ukavSirdeba safrTxes, empaTias. klinikurad amas SeiZleba biseqsualoba vuwodoT, SegviZlia movaTavsoT isini kinsis skalaze heteroseqsualur da homoseqsualur polusebs Soris, magram realurad, maTi erotikuli SegrZnebebi ar emTxveva maTive seqsualuri istoriis monacemebs ( sexual history print-out). isini sakuTar Tavs qviers uwodeben da axdenen seqsualuri, kulturuli da politikuri upiratesobebis Sezavebas. (Bright, 1992:138-9) samxreT amerikis universitetSi arsebobs aseTi feministuri mxardamWeri jgufi, romelsac qvia “lesboselebi, romlebmac urTierToba daamyares politikurad koreqtul mamakacebTan” (Taylor and Whittier, 1992). erT gamokiTxvaSi 262 TviTaRiarebuli lesboselidan, daaxloebiT naxevarma (46%) ganacxada rom hqonda seqsualuri kavSiri mamakacTan bolo Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi (Bright, 1992:136) . (ix. Pauline Bart (1993) “lesboselTa” mamakacTan seqsualuri urTierTobis feministuri analizisTvis”). zemoT moyvanil msjelobaze dayrdnobiT SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom asimetria cxadia am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. heteroseqsuali feministebis identoba ukugdebulia qalebis mier maSinac ki, rodesac isini xangrZliv heteroseqsualur kavSirSi imyofebian, radgan identobis asagebad gaTvaliswinebulia warsuli, awmyo da aseve SesaZlo momavali, romelSic ar gamoricxaven urTierTobas qalTan. amis sapirispirod, lesbosur-feministuri identoba gamoirCeva simyariT maSinac ki, rodesac warsulSi an/da awmyoSi seqsualur kontaqtebSi figurirebs mamakaci. lesbosuri feminizmis simyaris SenarCuneba xdeba politikur da kulturul TviTidentifikaciaze dayrdnobiT. heteroseqsualuri struqtura qals ubiZgebs lesboselobis, rogorc identobis uaryofisken. amitom bevri lesboseli feministisTvis, “lesboseloba”, rogorc identoba, ganasaxierebs protests hetero-patriarqaluri wyobis mimarT da 11
  12. 12. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni kavSirs sxva qalebTan da sxva lesboselebTan. hetero-patriarqalur sistemaSi lesboseloba ar aris SemTxveviToba an valdebuleba. am identobis miReba fiqris gareSe ar xdeba. iseTi kiTxvebi, rogoricaa “ram ganapiroba?”, “SeiZleba Tu ara Seicvalos?”, “ra gavlenas axdens es identoba bavSvebze?” aris kiTxvebi, romlebic xSirad wamoiWreba lesboselis cxovrebaSi. heteroseqsuali ki, rogorc wesi, ar svams aseT kiTxvebs Tavis identobasTan mimarTebaSi. “ideebisa da samuSaos ZebnaSi sakmaod bevri gavlena ganvicade. heteroseqsualobis Temaze fiqri ki arasodes momsvlia TavSi.… heteroseqsualobis statusi daculia da, albaT, esaa mizezi, rom igi mudam CrdilSi rCeba”. (Beloff, 1993:39) is, rom heteroseqsualoba mocemulobad aRiqmeba (feminizmSic ki), aris yvelaze yuradsaRebi sulamiT reinharzis azriT: “bevri ar mikiTxavs da arc mifiqria am sakiTxze. swored amitom vfiqrob, saWiroa am miCumaTebul sakiTxs yuradReba mieqces. CemTvis, rogorc feministisTvis, principulia yuradReba gavamaxvilo imaze, rac mis miRma rCeba.” (Reinharz, 1993:65) heteroseqsualoba cxovrebis stilia, romelsac, xSir SemTxvevaSi, viRebT alternativebze fiqris gareSe, rogorc valdebulebas. rogorc wesi, “savaldebulo identobebi” (rogoricaa “TeTrkanianebi”, “unarSeuzRudavebi”, “mamakacebi”) nakleb Teorizebulni arian, ar xdeba maTi kiTxvis niSnis qveS dayeneba da saTanadod gacnobiereba, maSin, roca Cagrul identobebeze refleqsia yovelTvis metia. refleqsiis nakleboba Zalauflebis mqone mxaris erT-erTi maxasiaTebelia. is problemebic, romlebic heteroseqsual qalebs awuxebT, am “daculi” da “konskurs gareSe myofi” (rogorc kadiat kanehi ambobs) identobis, arSemadgenel nawilad da aseTive mocemulobad aRiqmeba, amitom maTi win wamoweva naklebad xdeba. heteroseqsuali feministisTvis heteroseqsualoba ar warmoadgens politikur identobas, gansxvavebiT lesboseli feministisgan, romlisTvisac lesboseloba garkveulwilad politikuri arCevania. heteroseqsualobis uaryofa aTavisuflebs heteroseqsualebs garkveuli SezRudvebisgan. amitom isini cdiloben, moeridon kategoriul TviTgansazRvras da gaurbian amgvar iarliys. lesboseli feministis socialur-politikuri realoba ki mkveTrad gansxvavebulia. yvela lesboselma icis, rom misgan lesboselobas aravin iTxovda da arc aravin moeloda. is, iqneb, yovelTvis arc iyo lesboseli. amdenad, lesboselobis xazgasma feministisTvis gamaTavisuflebeli aqtia. rodesac feministi ambobs, rom lesboselia, es yovelTvis ar niSnavs imas, rom mas ar siamovnebs seqsualuri kontaqti mamakacTan (Tumca zogi CvenganisTvis swored asea); arc imas niSnavs, rom ar aris mamakacisTvis seqsualurad mimzidveli, arc imas gulisxmobs, rom misi seqsualoba misi identobis ganuyofeli “arsebiTi” nawilia da rom is xistia cvlilebebis mimarT. feministisTvis lesboseloba 12
  13. 13. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni politikur ganacxads warmoadgens. “heteroseqsuali” da “lesboseli” aris identobebi, romlebic sakmaod araproporciul mdgomareobaSi arian, maTi miReba Tu uaryofa sxvadasxva niadagze dayrdnobiT xdeba. xSirad daculi dominanturi identobebi Cagruli jgufis mniSvnelovan wevrad ar aRiqmeba. heteroseqsualebi xSirad uaryofen fiqsirebul diqotomur identobebes (“lesboseli” da “heteroseqsuali”), irCeven kontinuumis models da seqsualobis dekonstruqciis versias. es xdeba im argumentze dayrdnobiT, rom “dualizmi” da “polarizebuli kategoriebi” tipuria maskulinuri, patriarqaluri azrovnebisTvis, qalebisTvis ki cvlilebebi, moqnili identobebi ufro misaRebi unda iyos. (ix. debatebi holSi 1992). “heteroseqsualisa” da “lesboselis”, rogorc kategoriebis rRveva jer kidev manamde daiwyo, sanam meore talRis feminizmi Seexeboda am sakiTxs. kinsis kvlevebma 1940 iani 1950 iani wlebSi ( e.g. Kinsey et.al 1948,1953) Seqmna “heteroseqsual-homoseqsualuri kontinuumis” gageba da moaxdina “biseqsualuri potenciis” gamoaSkaraveba. polarizebisa da diqotomiuri gamijvnis nacvlad, mamakaci mkvlevarebi ufro msgavsebas eZebdnen “heteroseqsual qalebsa” da “lesboselebs” Soris. (e.g. Gagnon and Simon, 1973: Bell and Weinberg, 1978). am kategoriebis uaryofa da maT Soris msgavsebis Zieba lesbosuri diskursis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSmvnelovani da Rrma Temaa. (cf. Kitzinger, 1987). erT-erTi funqcia, romelic “kategoriebs” aqvs da rac SegviZlia gamoviyenoT, rogorc argumenti maTi gauqmebis winaaRmdeg, aris is, rom kategoriis gauqmebiT xdeba im Cagvris ugulebelyofac, romelsac, vTqvaT, lesboseli, rogorc kategoria, ganicdis patriarqalur sistemaSi. magaliTad: iseTi ganacxadi rogoricaa “Cven, yvelani saSualo klasi varT” auqmebs im faqts, rom klasobrivi kontinuumis erT boloSi arseboben adamianebi, romlebsac ar aqvT kargi sacxovrebeli pirobebi, ar aqvT Sesabamisi momsaxureba jandacvis sferoSi, ar gaaCniaT muSaobis SesaZlebloba da arian iseT mdgomareobaSi, romelsac am kontinuumis meore boloSi moxvedrili adamiani erTi wuTiTac ver aitanda. Cagruli adamianebis kategoriebis uaryofiT ar xdeba TviTon Cagvris saxeldeba, rac xels uSlis efeqtur koleqtiur rezistentulobas. Cvens wignze momuSaveTagan ramodenimem aRiara sakuTari heteroseqsualobis apolitikuri xasiaTi. “Cven Tavs damnaSaved vgrZnobT sakuTari heteroseqsualobis gamo, romelic ar warmoadgens politikur identobas.… Cven gvaqvs survili, movaxdinoT mobilizacia heteroseqsualobis garSemo”,- amboben axalgazrda, TeTrkaniani britaneli heteroseqsuali feministebi ris jili da rebeka uokeri (1993:71). heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTi”, ra Tqma aunda, ar aris apolitikuri. Cven vimedovnebT, rom is qalebi, vinc gaRizianebuli pasuxebi mogvwera Cvens SemoTavazebaze, moexdinaT pozicionireba rogorc heteroseqsual feministebs, Seicvlian Tavis damokidebulebas. bolodroindeli dakvirvebebi gviCvenebs, rom heteroseqsuali feministebi iwyeben brZolas maTi heteroseqsualuri identobis politizirebisaTvis (e.g. Crawford, 1993:44). maTi, rogorc heteroseqsuali feministebis “qamin auTs” xSirad “gambedaobad” miiCneven. es imaze miuTiTebs, rom 13
  14. 14. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni aseTi TviTaRiareba garkveul riskTan da safrTxesTan aris dakavSirebuli, radgan SeiZleba “politikur arakoreqtulobad” iqnes miCneuli. (isic unda aRiniSnos, rom heteroseqsualebis mxridan, lesboselebis qamin auTi zogjer aRiqmeba “tendenciur” faqtad da im “simamacis” aRiareba, rac am nabijs sWirdeba hetero- patriarqalur sazogadoebaSi xSirad ugulebelyofilia). heteroseqsuali feministebisgan cotam Tu scada im sakiTxze koncentrireba, Tu ra sivrceSia SesaZlebeli, kadiatu kanehis (1993:46) sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, “mizanmimarTuli politikuri poziciis” mqone usafrTxo da paeqrobis miRma myofi identobis konstruireba. daskvna am TavSi Cven SevexeT im sakiTxebs, romliTac socialuri konstruqtivistebi SeiZleba dainteresdnen heteroseqsualobasTan mimarTebaSi, yuradReba gavamaxvileT heteroseqsualobis, rogorc “savaldebulo instituciis”, aseve heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTis” problemebze da heteroseqsualuri identobis bunebaze. heteroseqsualobaze dasmuli kiTxvebi xSirad ritorikulad JRerda (Frye, 1992:55), maT mimarT damokidebuleba ki parodiis elementebs Seicavda da homoseqsualobis Sesaxeb dasmuli kiTxvebis iumoristul inversiebs warmoadgenda (c.f. Hanscombe, 1987). heteroseqsualobis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dayeneba seriozuli toniT absurdad aRiqmeboda bevri radikalisTvisac ki. Cven SevecadeT, gveCvenebina is Teoriuli Tu politikuli qveteqsti, funqcia da sargebeli, rac heteroseqsualobis seriozul analizs SeiZleba hqondes. magaliTad, imis gageba, Tu ra gzebiT xdeba heteroseqsualobis “uaryofa”, “Tavs moxveva” an “arCeva”, saSualebas gvaZlevs ufro Rrmad CavwvdeT misi, rogorc mCagvreli instituciis arssa da im meqanizmebs, romliTac heteroqseqsualoba genderuli dayofis polarizacias axdens. heteroseqsualuri “qamin auTis”, aseve homoseqsualur da heteroseqsualur “qcevebsa” da “ identobebs” Soris kavSiris SedarebiTi analizi afarToebs Cvens warmodgenas normatiuli da aranormatiuli identobebis konstruirebis procesze. heteroseqsualur da lesbosur identobebs Soris simetriis Zieba ki aaSkaravebs im politikur sarCulsa da mniSvnelobas, rac eniWebaT am identobebs. rogorc Sarlota banCma Tqva Tavis 1975 wlis statiaSi “ara mxolod lesboselebisTvis”: “qalTa Cagvris procesSi heteroseqsualobis rolis analizi yvela qalisTvis mniSvnelovania ganurCevlad seqsualuri orientaciisa. am Cagvras, pirvel rigSi, lesboselebi ganicdian Tundac materialuri TvalsazrisiT. maTTvis es Cagvra 14
  15. 15. heteroseqsualobis dekonstruqcia selia kitcingeri da siu vilkinsoni cxadi da gasagebia ara imitom, rom ufro moralurebi arian, aramed imitom, rom sxva realobaSi uwevT cxovreba, materialurad gansxvavebul realobaSi. imisda miuxedavad, uSualod ganicdiT am Cagvras Tu ara, igi Tqven mainc gexebaT, amitom vcdilobT, Tqvenc iyoT CarTulni heteroseqsualuri dominaciis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi, Tuki gsurT, rom SecvaloT sazogadoeba da Tu gsurT gadarCeT”. (Bunch, 1975) ase rom, heteroseqsualobis funqciebis da mniSvnelobis analizi genderuli struqturis ara mxolod gagebas, aramed gardaqmnasac uwyobs xels. aseTi analizi mniSvnelovania rogorc heteroseqsualebis, aseve lesboselebisTvis. inglisuridan Targmna nino xarCilavam 15

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