Critical Skills For The Nurse EducatorPresentation Transcript
Gail M. Maier, Ph.D., R.N.
Summarize the six roles of the nurse educator.
Develop a continuing education program utilizing effective teaching strategies.
Prepare a poster session or presentation for a professional conference.
Integrate appropriate adult learning theories into educational planning.
Design an appropriate evaluation tool for an educational program.
Describe the ethical and legal principles that are essential to your role as a nurse educator.
Understand the principles that underlie their practice
Know how to find, manage and use information
Be comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty
Be leaders and agents for change
Think critically and communicate effectively
Function effectively in the face of conflict
Manage constant change, including technological developments
As educator may
Ensure learners are involved in learning process and outcome evaluations
Verify that educational standards are upheld
Assist others to develop, maintain, and refine portfolio throughout career
(Scope and Standards, 2002).
As educator may
Mentor others related to research and using evidence based practice
Develop, plan, and present educational programs
Need to identify appropriate teaching strategies for the learner.
As facilitator may
Help identify learner needs and identify appropriate teaching strategies
Serve as a role model
Encourage positive attitudes
Promote life-long learning
(Scope and Standards, 2002).
Assist with delegating both human and financial resources
Participate in the communication process both horizontally and vertically along an organization’s leadership tier
Demonstrate ethical and legal principles applicable to a variety of situations
(Scope and Standards, 2002).
Need to assure that provided education aligns with an organization’s mission
Demonstrate professional accountability by keeping competencies up to date, joining professional organizations, and other external activities
Leads by example
Asks questions, shares knowledge
Any time frame
Stand-by and smile (poster presentation)
With colleagues, both in department and out of department
At any event
Seminars, conferences, teleconferences
Reach out to experts in a specific area
Hand out business cards
Help to incorporate new research into practice
Assist new staff develop and refine research skills
Evaluate outcomes and track learner outcomes from provided education
“ Integrate relevant research outcomes into nursing professional development practice through effective learning activities” (Scopes and Standards, page 9).
Mentor others by serving as principal investigators, consultants, or collaborators
Serve either formally or informally
Support assimilation of learning into clinical or practice areas
Help to: define problems, identify resources, provide feedback
Be aware of changes in National Patient Safety Goals
Updates or changes in Core Measurements
Be aware of any changes to state Practice Act
“ Acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information”.
Wikipedia (2009). Facilitator. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facilitator
Learning needs ( what the learner needs to learn)
Readiness to learn ( when the learner is receptive to learning)
Learning style ( how the learner best learns)”
Bastable (2003), p. 77.
Focuses on learner directed learning as opposed to educator directed learning
Adults need to know why they need to learn something before they learn it
Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own lives…
Adults become ready to learn things they need to know or….cope effectively with their real life situations
Adults come into an educational activity with both a greater volume and a different quality of life experiences
While adults are responsive to some extrinsic motivators (better jobs, salary, pay, the more potent motivators are the intrinsic motivators (desire for increased self-esteem, quality of life, responsibility)
Adults must see a reason to learn something
Adults need to be shown respect. They should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and should be able to freely voice their opinions
Adults focus on the part of a lesson that will be most useful to them in their job.
Novice to Expert
Needs for orientation will vary
Characteristics in clinical skills will be according to level of theory
Approach to education should be individualized
Novice – 0-6 months
Advanced Beginner 6 months to 2 years
Competent 2-4 years
Proficient – 4-5 years
Expert 5—7 years
Incidence of Illiteracy
Be careful of subjectivity
Writing Reading OR Both?
Clues to Watch for
Use multiple teaching methods
Provide basic information
Allow learner to restate or demonstrate
Provide positive feedback frequently
Use repetition when necessary
Ask individual how you can best help
Well established reliability
Available since the 1920s.
Extroversion - Introversion
Sensing - Intuition
Thinking - Feeling
Judgment - Perception
Uses 4 letter acronym to define personality type
Bastable, S. B. (2003). Nurse as Educator. Sudbury, MA.
Converger – prefers abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Detached, work with objects rather than with people. Practical problem solvers.
Diverger – prefers concrete experience and reflective observation. Generate ideas, displays emotions. Imaginative, and see big picture
Assimilator – prefers abstract conceptualization and reflective observation. Bring together diverse items into a whole, something into a whole, sometimes overlooking practical aspects.
Accommodator – prefer concrete experience and active experimentation. Intuitive, risk takers, trial and error problem solving. Carry out plans and adapt to change…
Appears to be in Broca’s area, on L side of brain
Highly developed auditory skills
Think in words, like to write, tell stories, spell accurately, enjoy reading, can recall dates, names, and places
Learn best by verbalizing, hearing, or seeing words
Word games/word associations are great tools to use
Involves both sides of the brain
Right side deals with concepts; left side remembers symbols
Explore patterns, categories, have relationships
Can think logically with a high degree of abstraction
Question many things—ask where, what and when
Can compute in their heads, learn by computers, and do experiments to clarify things they don’t understand.
Enjoy strategy games such as chess or checkers
Related to the right side of the brain
Learn by images and pictures; enjoy things such as building blocks, jigsaw puzzles, and daydreaming
Like to draw or do other art-like activities
Can read charts and diagrams and may actually learn better with visual methods such as videos or photographs
Related to right side of brain
Can be found singing a tune, telling you when a note Is off-key, playing musical instruments; dancing, and keeping time rhythmically
Sensitive to sounds
May learn best with music playing in the background
Includes the basal ganglia and cerebellum of the brain structures
Learn by processing knowledge through bodily sensations
Learn by moving or acting thing out
Have difficulty sitting for long period of time
Good at athletic sports; great fine motor skills
Use of people’s behaviors or movements come easily for this group of learners
Involves prefrontal lobes of brain
Able to notice others’ feelings, tend to have many friends, and are gifted in the social skills
Learn best in groups and gravitate toward activities that involve others
Also involves prefrontal lobes of brain
Have strong personalities and tend to prefer an inner surrounding of emotions and are often alone, rather than being surrounded by individuals
Learn quietly and privately – even in an individual setting
Self-confident/self-directed; independent; self-paced with introduction
Learning need is the difference between what is known currently and what is needed to be known for optimal performance
Identified by Staff
Identified by Patients
Identified by “near miss”
New National Patient Safety Goals
Unit request related to new equipment, new procedure, change in practice
New nurse may need reinforcement in a particular area
Maybe new individual on unit – experienced nurse, but not experienced to our particular policy or procedure or with particular piece of equipment
To address unit needs
To improve benchmark scores
To make unit more cohesive or work better as a team
Possible performance improvement for individual
To improve certain scaled score such as Press Gainey
Possibly in response to an incident report
Feelings, Values, Attitudes
Available time and materials
Size of group
Skills of group
Adult learning characteristics
Vary experiences for learning
Experiences, however, must be consistent with learning
Must consider audience and learning styles
higher ordered intellectual activity that goes beyond the simple acquisition of knowledge
Critical thinking skills:
Collecting and analyzing information
Generating new ideas
Importance of reading comprehension
directly correlated to changes in critical thinking and successful progression through nursing education
Facilitate and guide reading assignments
Work through problem situations
Discuss real life situations
Promotes reflection and dialogue
Clinical conferences with students
Clinical discussions with Nurse interns and residents
Combine with use of Facebook or Twitter
Focus on the most important concepts to be learned
Consider alternative responses
Learning environment needs to be open, safe and non-threatening
All students should be engaged
Summarize key points
Learning environment must be relaxed
Learner should be encouraged to ask questions
Questions need to be prepared ahead of time
Carefully word questions
Do not praise answers too quickly
Be aware of non-verbal behavior
Concrete : asks for recall of specific information. Lower level thinking required.
Abstract : asks to classify and draw conclusions about information as they attempt the understand the area under consideration.
Creative : demands reorganization of concepts into unique patterns.