English Bill of Rights in 1689 Parliamentary Sovereignty
3 essential rights weekly confidential meetings
It is formed by:
Ministers in charge of each department
The Prime Minister
Political leader democratically elected.
First Lord of the Treasury
Minister for the Civil Service
Unique position of authority
Majority support in the House of the Commons
Power among ministers (appoints, dismisses and allocates functions)
Presides over the cabinet
Informs the Queen
Supported by prime Minister’s Office
Provides policy advice
Tracks the delivery of the Government commitments and initiatives
Ensures effective communication (Parliament, media and public)
Consists of about 20 ministers chosen by the Prime Minister.
Holds part of the executive power.
Takes the final decisions.
Their Meetings are private and confidential.
Take some full Cabinet’s pressure among smaller groups of people.
Defence and overseas policy
Home and social affairs
Main role: to implement Government policy and to advice ministers
Staffed by politically impartial civil servants
Receive funding from money provided by the parliament
Most department headed by ministers
Non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants
Ministry of Justice
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department of Health
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Department for Transport
Department for Children, Schools and Families
Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills
Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Northern Ireland Office
Department for Work and Pensions
Department for International Development
Ministry of Defence
Department for Communities and Local Government
Office of the Leader of the House of Commons
Ministers in charge of government departments are usually in the Cabinet.
Ministers' individual responsibility for the work of their own departments
Collective responsibility: all ministers support government policy; Once the Government has decided its policy on a particular matter, each minister is expected to support it or resign
Ministers are responsible for the work of their departments and agencies and have a duty to Parliament to answer for their policies, decisions and actions
Role: Carry out the practical and administrative work of Government
Civil servants are politically impartial
The duty of Civil Servants is first and foremost to the minister in charge of the department in which he or she is serving
A change of minister does not involve a change of staff
Civil servants are paid from public founds
Teachers are not civil servants
Paying benefits and pensions, running employment services, staffing prisons, issuing driving licences, providing services to industry and agriculture…
Term means a meeting for parley or discussion.
Medieval kings had to meet all royal expenses out of their own income. If extra resources were needed the sovereign would seek help from his barons in the Great Council - a gathering of leading men who met several times a year.
1707 brought the Union of England with Scotland and the first Parliament of Great Britain
The main functions of Parliament are to pass laws, to provide - by voting for taxation - the means of carrying out the work of government, to scrutinise Government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure, and to debate the major issues of the day.
Parliament can legislate for the UK as a whole and has powers to legislate for any parts of it separately.
As there are no legal restraints imposed by a written constitution, Parliament may legislate as it pleases as long as the UK meets its obligations as a member of the European Union. It can make or change law, overturn established conventions or turn them into law. It can even legislate to prolong its own life beyond the normal period without consulting the electorate.
House of Commons
Popularly elected legislative body of the bicameral British Parliament.
The speaker, presides over the Parliament sessions and regulates debates.
646 MP’s — 529 from England.
Elected in constituencies, for 5 years.
Its legislative powers exceed those of the Lords.
House of Commons
Powers and Functions.
Right to impose taxes and to vote money to the Gov. Departs.
The question period.
A bill must be read three times in the Commons.
The second reading provides the occasion for debate.
The bill then goes into committees.
The bill is read a third time. Then voted on to become Law.
House of Lords.
AKA “the Lords” is the upper house and second chamber of the Parliament.
Not a fixed number of members.
Lords spiritual. Ecclesiastic positions.
Lords Temporal. Life.
The powers of the modern House of Lords are extremely limited
The revision of bills that the House of Commons has not formulated in sufficient detail.
Judicial functions “Law Lords”. Civil and criminal cases appeals.
The system of local government is different in the four nations of the United Kingdom.
• Counties • Districts Northern Ireland Principal areas • Community council Wales Sheriffdoms • Council areas • Community council Scotland • Regions • Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties • Districts • Civil parish England
The structure of local government varies. In some there are two layers or tiers - a district council and a county council. In others there is just one - a unitary authority.
In addition there could be a town or parish council, covering a much smaller area.
Local Authorities Subdivisions in England
9 Regions 1. Greater London 2. South East 3. South West 4. West Midlands 5. North West 6. North East 7. Yorkshire and the Humber 8. East Midlands 9. Eastern Local Authorities
Employs over two million people, these local councils undertake an estimated 700 different functions.
Among them: Education, leisure and social services such as housing.
Councils are also run in different ways . You might have a directly elected Mayor, for example, with a cabinet.
In London each borough is a unitary authority, with the Greater London Authority - the Mayor and Assembly - providing strategic, city-wide government
In Scotland Provosts .
AKA Council managers.
Leaders of Town Halls, Councils or City Halls.
Mayors are chosen by councillors.
Duties of mayors range from ceremonial to executive.
A mayor and cabinet, a council leader and cabinet, or a mayor and council manager.
Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite. Version: 2007.01.00.000000000