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The mechanics of formal writing
 

The mechanics of formal writing

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The mechanics of formal writing

The mechanics of formal writing

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    The mechanics of formal writing The mechanics of formal writing Presentation Transcript

    • Manuel V. Gallego Foundation Colleges, Inc. The Mechanics of Formal Writing Prepared by: Maricar Guarin & Rhod Carlo Duldulao B.S.E.D. III
    • 1. Each of the following expressions should be written as separate words, not as one word: Any day In front of Any more In spite of Any time In order All right (alright has not yet been accepted in good usage) *
    • NOTE: the following expressions may be written as one word or as separate words: Insofar as In so far as Someway Some way Percent Per cent *
    • 2. Each of the following expressions should be written as one word, not as separate words: Hereabout Hereinbefore Hereafter Hereinto Hereat Hereof Inasmuch (to be followed by as) Insomuch (to be followed by that or as) *
    • 3. When written in words, numbers 21 to 99 should be hyphenated, as hereunder shown: Twenty-one Twenty-nine Thirty-one Thirty-nine Forty-one Forty-nine *
    • 4. When used in modifiers, compound words are hyphenated: An up-to-date report Beginning-of-theschool-yearmeetings Four-footed animals * (Up-to-date modifies report) (Beginning-of-theschool-year modifies meetings) (Four-footed modifies animals)
    • 5. When used in modifiers, fractions written in words should be hyphenated, viz: One-half size One-third portion Two-thirds novtes * (one-half modifies size_ (one-third mdifies portion) (two-thirds modifies votes)
    • 6. When used as nouns, fractions written in words need not be hyphenated. They are just written as separate words, viz: One half of the audience I obtained one third of the votes Two thirds of the delegates * (one half, a noun, is used as a subject) (one third, a noun, used s the direct object of the verb obtained) (two-thirds a noun, is used as a subject)
    • 7. The prefix-rootword combination should be hyphenated: Re-cover Re-release Re-tire * Please, recover the book. I have to re-lease our house. To be safe, re-tire your car.
    • NOTE: if the combination without hyphen has a different meaning: Recover Release Retire * He recovered from his illness. An early release of her grades is requested. I retired last year from my profession
    • 8. In the combination of a prefix ending with a vowel with a rootword the begins also with a vowel, should better be hyphenated: Re-arm Re-ink Re-insure * There’s a need to rearm the school guards. To re-ink the contract today is impossible. We have to re-insure the safety of the students.
    • 9. A hyphen should be used to set off a prefix placed before a proper noun, viz: Anti-American Pro-American Anti-Filipino Pro-Catholic Non-Moslem Pre-Spanish *
    • 10. By reason of usage, it is better to hyphenate the following designations: Ambassador-at-Large Editor-in-Chief Attorney-at-Law Vice-Chairman Commander-in-Chief Officer-in-Carge *
    • Note: The following are may be with or without hyphen: Chairman of the Board Officer of the Day Executive Director Vicar General Judge Advocate General * Officer of the Guard
    • 11. If attached to an official designation, the prefix ex should be set off by a hyphen: Ex-president Ex-mayor Ex-senator Ex-vice mayor Ex-congressman Ex-councilor *
    • 12. I attached to notable era, period or event, the prefix pre or post should be set off by a hyphen: Pre-election period Pre-war days Pre-Spanish times * Post-liberation period Post-election campaign Post-war
    • 13. Words cannot be made plural by adding s or es. To pluralize, make use of pharases indicative of their units of measurement: Baggage Blood Chalk * Pieces, bundles, or bunches of baggage Bottles, cups, or drops of blood pieces or boxes of chalk
    • 14. If s or es is added to any of the following nouns, the meaning of each noun is changed: Cloth Clothes Fish Fishes Glass Glasses * -A fabric material -Garments; dresses -Any cold-blooded animal adapted for aquatic life -fish of different species A hard, brittle and transparent substance -eyeglasses; spectacles
    • 15. Reflexive pronouns like, myself, yourself, herself, oneself, himself, and themselves are not hyphenated; however, self must be set off by a hyphen if used as combining form: self-made man self-serving self-praises self-explanatory Self-sacrifice Self-service *
    • 16. If used as an adverb in the sentence, each of the following terms should be written as one word: Anyhow - By any means Anywhere -at any place Sometime at a time in the past or in the future *
    • 17. If any, every or some is used as (an adjective) a modifier of thing, body, one, day, or way, each pairing must be written separately: Any thing of value - Any modifies thing Every body of matter - Every modifies bidy Some things are weightless - Some modifies things *
    • 18. If any, every, some or no, is combined with either body, one, or thing to form a pronoun, each pair should be written as word: Anybody Anyone Anything * The gift may be given to anybody Can anyone identify the offender? Anything can be given as a symbol of recognition
    • 19. Designations of relationship by affinity are usually set off by hepphens: Father-in-law Mother-in-law Brother-in-law Sister-in-law Son-in-law Daughter-in-law *
    • 20. Designations of relationship by previous marriage of a parent or spouse, not by blood, are written as one word, not hyphenated: Stepbrother Stepmother Stepchild Stepparent Stepson stepfather *
    • 21. The area of spelling also covers to a certain extent the requirements of proper capitalization and abbreviation. What words then should be capitalized? *
    • Proper Nouns: Referring to particular persons: Common Nouns Referring to persons in general: Jose dela Cruz man, father or uncle Maria or Ana daughter, girl or child Jose Rizal hero, author or writer *
    • Proper Nouns: Referring to particular places: Common Nouns Referring to common places: San Fernando barangay Calamba towns Nueva Ecija province *
    • Proper Nouns: Referring to particular things/events: Common Nouns Referring common things: Folk Arts Theater building or theater Independence Day event/holidays October month *
    • 22. Always capitalize proper adjectives. Filipino culture Chinese food American influence Japanese ingenuity Russian government German invention Spanish style British accent Korean products European doctrine *
    • 23. If used before the name of the holder, designation, position, title should be capitalized: Governor Oyie Umali Secretary Jessie Robredo Judge Lauro Esteban Mayor Jay Vergara Manager Jose Cruz * Dean Manuel Guerroro
    • 24. If not placed before the holder, it shoul not be capitalized: governor of Nueva Ecija appointed judge secretary of KC Council mayor of the city manager of the bank President of PAFTE III *
    • 25. Formal writing prescribes that when used before the full names of the holders, designations are better abbreviated: Gov. Oyie Umali Sec. Jessie Robredo Atty. Lauro Esteban Dr. Jay Gomez Engr. Jose Cruz Gen. Manuel Guerroro *
    • 26. When used before the holder’s family name only, the designation should be spelled out in full: Governor Umali Secretary Robredo Attorney Tolentino Doctor Bernardez Engineer Cruz Architect Willford *
    • 27. The following should not be abbreviated: Accountant Director Ambassador Editor-in-Chief Bishop Judge *
    • 28. If used after a pronoun in an address, street, avenue, boulevard, road and drive are better abbreviated: Del Pilar St. Kennon Rd. Burgos Ave. Bonifacio Dr. Quezon Blvd. Rizal Ave. *
    • 29. If used before proper nouns, saint, santo, santa, fort and mount are better abbreviated: St. Martin Ft. Magsaysay Sto. Tomas Mt. Pinatubo Sta. Maria St. Joseph *
    • 30. In whatever manner they may be used, the following names of months will conform better with formal communication if they are not abbreviated: March May June July August September *
    • 31. In the abbreviation of offices, schools, organizations or countries, omit the period after each letter: DOLE DOH UP * (Department of Labor and Employment ) (Department of Health) (University of the Philippines)
    • 32. If placed immediately following the holder’s name, academic degrees are abbreviated and a dot or period is set after each letter-abbreviated: A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) B.E.E.D (Bachelor of Elementary Education) (Doctor of Dental Medicine) D.M.D *
    • 33. Accepted abbreviations used in literary works or in some form of communication require that a dot or period is set after each letter : a.C A.D. a.m/A.M. * (ante cibum) before meals (Anno Domini) in the year of the Lord (ante meridian) before noon
    • 34. Propriety in formal writing or communication requires that numbers should be spelled out in words whenever they are used in any o the following instances: * When a number is used to begin a sentence *When a number is used in reference to decades or centuries *When a number is used to indicate ordinal numbers *
    • Thank you! 