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Intonation

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  • 1. INTONATIONINTONATION INSTRUCTOR:INSTRUCTOR: NGUYEN THANH NGANGUYEN THANH NGA Presented By:Presented By: Pham Thi Kim DungPham Thi Kim Dung Cao Ngo Thuy DuyenCao Ngo Thuy Duyen Tran Thi Trung HieuTran Thi Trung Hieu Lu Thi NhienLu Thi Nhien
  • 2. INTONATIONINTONATION IntroductionIntroduction We can divide language into languages which are toned and thoseWe can divide language into languages which are toned and those which are not, English falls into second category, that is, it is not awhich are not, English falls into second category, that is, it is not a tone languagetone language becausebecause different tones make no difference indifferent tones make no difference in meanings.meanings. Tone Language Chinese Vietnamese NOT tone language ENGLISH
  • 3. Vietnamese ma má mà mã mạ English me me? INTONATIONINTONATION  These different pitch patterns that do not change but merelyThese different pitch patterns that do not change but merely add to the basic meaning of words are called INTONATION.add to the basic meaning of words are called INTONATION.
  • 4. DefinitionDefinition When speaking, speakers generally raise andWhen speaking, speakers generally raise and lower the pitch of their voice, forming pitchlower the pitch of their voice, forming pitch patterns. The changes in pitch are calledpatterns. The changes in pitch are called intonation. Intonation is often called theintonation. Intonation is often called the melody of language since it refers to themelody of language since it refers to the pattern of pitch changes that we use when wepattern of pitch changes that we use when we speakspeak.. INTONATIONINTONATION
  • 5. Tone – unit and the structure ofTone – unit and the structure of tone unit:tone unit:  Tone:Tone: Tone is the overall behavior of pitch.Tone is the overall behavior of pitch.  Pitch:Pitch: Pitch is frequency of vibration ofPitch is frequency of vibration of vocal cords.vocal cords.  Tone unit:Tone unit: For the purpose of analyzingFor the purpose of analyzing intonation, usually tone – unit is alwaysintonation, usually tone – unit is always composed of more than one syllable.composed of more than one syllable.
  • 6. Analysis of Utterances toAnalysis of Utterances to Understand Tone – UnitUnderstand Tone – Unit One syllable utteranceOne syllable utterance YouYou This is one tone unit.This is one tone unit. Three Syllable UtteranceThree Syllable Utterance Is itIs it you?you? This is one tone unit.This is one tone unit.
  • 7. The Structure of Tone UnitThe Structure of Tone Unit The structure of tone unit comprises of:The structure of tone unit comprises of:  Tonic syllableTonic syllable (TS)(TS)  HeadHead (H)(H)  Pre-HeadPre-Head (PH)(PH)  TailTail (T)(T)
  • 8. (i)(i) Tonic SyllableTonic Syllable  Tonic syllable is an obligatory component ofTonic syllable is an obligatory component of tone unit. The centre of the unit, around whichtone unit. The centre of the unit, around which everything else is constructed, is the toniceverything else is constructed, is the tonic syllable, or nucleus.syllable, or nucleus. For example:For example: John, is it you?John, is it you?  In this example, there are two tone unitsIn this example, there are two tone units because there are, two tonic syllables in it.because there are, two tonic syllables in it. First is John, one syllable utterance) second isFirst is John, one syllable utterance) second is it you? (Three syllable utterance).it you? (Three syllable utterance).  Tonic stress:Tonic stress: The stress that tonic syllable is having isThe stress that tonic syllable is having is called tonic stress.called tonic stress.
  • 9. (ii)(ii) The Head:The Head:  The head is all that part of a tone unit thatThe head is all that part of a tone unit that extends from the first stressed syllable up to theextends from the first stressed syllable up to the tonic syllable.tonic syllable. For example:For example: Give me,Give me, those?those? HeadHead TSTS If there is no stressed syllable proceeding theIf there is no stressed syllable proceeding the tonic syllable, there cannot be any head.tonic syllable, there cannot be any head.
  • 10. (iii)(iii) The Pre-Head:The Pre-Head: The unstressed syllable before the head is called pre-head.The unstressed syllable before the head is called pre-head. For exampleFor example In anIn an hourhour Pre-headPre-head TSTS Pre-head can be found in two situations.Pre-head can be found in two situations. When there is no head.When there is no head. As inAs in For example:For example: In anIn an hourhour PHPH TSTS b) When the head is after the unstressed syllable.b) When the head is after the unstressed syllable. For example:For example: InIn aa littlelittle lessless thanthan anan,, hourhour PHPH HH TSTS
  • 11. (iv)(iv) The tailThe tail Any syllable that follows the tonic syllable or anyAny syllable that follows the tonic syllable or any syllable between tonic syllable and of tone unit is calledsyllable between tonic syllable and of tone unit is called the Tail.the Tail. For exampleFor example:: LookLook atat itit TSTS TailTail II mightmight buybuy itit HH TSTS TailTail
  • 12. Forms of IntonationForms of Intonation Linguistics are not in complete agreement about the preciseLinguistics are not in complete agreement about the precise number of tones which are used by speakers of English somenumber of tones which are used by speakers of English some distinguish as many as eight, others work with four or five. Thedistinguish as many as eight, others work with four or five. The following tones are the ones most usually encountered.following tones are the ones most usually encountered. FallFall Rise – fallRise – fall Fall – riseFall – rise RiseRise LevelLevel
  • 13. 1.1. FallFall It is regarded as neutral tone and gives the impression ofIt is regarded as neutral tone and gives the impression of ‘finality’.‘finality’. ExampleExample:: A:A: Have you attended the class?Have you attended the class? B:B: YesYes.. (It will be understood that the question is now answered(It will be understood that the question is now answered and that there is nothing more to be said.)and that there is nothing more to be said.)
  • 14. 2.2. RiseRise This tone conveys an impression that something more is toThis tone conveys an impression that something more is to follow.follow. For example:For example: A:A: ExcuseExcuse me!me! (wishing to attract B’S attention.)(wishing to attract B’S attention.) B:B: YesYes (B’S reply is, perhaps, equivalent to what do you want?)(B’S reply is, perhaps, equivalent to what do you want?)
  • 15. 3.3. Fall – riseFall – rise This tone shows limited agreement, uncertainty,This tone shows limited agreement, uncertainty, and doubt.and doubt. For example:For example: A:A: I have heard that it’s a good college.I have heard that it’s a good college. B:B: YesYes (B does not completely agree and A would(B does not completely agree and A would probably expect B to go on to explain why heprobably expect B to go on to explain why he was reluctant to agree).was reluctant to agree).
  • 16. 4.4. Rise – FallRise – Fall This is used to convey rather strong feelings ofThis is used to convey rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise. This tone isapproval, disapproval or surprise. This tone is used rarely in English.used rarely in English. A:A: You wouldn’t do on awful thing like that,You wouldn’t do on awful thing like that, would you?would you? B:B: NoNo
  • 17. 5.5. LevelLevel This tone is neutral and uninterested.This tone is neutral and uninterested. High levelHigh level YesYes NoNo Low levelLow level YesYes NoNo It is used in English language in a restricted context. ItIt is used in English language in a restricted context. It almost always conveys a feeling of routine,almost always conveys a feeling of routine, uninteresting or boring.uninteresting or boring. For example:For example: A teacher calling names of the pupils from a register.A teacher calling names of the pupils from a register.
  • 18. Uses of TonesUses of Tones The tone-units and kinds of tone – units haveThe tone-units and kinds of tone – units have already been discussed. Now we will try toalready been discussed. Now we will try to establish a correlation between the various typesestablish a correlation between the various types of sentences (tone – units or tone groups) and theof sentences (tone – units or tone groups) and the tones with which they are generally said. Thus,tones with which they are generally said. Thus, we will see which types of tones are used to saywe will see which types of tones are used to say which type of tone units.which type of tone units.
  • 19. a.a. Falling Tone (neutral tone& impression of finality)Falling Tone (neutral tone& impression of finality) The following types of sentences are generally said with a fallingThe following types of sentences are generally said with a falling tone.tone. a)a) StatementsStatements which are complete and definitewhich are complete and definite.. e.g. He’s just been promoted.e.g. He’s just been promoted. b)b) Wh – questionsWh – questions which are matter of fact and intended to be neither polite norwhich are matter of fact and intended to be neither polite nor impolite.impolite. e.g. Where are you going?e.g. Where are you going? What are you doing?What are you doing? c)c) CommandsCommands e.g Shut the door.e.g Shut the door. d)d) InvitationsInvitations e.g. Come over for a cup of coffee.e.g. Come over for a cup of coffee. Come and dine with us.Come and dine with us. e)e) ExclamationsExclamations What a fine weather!What a fine weather! How beautiful:How beautiful: f)f) TagTag questionsquestions forcing the listner to agree with the speaker.forcing the listner to agree with the speaker. e.g. You are coming todaye.g. You are coming today,, aren’t you?aren’t you? He can’t help it / can he?He can’t help it / can he?
  • 20. b.b. Rising ToneRising Tone (something more is to follow)(something more is to follow) The rising tone is used with the following tone – groups:The rising tone is used with the following tone – groups: i.i. Yes / No type questionsYes / No type questions e.g. Was he present yesterday?e.g. Was he present yesterday? ii.ii. StatementsStatements intended to be a questions.intended to be a questions. e.g. you won’t come?e.g. you won’t come? (( He isn’t going.He isn’t going. ))
  • 21. iii.iii. RequestRequest e.g. pass me the dish, please.e.g. pass me the dish, please. iv.iv. CommandCommand intended to sound like a request.intended to sound like a request. e.g. close the door,e.g. close the door, Don’t be late.Don’t be late. V.V. Wh – questionsWh – questions showing politeness friendliness, warmth,showing politeness friendliness, warmth, personal interest.personal interest. e.g. How are you?e.g. How are you? What is your name, child?What is your name, child? VI.VI. RepetitionRepetition questionsquestions which repeats some one else’s question orwhich repeats some one else’s question or wants him to repeat some information.wants him to repeat some information. e.g. what did I say?e.g. what did I say?
  • 22. i.i. Incomplete statement leading to a following tone group.Incomplete statement leading to a following tone group. ii.ii. Statement intended to be a ‘correction’ of the informationStatement intended to be a ‘correction’ of the information received.received. e.g (he has three sons) He has foure.g (he has three sons) He has four iii.iii. Statement intended to be a warning reproach or to expressStatement intended to be a warning reproach or to express concern.concern. e.g you, mustn’t go like this (warning)e.g you, mustn’t go like this (warning) Be careful (concern)Be careful (concern) iv.iv. Imperative meant to be a pleading request.Imperative meant to be a pleading request. e.g don’t get on my nervee.g don’t get on my nerve v.v. Statement which shows a kind of reservation on the part ofStatement which shows a kind of reservation on the part of the speaker.the speaker. He’s good (I can’t trust him)He’s good (I can’t trust him) I can do it tomorrow (but not today)I can do it tomorrow (but not today) c. Falling-Rising Tone (limited agreement uncertainityc. Falling-Rising Tone (limited agreement uncertainity and doubt)and doubt)
  • 23. d.d. Rising-Falling Tone (strong feelings ofRising-Falling Tone (strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise)approval, disapproval or surprise) The following tone groups are said with the rising-fallingThe following tone groups are said with the rising-falling tone:tone: i.i. Statement showing enthusiastic agreement.Statement showing enthusiastic agreement. e.g Yes, of coursee.g Yes, of course ii.ii. Question showing suspicion, indignation incredulity, orQuestion showing suspicion, indignation incredulity, or mockery.mockery. e.g what has he been doing? (Suspicion)e.g what has he been doing? (Suspicion) Will he be able to do it? (Mocking, suspicion)Will he be able to do it? (Mocking, suspicion) iii.iii. Imperative expression petulance, haughtinessImperative expression petulance, haughtiness e.g Go and break your head (haughtiness)e.g Go and break your head (haughtiness) iv.iv. Exclamation expressing sarcasm, irony.Exclamation expressing sarcasm, irony. e.g How good for you (sarcasm)e.g How good for you (sarcasm) oh, really (sarcasm)oh, really (sarcasm)
  • 24. Functions of intonationFunctions of intonation  AAttitudinal function of intonationttitudinal function of intonation ((to show feeling, emotionto show feeling, emotion))  Accentual function of intonationAccentual function of intonation (to show different kind of sentence)(to show different kind of sentence)  Grammatical function of intonationGrammatical function of intonation (to concentrate attention)(to concentrate attention)  Discourse function of intonationDiscourse function of intonation (to show the main core of the message, to(to show the main core of the message, to conduct towards the response of the listener)conduct towards the response of the listener)
  • 25. IntonationIntonation  No completely satisfactory definition can be given for thisNo completely satisfactory definition can be given for this term but give a rough ideaterm but give a rough idea J. SethiJ. Sethi defines it as:defines it as:  Different pitches of the voice combine to form patterns ofDifferent pitches of the voice combine to form patterns of pitch variation, or tones, which together constitute thepitch variation, or tones, which together constitute the intonation of the language.intonation of the language.  The intonation of the language’ thus’ refers to the rise and fallThe intonation of the language’ thus’ refers to the rise and fall of the pitch of the voice when we speak. One of the mostof the pitch of the voice when we speak. One of the most important tasks in analyzing intonation is to listen to speaker’simportant tasks in analyzing intonation is to listen to speaker’s pitch and recognize the tone.pitch and recognize the tone.  Speakers are said select from a choice of tones according toSpeakers are said select from a choice of tones according to how they want the utterance to be heard.how they want the utterance to be heard.  Tone is carried by the tonic syllable whereas intonation isTone is carried by the tonic syllable whereas intonation is carried by the tone unit. A tone unit is consisted ofcarried by the tone unit. A tone unit is consisted of  Pre-head, head, tonic syllable, and a tail.Pre-head, head, tonic syllable, and a tail.  (PH)(PH) (H) TS (T)(H) TS (T)
  • 26. Thank you for your attention!