Tokamak reactor


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Tokamak (Tokomak) reactors are being used for fusion, the problem is their mechanism of working is a question for many students, because they can't correspond it to their knowledge about physics.

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Tokamak reactor

  1. 1. How does a Tokomak reactor work: Abstract Tokomak is a kind of reactor like all other reactors that we have in our plants like PWRs, Breeders and etc. The problem is, most of the time we don’t have an easy and good description for this structure specially about its way of working. Introduction Tokomak’s action is based on magnetic fields therefore , first of all Hydrogen plasma (fusion factor ) is being set among toroid and then for creating magnetic field ,toroid motion of plasma among toroid’s space and reaching to the special temperature ( about 100 million Kelvin -that we need for fusion), we should make about 8600000 Volt for this kind of reactor but only in a pulse mode ,if we don’t obey this rule ,we will destroy Tokomak . As we make this much voltage, we will make current in the toroid of Tokomak which can ride plasma in the way of its magnetic field. Now plasma acts as a toroid by itself, in this case if we suppose that the direction of current correspond to the direction of plasma (example: to the right-in picture), created magnetic field will be toroid and its direction is upward (according to the picture). Manufacturers build the design of this reactor in a special shape: means by the time the direction of magnetic field is upward for example Tokomak will make a current in horizontal toroid (outer toroid) which can create a field but in downward direction, so the resultant of these two forces will be zero. Upward field +downward field = 0 In this position, plasma won’t change and has its own shape. As the voltage of Tokomak increases, the temperature of our system will be increased too till it reaches to the special temperature that we need for fusion, by this time fusion happens.
  2. 2. the prominent differences among this reactor and others are: • First: Tokomak is being used for fusion and others (PWRs, Breeders, CANDU…)are for fission. • Second: It is being used in labs and because of this we need high voltage for its striking up, therefore reactors which are being used in plants don’t need high voltage for working so they start by breaking the nuclei of some special fuels. • Third: you can separate Tokomak’s special devices and set them up again .but if you try this action for fission reactors, they will completely destroy. Conclusion By all declarations which have been said, although tokomaks are experimental reactors but they can be the most beneficial ones. Understanding their mechanism for working can help us to figure their benefits out better. • Written by: Mahsa Mehrangiz