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Bahan kuliah Otomasi Manufaktur

Bahan kuliah Otomasi Manufaktur

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    3. industrial control system 3. industrial control system Presentation Transcript

    • Ch 5 Sistem Kendali Industri Oleh Mahros Darsin diterjemahkan dr bukunya GrooverBagian:1. Industri Proses vs. Industri Manufakturing Diskret2. Kendali Continnyu vs. Diskret3. Kendali Proses Komputer ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Definisi Kendali IndustriAturan otomatis dari operasi unit dikaitkan dengan peralatan sekaligus integrasi dan koordinasi unit operasi ke sistem produksi yang lebih luas. Unit operasi Biasanya merujuk ke operasi manufaktur Dan juga diaplikasikan ke material handling atau perangkat lainnya. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Industri Proses vs. Industri Manufakturing Diskret Industri proses Operasi produksi dibuat terhadap sejumlah material Materials: cairan, gas, powders, dll. Industri Manufakturing Diskret Operasi produksi dibuat terhadap sejumlah material Unit: komponen atau produk ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Definisi: Variabel dan Parameter Variabel – luaran proses Parameter – masukan proses Variabel dan parameter kontinyu – tidak akan terganggu selama waktu proses Juga dipertimbangkan sebagai analog – dapat diambil sembarang nilai dalam rentang harga tertentu Mereka tidak terbatas pada sebuah nilai diskret yg diset Parameter dan variabel diskret – dapat hanya mengambil nilai tertentu pada rentang yang diberikan ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Variabel dan Parameter DiskretKategori: Binary – dapat memakai dua nilai, baik ON atau OFF ataupun 1 atau 0, dll Diskret lain dari binary – dapat memakai lebih dari dua nilai tetapi bukan nilai tak terbatas Data Pulsa/denyut – serangkaian pulsa yang dapat dihitung ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Variabel dan Parameter Kontinyu dan Diskret ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Tipe Kontrol Sebagaimana ada dua jenis variabel dan parameter pada proses, maka ada dua jenis kendali: Kendali kontinyuous - variabel dan parameter adalah kontinyu dan analog Kendali Diskret - variabel dan parameter adalah diskret, umumnya diskret biner ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Kendali Kontinyu Tujuan umumnya untuk menjaga nilai variabel luaran pada level yang diinginkan. Parameter dan variabe umumnya kontinyu. Mirip seperti sistem kendali tertutup. Kebanyakan proses industri kontinyu memiliki umpan balik jamak. Contoh proses kontinyu: Kendali luaran reaksi kimia yang bergantung pada suhu, tekanan, dll Kendali posisi pahat relatif terhahadap benda kerja pada mesin CNC. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Tipe Kendali Proses Kontinyu Regulatory control Feedforward control Steady-State optimization Adaptive control On-line search strategies Teknik kendali lainnya: Expert systems Neural networks ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Regulatory Control (Kendali Regulatory) Tujuan – menjaga kinerja proses pada level tertentu atau dalam pita toleransi yang diberikan pada level tersebut. Sesuai jika kinerja berhubungan dengan ukuran kualitas Ukuran kinerja kadang-kadang dihitung berdasarkan pada beberapa variabel luaran. Ukuran kinerja disebut sebagai Index of performance (IP) Masalah dengan kendali regulatory adalah selalu ada error dalam rangka memulai aksi kendali. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Regulatory Control ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Feedforward Control Tujuan – mengantisipasi efek gangguan yang akan Mengganggu proses dengan penyensoran dan pengompensasian sebelum mempengarugi proses. Model matematis menangkap efek gangguan terhadap proses. Kompensasi lengkap untuk gangguan adalah sulit karena variasi, ketidakpresisian pada model matematis dan ketidaktepatan dalam aksi kendali. Biasanya dikobinasi dengan kendali regulatory Kendali regulatory dan feedforward control lebih dekat berhubungan dengan industri proses. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Feedforward Control Dikombinasi dengan Feedback Control ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Steady-State OptimizationKelas teknik optimasi ketika proses menunjukkan karakteristik sbb: 1. Index of performance (IP) yang terdefinisi dengan baik 2. Hubungan yang dikenal antara variabel proses dan IP 3. Nilai parameter sistem yang mengoptimasi IP dapat ditentukan secara matematis. Open-loop system Optimization techniques termasuk kalkulus diferensial, pemrograman matematika, dll. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Steady State (Open-Loop) Optimal Control ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Adaptive Control Karena optimasi steady-state adalah open-loop, maka tidak dapat mengompensasi gangguan. Adaptive control adalah bentuk self-correcting dari kendali optimal termasuk kendali umpan balik. Mengukur variabel proses yang relevan selama operasi (kendali umpan balik). Menggunakan sebuah algoritma kendali yang mencoba mengoptimasi beberapa index of performance (optimal control) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Adaptive Control beroperasi pada Lingkungan Waktu Bervariasi Lingkungan berubah terhadap waktu dan perubahan berpotensi memengaruhi kinerja sistem. Contoh: Pesawat Supersonic beroperasi secara berbeda pada penerbangan subsonic daripada pada supersonic. Jika algoritma kendali adalah tetap, sistem mungkin membentuk sesuatu yang cukup berbeda pada lingkungan yang berlainan.Sebuah sistem adaptive control dirancang untuk mengompensasi atas lingkungan perubahan dengan mengubah beberapa aspek algoritma kendalinya untuk mecapai kinerja yang optimal. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Tiga Fungsi dalam Adaptive Control1. Fungsi Identifikasi – nilai IP sekarang ditentukan berdasarkan pada pengukuran proses variabel.2. Fungsi Keputusan – putuskan apa perubahan yang harus dibuat untuk meningkatkan kinerja sistem. Ubah satu atau lebih parameter input Ubah beberapa fungsi internal dari controller3. Fungsi Modifikasi – menerapkan fungsi keputusan. Berkonsentrasi dengan perubahan fisik (hardware drpd software) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Adaptive Control System ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Strategi Pencarian On-Line Kelas khusus adaptive control ketika fungsi keputusan tidak dapat didefinisikan secara efisien. Hubungan antara parameter input IP tidak diketahui atau tidak cukup dikenal untuk diimplementasikan bentuk sebelumnya dari adaptive control. Selainnya, eksperimen dibuat pada proses Perubahan sistematik kecil dibuat pada parameter input untuk mengamati efeknya. Berdasar pada efek yang teramati, perubahan yang lebih besar dibuat untuk menggerakkan ke arah kinerja optimal. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Sistem Kendali Diskret Parameter dan variabel proses keduanya diskret. Parameter dan variabel proses diubah pada discrete moments in time Perubahan didefinisikan lebih lanjut sebagai program Instruksi. Perubahan dilaksanakan untuk salah satu alasan berikut: 1. Pernyataan sistem (system state) telah berubah (perubahan dipicu event) 2. Sejumlah kecil waktu telah terhapus (perubahan dipicu oleh waktu) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Event-Driven Changes Dilaksanakan oleh pengendali sebagai respon terhadap beberapa event yang telah mengubah state of the system. Contoh: Sebuah robot memuat benda ke fixture, dan benda tsb disensor dengan sebuah limit switch dalam fixture. The diminishing level of plastic dalam hopper pada mesin injection molding dipicu oleh „a low-level switch‟ yang membuka katup dan mengalirkan biji plastik baru ke dalam hopper. Penghitungan jumlah komponen yang lewat di atas konveyor dengan sensor optis. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Time-Driven Events Dilaksanakan dengan pengendali baik pada poin waktu maupun setelah penghapusan waktu tertentu. Contoh: Pabrik “shop clock” menyuarakan bel pada waktu kapan menunjukkan mulai shift, mulai istirahat dan waktu henti dan akhir shift. Operasi perlakuan panas harus dilaksanakan selama waktu tertentu. Pada mesin cuci, siklus perputaran diatur beroperasi dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Sebaliknya, pengisisna bak mandi adalah dipicu oleh Keadaan ketika isi bak mandi berkurang (event-driven) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Dua tipe Kendali Diskret1. Kombinasi kendali logika dan kendali eksekusi dari perubahan event-driven. Juga dikenal sebagai kendali logika. Luaran pada keadaan sebarang tergantung atas nilai masukan. Parameter dan variabel = 0 or 1 (OFF or ON)2. Kendali sekuensial – mengendalikan eksekusi waktu - driven changes Menggunakan perangkat pewaktu internal untuk menentukan kapan memulai perubahan dalam variabel Luaran. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Computer Process Control (Kendali Proses Komputer) Bermula pada tahun 1950-an pada industri proses. Mainframe computers – lambat, mahal, tidak handal Set point control Direct digital control (DDC) system diinstall pada 1962 Minicomputer diperkenalkan akhir 1960-an, microcomputer diperkenalkan pada awal 1970-an. Programmable logic controllers diperknalkan awal 1970-an untuk kendali proses diskret. Distributed control dimulai sekitar 1975 PCs untuk kendali proses awal 1990-an. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Dua Persyaratan Dasar untuk Real-Time Process Control1. Interupsi Proses- terinisiasi Pengendali harus merespon masukan sinyal dari prosess (event-driven changes) Bergantung apada prioritas relatif, pengendali mungkin menginterupsi program saat ini untuk merespon.2. Timer-initiated actions (Aksi ter-inisiasi pewaktu) Pengendali harus dapat mengeksekusi aksi tertentu pada titik-titik tertentu dalam waktu (time-driven change Contoh: (1) scanning sensor values, (2) turning switches on and off, (3) re-computing optimal parameter values ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Persyaratan Kendali Komputer Lainnya3. Perintah Computer untuk meproses Untuk mengendalikan aktuator proses4. System- and program-initiated events System initiated events – komunikasi antara komputer dan peripherals Program initiated events – aksi terkait non-prosess misalnya pencetakan berita.5. Operator-initiated events –menerima masukan dari personnel Contoh: emergency stop ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Kapabilitas Kendali Computer Polling (data sampling) Interlocks Interrupt system Exception handling ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Polling (Data Sampling)Penyampelan data berkala untuk menengarai status proses. Issues: 1. Polling frequency – interval waktu bolak-balik antara sampel data. 2. Polling order – serangkaian titik tempat koleksi data disample. 3. Polling format – prosedur penyampelan alternative: All sensors di-polled setiap siklus Update hanya data yang berubah pada diklus ini High-level and low-level scanning ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • InterlocksMekanisme perlindungan untuk pengoordinasian aktivitas dua atau lebih perangkat dan pencegahan satu perangkat dari memengaruhi perangkat lainnya.1. Input interlocks – signal dari perangkat eksternal dikirim ke controller; fungsi yang mungkin: Melaksanakan program siklus kerja Menyela eksekusi program siklus kerja2. Output interlocks – signal dikirim dari pengendali ke perangkat external. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Interrupt SystemFitur kendali komputer yang mengjinkan pengeksekusian program saat ini supaya ditunda sehingga program lain dapat dijalankan sebagai respon atas sinyal masukan yang mengindikasikan event yang lebih prioritas. Internal interrupt – dibangkitkan oleh komputer itu sendiri Contoh: timer-initiated events, polling, system- and program initiated interrupts External interrupts – dibangkitkan ekternal ke komputer Contoh: process-initiated interrupts, operator inputs ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Interrupt Systems: (a) Single-Level and (b) Multilevel(a)(b) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Exception HandlingPengecualian adalah kejadian keluar dari keadaan normal atau operasi yang diinginkan dari sistem kendali proses. Contoh pengecualian: Product quality problem Variable proses di luar jangkauan operasi normal Kekurangan bahan baku Kondisi berbahaya misalnya api Ketidakfungsian pengendali Exception handling adalah bentuk pendeteksian kesalahan dan perbaikan. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Bentuk-bentuk Kendali Proses Komputer1. Computer process monitoring2. Direct digital control (DDC)3. Numerical control and robotics4. Programmable logic control5. Supervisory control6. Distributed control systems and personal computers ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Computer Process MonitoringKomputer mengamati proses dan peralatan yang berhubungan, mengumpulkan dan merekam data dari operasi. Komputer tidak mengendalikan proses secara langsung. Tipe data yang dikoleksi: Data proses – variabel parameter input and output Data perangkat – utilisasi mesin, penjadwalan penggantian pahat, diagnosis ketidakfungsian. Data Produk – untuk memenuhi persyaratan pemerintah mis. farmasi dan medikal. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • (a) Process Monitoring, (b) Open-Loop Control, and (c) Closed-Loop Control(a)(b)(c) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Direct Digital Control (DDC)Adalah bentuk kendali proses komputer dengan komponen tertentu dalam sistem kendali analog konvensional diganti dengan komputer digital. Circa: tahun 1960-an mengguanakn mainframes Aplikasi: industri proses Dikerjakan pada time-shared, basis data sampel daripada secara kontinyu dengan komponen terdidikai/resmi. Komponen tetap dalam DDC: sensor dan aktuator. Komponen diganti dalam DDC: kendali analog, perekaman dan instrumen display, set point dials. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Loo Kendali Analog pada Umumnya ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Komponen dari Direct Digital Control System ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • DDC (lanjutan) Pada mulanya dipandang sebagai sebuah alat yang lebih efisien dengan fungsi yang sama seperti kendali analog. Kesempatan berikutnya menjadi lebih nyata akan guna DDC: Lebih banyak opsi kendali daripada kendali analog (PID control), mis. penggabungan antara kendali diskret dan kontinyu. Integrasi dan optimasi loop jamak. Editing program kendali. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Numerical Control and Robotics Computer numerical control (CNC) – komputer memerintah mesin perkakas melalui serangkaian langkah pemrosesan yang didefinisikan oleh program instruksi. Tampilan yang menonjol pada NC – kendali posisi pahat terhadap objek yang diproses. Penghitungan diperlukan untuk menentukan trayektori pahat. Industrial robotics – manipulator joints dikendalikan untuk menggerakkan dan orientasi ujung lengan mencapai posisi pada siklus kerja. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)Pengendali berbasi microprocessor yang mengeksekusi program instruksi untuk mengimplemenasi logika, urutan, perhitungan, dan fungsi aritmetik untuk mengendalikan mesin industri dan proses. Diperkenalkan sekitar tahun 1970-an untuk mengganti pengendali rele elektromekanis pada manaufakturing produk diskret. PLC saat ini untuk kendali diskret dan kontinyu baik pada industri proses maupun industri produk diskret. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Supervisory ControlPada industri proses, kendali supervisory menunjukkan sebuah sistem kendali yang mengatur aktivitas sejumlah unit operasi terintegrasi untuk mencapai tujuan ekonomi tertentu. Pada manufakturing diskret, kendali supervisori adalah sistem kendali yang memerintahkan dan menkoordinasi aktivitas beberapa buah perangkat antarmuka pada sebuah sistem manufakturing. Fungsi: penjadwalan produksi efisien, pelacakan umur pahat, optimasi operasi parameter. Lebih dekat diasosiasikan dengan industri proses. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Supervisory Control Superimposed on Process Level Control System ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Distributed Control Systems (DCS)Multiple microcomputers dihubungjan bersama untuk berbagi dan mendistribusi beban kerja kendali proses. Tampilan: Stasiun kendali proses jamak untuk mengendalikan loop individual dan perangkatnya. Ruang kendali pusat tempat kendali supervisi dikerjakan. Stasiun operator lokal untuk kelebihan. Jaringan komunikasi (jalur data). ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Distributed Control System ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Keuntungan DCS Dapat diisntstal pada kenfigurasi yang sangat mendasar, kemudian dikembangkan dan dipertinggi sesuai kebutuhan m Multiple computers memfasilitasi parallel multitasking. Redundancy akibat multiple computers Kabel kendali berkurang dibanding konfigurasi pengendali terpusat. Jaringan menyediakan informasi proses seluruh pabrik sehingga pabrik dan manajemen proses lebih efisien. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • PC pada Kendali ProsesDua kategori aplikasi PC pada kendali proses:1. Operator interface – PC diintegrasikan ke satu atau lebih PLC dan perangkat lainnya yang mengendalikan proses secara langsung. PC melakukan fungsi pemantauan dan pengawasan tertentu, namun tidak mengendalikan proses scr langsu2. Direct control – PC diintegrasikan langsung ke proses dan mengendalikan operasinya secara real time. Pemikiran tradisional adalah inilah beresiko. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Enablers of PCs for Direct Control Pekerja umumnya sudah terbiasa dengan PCs. Ketersediaan Pc dengan kinerja tinggi. Kecepatan siklus PC saat ini melebihi kecepatan PLC. Filosofi arsitek terbuka dalam perancangan sistem kendali. Vendor Hardware dan software mengikuti standar yang memungkinkan produk mereka dapat diantaroperasikan (interoperable). Sistem operasi PC yang memfasilitasi kendali real-time dan jaringan. Keterbukaan PC untuk level industri. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Enterprise-Wide Integrasi Data Pabrik Para manager punya akses langsung ke operasi pabrik. Para perencana punya data terkini tentang waktu produksi dan tarif untuk tujuan penjadwalan. Personel penjualan dapat menyediakan tanggal pengiriman realistis, berdasar pada beban kerja terkini di pabrik. Pelacak pemesanan dapat menyediakan status informasi terkini untuk menanyai pelanggan. QC dapat mengakses isu mutu dari pesanan sebelumnya. Accounting mempunyai data ongkos produksi terkini. Personel produksi dapat mengakses data perancangan produk untuk menjelaskan kekaburan. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
    • Enterprise-Wide PC-based Distributed Control System ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.