CHEMICAL BONDING
•IONIC BONDS
•COVALENT BONDS
•HYDROGEN BONDS
•METALLIC BONDS
IONIC BONDING
When an atom of a nonmetal
takes one or more electrons
from an atom of a metal
so both atoms end up with
eig...
IONIC BONDING
IS THE COMPOUND
AN IONIC COMPOUND?
METALMETAL NONMETAL
SUBSCRIPTS
IONIC BOND FORMATION
Neutral atoms come near each other.
Electron(s) are transferred from the Metal atom
to the Non-metal ...
IONIC BONDING
Metals will tend to lose electrons
and become
POSITIVE CATIONS
Normal sodium atom loses one electron to beco...
IONIC BONDING
Nonmetals will tend to gain
electrons and become
NEGATIVE ANIONS
Normal chlorine atom gains an electron to b...
POLYATOMIC IONS--a group
of atoms that act like one ion
NH4
+1
--ammonium ion
CO3
-2
--carbonate ion
PO4
-3
--phosphate io...
IONIC BONDING
SODIUM SULFATE
Properties of Ionic Compounds
• Crystalline structure.
• A regular repeating
arrangement of ions in the
solid.
• Ions are ...
Crystalline structure
+
+
+ +
+
+
++
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
The
POSITIVE
CATIONS
stick to the
NEGATIVE
ANIONS, like
a magnet.
Do they Conduct?
• Conducting electricity is allowing
charges to move.
• In a solid, the ions are locked in place.
• Ionic...
Ionic solids are brittle
+ - + -
+- +-
+ - + -
+- +-
Ionic solids are brittle
+ - + -
+- +-
+ - + -
+- +-
• Strong Repulsion breaks crystal apart.
COVALENT BONDING
When an atom of one
nonmetal
shares one or more
electrons
with an atom of another
nonmetal so both atoms
...
COVALENT BOND
FORMATION
When one nonmetal shares one or
more electrons with an atom of
another nonmetal so both atoms end
...
COVALENT BONDING
IS THE COMPOUND
A COVALENT COMPOUND?
NONMETALNONMETAL NONMETAL
YES since it is made of only nonmetal elem...
Covalent bonding
• Fluorine has seven valence electrons
F
Covalent bonding
• Fluorine has seven valence electrons
• A second atom also has seven
F F
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
F F
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
F F
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
F F
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
F F
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
F F
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
Both end with full...
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
Both end with full...
Covalent bonding
Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven
By sharing electrons
Both end with full...
Single Covalent Bond
• A sharing of two valence electrons.
• Only nonmetals and Hydrogen.
• Different from an ionic bond b...
Water
H
O
Each hydrogen has 1 valence
electron
Each hydrogen wants 1 more
The oxygen has 6 valence
electrons
The oxygen wa...
Water
• Put the pieces together
• The first hydrogen is happy
• The oxygen still wants one more
H O
Water
• The second hydrogen attaches
• Every atom has full energy levels
H O
H
Carbon dioxide
• CO2 - Carbon is central atom
( I have to tell you)
• Carbon has 4 valence
electrons
• Wants 4 more
• Oxyg...
Carbon dioxide
• Attaching 1 oxygen leaves the oxygen 1
short and the carbon 3 short
OC
Carbon dioxide
Attaching the second oxygen leaves
both oxygen 1 short and the carbon 2
short
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
OCO
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds
Each atom gets to count all the atoms
in the b...
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds
Each atom gets to count all the atoms
in the b...
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds
Each atom gets to count all the atoms
in the b...
Carbon dioxide
The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds
Each atom gets to count all the atoms
in the b...
How to draw them
• Add up all the valence electrons.
• Count up the total number of electrons to
make all atoms happy.
• S...
Examples
• HCN C is central atom
• N - has 5 valence electrons wants 8
• C - has 4 valence electrons wants 8
• H - has 1 v...
HCN
• Put in single bonds
• Need 2 more bonds
• Must go between C and N
NH C
HCN
Put in single bonds
Need 2 more bonds
Must go between C and N
Uses 8 electrons - 2 more to add
NH C
HCN
Put in single bonds
Need 2 more bonds
Must go between C and N
Uses 8 electrons - 2 more to add
Must go on N to fill oc...
Polar Bonds
• When the atoms in a bond are the same, the
electrons are shared equally.
• This is a nonpolar covalent bond....
Electronegativity
• A measure of how strongly the atoms attract
electrons in a bond.
• The bigger the electronegativity di...
How to show a bond is polar
• Isn’t a whole charge just a partial charge
∀δ+ means a partially positive
∀δ− means a partia...
Polar Molecules
Molecules with ends
Polar Molecules
• Molecules with a positive and a negative end
• Requires two things to be true
The molecule must contain ...
Is it polar?
• HF
• H2O
• NH3
• CCl4
Intermolecular Forces
What holds molecules to each other
Intermolecular Forces
• They are what make solid and liquid molecular
compounds possible.
• The weakest are called van der...
Dipole interactions
• Depend on the number of electrons
• More electrons stronger forces
• Bigger molecules more electrons...
Dipole interactions
• Occur when polar molecules are attracted to
each other.
• Slightly stronger than dispersion forces.
...
Dipole interactions
• Occur when polar molecules are attracted to
each other.
• Slightly stronger than dispersion forces.
...
Dipole Interactionsδ+
δ−
δ+
δ−
δ+
δ−
δ+
δ−
δ+
δ−
δ+
δ−δ
+
δ
−
δ+
δ−
Hydrogen bonding
• Are the attractive force caused by hydrogen
bonded to F, O, or N.
• F, O, and N are very electronegativ...
Hydrogen Bonding
H
H
O
δ+
δ-
δ+
H H
Oδ+
δ-
δ+
Hydrogen bonding
H
H
O H
H
O
HH
O
H
H
O
HH
O
H
H
O
HH
O
MOLECULAR
SHAPES
OF
COVALENT
COMPOUNDS
VSepR tHEORY
What Vsepr
means
Since electrons do not like each
other, because of their negative
charges, they orient themselves
as far ...
Things to
remember
•Atoms bond to form an Octet
(8 outer electrons/full outer
energy level)
•Bonded electrons take up less...
Linear
•Number of Bonds = 2
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2
•Bond Angle = 180°
EXAMPLE:
BeF2
Trigonal
Planar
•Number of Bonds = 3
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 3
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0
•...
Bent #1
•Number of Bonds = 2
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 2
•Bond Ang...
Bent #2
•Number of Bonds = 2
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1
•Bond Ang...
Tetrahedral
•Number of Bonds = 4
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 4
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0
•Bond...
Trigonal
Pyramidal
•Number of Bonds = 3
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 4
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = ...
Trigonal
bIPyramidal
•Number of Bonds = 5
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 5
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons ...
OCTAHEDRAL
•Number of Bonds = 6
•Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 6
•Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1
•Bond ...
Metallic Bonds
• How atoms are held together in
the solid.
• Metals hold onto there valence
electrons very weakly.
• Think...
Sea of Electrons
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
• Electrons are free to move through the
solid.
• Metals conduct electricity.
Metals are Malleable
•Hammered into shape
(bend).
•Ductile - drawn into
wires.
Malleable
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
Malleable
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
• Electrons allow atoms to slide by.
Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2
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Transcript of "Chemical bonding part 2"

  1. 1. CHEMICAL BONDING •IONIC BONDS •COVALENT BONDS •HYDROGEN BONDS •METALLIC BONDS
  2. 2. IONIC BONDING When an atom of a nonmetal takes one or more electrons from an atom of a metal so both atoms end up with eight valence electrons
  3. 3. IONIC BONDING IS THE COMPOUND AN IONIC COMPOUND? METALMETAL NONMETAL SUBSCRIPTS
  4. 4. IONIC BOND FORMATION Neutral atoms come near each other. Electron(s) are transferred from the Metal atom to the Non-metal atom. They stick together because of electrostatic forces, like magnets.
  5. 5. IONIC BONDING Metals will tend to lose electrons and become POSITIVE CATIONS Normal sodium atom loses one electron to become sodium ion
  6. 6. IONIC BONDING Nonmetals will tend to gain electrons and become NEGATIVE ANIONS Normal chlorine atom gains an electron to become a chloride ion
  7. 7. POLYATOMIC IONS--a group of atoms that act like one ion NH4 +1 --ammonium ion CO3 -2 --carbonate ion PO4 -3 --phosphate ion IONIC BONDING
  8. 8. IONIC BONDING SODIUM SULFATE
  9. 9. Properties of Ionic Compounds • Crystalline structure. • A regular repeating arrangement of ions in the solid. • Ions are strongly bonded. • Structure is rigid. • High melting points- because of
  10. 10. Crystalline structure + + + + + + ++ + - - - - - - - - - The POSITIVE CATIONS stick to the NEGATIVE ANIONS, like a magnet.
  11. 11. Do they Conduct? • Conducting electricity is allowing charges to move. • In a solid, the ions are locked in place. • Ionic solids are insulators. • When melted, the ions can move around. • Melted ionic compounds conduct. • First get them to 800ºC. • Dissolved in water they conduct.
  12. 12. Ionic solids are brittle + - + - +- +- + - + - +- +-
  13. 13. Ionic solids are brittle + - + - +- +- + - + - +- +- • Strong Repulsion breaks crystal apart.
  14. 14. COVALENT BONDING When an atom of one nonmetal shares one or more electrons with an atom of another nonmetal so both atoms end up with eight valence electrons
  15. 15. COVALENT BOND FORMATION When one nonmetal shares one or more electrons with an atom of another nonmetal so both atoms end up with eight valence electrons
  16. 16. COVALENT BONDING IS THE COMPOUND A COVALENT COMPOUND? NONMETALNONMETAL NONMETAL YES since it is made of only nonmetal elementsYES since it is made of only nonmetal elements
  17. 17. Covalent bonding • Fluorine has seven valence electrons F
  18. 18. Covalent bonding • Fluorine has seven valence electrons • A second atom also has seven F F
  19. 19. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F
  20. 20. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F
  21. 21. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F
  22. 22. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F
  23. 23. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F
  24. 24. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F
  25. 25. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F 8 Valence electrons
  26. 26. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F 8 Valence electrons
  27. 27. Single Covalent Bond • A sharing of two valence electrons. • Only nonmetals and Hydrogen. • Different from an ionic bond because they actually form molecules. • Two specific atoms are joined. • In an ionic solid you can’t tell which atom the electrons moved from or to.
  28. 28. Water H O Each hydrogen has 1 valence electron Each hydrogen wants 1 more The oxygen has 6 valence electrons The oxygen wants 2 more They share to make each other happy
  29. 29. Water • Put the pieces together • The first hydrogen is happy • The oxygen still wants one more H O
  30. 30. Water • The second hydrogen attaches • Every atom has full energy levels H O H
  31. 31. Carbon dioxide • CO2 - Carbon is central atom ( I have to tell you) • Carbon has 4 valence electrons • Wants 4 more • Oxygen has 6 valence electrons • Wants 2 more O C
  32. 32. Carbon dioxide • Attaching 1 oxygen leaves the oxygen 1 short and the carbon 3 short OC
  33. 33. Carbon dioxide Attaching the second oxygen leaves both oxygen 1 short and the carbon 2 short OCO
  34. 34. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more OCO
  35. 35. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more OCO
  36. 36. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more OCO
  37. 37. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more OCO
  38. 38. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more OCO
  39. 39. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more OCO
  40. 40. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond OCO
  41. 41. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond OCO 8 valence electrons
  42. 42. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond OCO 8 valence electrons
  43. 43. Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond OCO 8 valence electrons
  44. 44. How to draw them • Add up all the valence electrons. • Count up the total number of electrons to make all atoms happy. • Subtract. • Divide by 2 • Tells you how many bonds - draw them. • Fill in the rest of the valence electrons to fill atoms up.
  45. 45. Examples • HCN C is central atom • N - has 5 valence electrons wants 8 • C - has 4 valence electrons wants 8 • H - has 1 valence electrons wants 2 • HCNhas 5+4+1 = 10 • HCNwants 8+8+2 = 18 • (18-10)/2= 4 bonds • 3 atoms with 4 bonds -will require multiple bonds - not to H
  46. 46. HCN • Put in single bonds • Need 2 more bonds • Must go between C and N NH C
  47. 47. HCN Put in single bonds Need 2 more bonds Must go between C and N Uses 8 electrons - 2 more to add NH C
  48. 48. HCN Put in single bonds Need 2 more bonds Must go between C and N Uses 8 electrons - 2 more to add Must go on N to fill octet NH C
  49. 49. Polar Bonds • When the atoms in a bond are the same, the electrons are shared equally. • This is a nonpolar covalent bond. • When two different atoms are connected, the atoms may not be shared equally. • This is a polar covalent bond. • How do we measure how strong the atoms pull on electrons?
  50. 50. Electronegativity • A measure of how strongly the atoms attract electrons in a bond. • The bigger the electronegativity difference the more polar the bond. • 0.0 - 0.3 Covalent nonpolar • 0.3 - 1.67 Covalent polar • >1.67 Ionic
  51. 51. How to show a bond is polar • Isn’t a whole charge just a partial charge ∀δ+ means a partially positive ∀δ− means a partially negative • The Cl pulls harder on the electrons • The electrons spend more time near the Cl H Cl δ+ δ−
  52. 52. Polar Molecules Molecules with ends
  53. 53. Polar Molecules • Molecules with a positive and a negative end • Requires two things to be true The molecule must contain polar bonds This can be determined from differences in electronegativity. Symmetry can not cancel out the effects of the polar bonds. Must determine geometry first.
  54. 54. Is it polar? • HF • H2O • NH3 • CCl4
  55. 55. Intermolecular Forces What holds molecules to each other
  56. 56. Intermolecular Forces • They are what make solid and liquid molecular compounds possible. • The weakest are called van der Waal’s forces - there are two kinds • Dispersion forces • Dipole Interactions – depend on the number of electrons – more electrons stronger forces – Bigger molecules
  57. 57. Dipole interactions • Depend on the number of electrons • More electrons stronger forces • Bigger molecules more electrons •Fluorine is a gas •Bromine is a liquid •Iodine is a solid
  58. 58. Dipole interactions • Occur when polar molecules are attracted to each other. • Slightly stronger than dispersion forces. • Opposites attract but not completely hooked like in ionic solids.
  59. 59. Dipole interactions • Occur when polar molecules are attracted to each other. • Slightly stronger than dispersion forces. • Opposites attract but not completely hooked like in ionic solids. H F δ+ δ− H F δ+ δ−
  60. 60. Dipole Interactionsδ+ δ− δ+ δ− δ+ δ− δ+ δ− δ+ δ− δ+ δ−δ + δ − δ+ δ−
  61. 61. Hydrogen bonding • Are the attractive force caused by hydrogen bonded to F, O, or N. • F, O, and N are very electronegative so it is a very strong dipole. • The hydrogen partially share with the lone pair in the molecule next to it. • The strongest of the intermolecular forces.
  62. 62. Hydrogen Bonding H H O δ+ δ- δ+ H H Oδ+ δ- δ+
  63. 63. Hydrogen bonding H H O H H O HH O H H O HH O H H O HH O
  64. 64. MOLECULAR SHAPES OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS
  65. 65. VSepR tHEORY
  66. 66. What Vsepr means Since electrons do not like each other, because of their negative charges, they orient themselves as far apart as possible, from each other. This leads to molecules having specific shapes.
  67. 67. Things to remember •Atoms bond to form an Octet (8 outer electrons/full outer energy level) •Bonded electrons take up less space then un-bonded/unshared pairs of electrons.
  68. 68. Linear •Number of Bonds = 2 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2 •Bond Angle = 180° EXAMPLE: BeF2
  69. 69. Trigonal Planar •Number of Bonds = 3 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 3 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0 •Bond Angle = 120° EXAMPLE: GaF3
  70. 70. Bent #1 •Number of Bonds = 2 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 2 •Bond Angle = < 120° EXAMPLE: H2O
  71. 71. Bent #2 •Number of Bonds = 2 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1 •Bond Angle = >120° EXAMPLE: O3
  72. 72. Tetrahedral •Number of Bonds = 4 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 4 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0 •Bond Angle = 109.5° EXAMPLE: CH4
  73. 73. Trigonal Pyramidal •Number of Bonds = 3 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 4 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1 •Bond Angle = <109.5° EXAMPLE: NH3
  74. 74. Trigonal bIPyramidal •Number of Bonds = 5 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 5 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0 •Bond Angle = <120° EXAMPLE: NbF5
  75. 75. OCTAHEDRAL •Number of Bonds = 6 •Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 6 •Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1 •Bond Angle = 90° EXAMPLE: SF6
  76. 76. Metallic Bonds • How atoms are held together in the solid. • Metals hold onto there valence electrons very weakly. • Think of them as positive ions floating in a sea of electrons.
  77. 77. Sea of Electrons + + + + + + + + + + + + • Electrons are free to move through the solid. • Metals conduct electricity.
  78. 78. Metals are Malleable •Hammered into shape (bend). •Ductile - drawn into wires.
  79. 79. Malleable + + + + + + + + + + + +
  80. 80. Malleable + + + + + + + + + + + + • Electrons allow atoms to slide by.
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