History of Photography Module 1 Assignment 1 By: Seamus Mahoney
Camera Obscura 1660Its a box similar to a room or small building with no windows,but one tiny hole in one side. The smaller the pinhole the sharperthe image.Projecting images from outside the room onto the far wall inside.The light passes through the hole and strikes a surface where it isreproduced, upside down, it then can be traced. It can projectonto paper or a screen.Later in the 18th century mirrors were used to turn the imageright side up.It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of theinventions that led to photography.There was a lens available rather than a pinhole, used when alager image was neededThe ﬁrst surviving mention of the principles behind the pinholecamera, a precursor to the camera obscura, belongs to Mo-Ti(470 BC to 390 BC), a Chinese philosopher and the founder ofMonism.
The Development of the Photograph 1700Johann Heinrich Schulze or Schultz was a German professor at the University of AltdorfIn 1725 Johann discovered that certain silver salts mainly silver chloride and silver nitrate,darken in a the presence of light; he would cover the bottle of his mixture with stencils sothe light would print letters onto it. He thought his experiment was unsuccessful butbecame the foundation for future work in ﬁxing images.Johann would use this technique to capture temporary images.Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a German-Swedishpharmaceutical chemist.1777 Carl discovered that ammonia poured on silver chloride would leave an image intact.Carl was noted to be the ﬁrst to write about how the relationship of light and silver saltsCarl was called “hard-luck Scheele because he made a number of chemical discoveriesbefore but didn’t publish them therefore didn’t receive credit for them.
First Photograph 1816Nicéphore Niépce was a French inventor, most noted as one of the inventors ofphotography.Niépce took what is believed to be the world’s ﬁrst photogravure etching, in 1821 of anengraving of Pope Pius VII, but the original was later destroyed when he attempted toduplicate it.The earliest surviving photogravure etchings by Niépce are of a 17th century engravingof a man with a horse and of an engraving of a woman with a spinning wheel.Niepce didnt have steady hands to trace the inverted images of the Camera Ocscura, sohe looked for ways to capture the image permanently.Niepce experimented with silver chloride, which darkens when exposed to light. Then hedissolved bitumen in to lavender oil and coated the sheet of pewter with this lightcapturing mixture. He placed the sheet inside a camera obscura to capture the picture.Eight hours later he washed it with lavender oil to remove the unexposed bitumen.Thisprocess was called Heliographic. It was a successful process which is what we callphotography today.In 1826 Niepce collaborated with Louis Dagueere and developed the physautotype, aprocess that used lavender oil.In 1833 Niepce developed a process called Daguerretype: the image is a direct positivemade in a camera on a silver copper plate. The raw material for the plate was calledShefﬁeld plate, plating by fusion or cold-rolled cladding; heating and rolling silver foil incontact with a copper support. Its like a mirror, the image made directly on the silveredsurface; depending on the angle viewed and the color of the surface reﬂected into it, theimage can change from positive to a negative.
Daguerre Process 1836Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre was French artist and physicist , recognizedfor his invention of the daguerreotype, a process of photography.A process called “Daguerre” was taking place at the same time.The inventorwas William Fox Talbot, the Daguerre was a ﬁve step process.In 1822 Nicephore Niepce produced the worlds ﬁrst heilographic picture andfour years later the ﬁrst permanent camera. Daguerre partnered with Niépce in1829, beginning a four-year cooperation.Niépce died suddenly in 1833. Daguerre continued experimenting and evolvedthe process which would subsequently be known as the Daguerreotype.
Calotype Process 1840William Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 1800 – 17 September 1877) was aBritish inventor and a pioneer of photographyIn 1841, Talbot announced his discovery of the calotype process:Exposure to light, silver iodide decomposes to silver leaving iodine as a free element.Excess silver iodide is washed away after oxidizing the pure silver with an application of Gallo-nitrate.As silver oxide is black, the resulting image is visible.He was the inventor of Calotype process, the process which made a big difference inthe development of what photography was in the 19th and 20th century Talbots original contributions included the concept of a negative from which many positive prints can be made and the use of gallic acid for developing the latent images.
Wet Plate Negatives 1851In 1851, the Englishman Frederick Scott Archer discovered that collodion couldbe used as an alternative to egg white (albumen) on glass plates. The processcalled Collodion.This became known as the wet plate collodion or wet collodion method.Collodion was also grainless and colorless, and allowed for one of the ﬁrst highquality duplication processes, also known as negatives. It also reduced theexposure times as well.The process required great skill and included the following steps: • Clean the glass plate • In the light, pour "salted" collodion onto the glass plate, tilting it so it reaches each corner. The excess is poured back into the bottle. • Take the plate into a darkroom or orange tent and immerse the plate in a silver nitrate bath (for 3–5 minutes) • Lift the plate out of the bath, drain and wipe the back and load it into a dark slide or plate holder • Load the plate holder into the camera, withdraw the dark slide and expose the plate • Develop the plate • Fix the plate
Battleﬁeld Photography 1855In 1855 Fenton went to the Crimean War on assignment for thepublisher Thomas Agnew to photograph the troops.Fenton established a photographic Society in 1853. It laterbecame the Royal Photographic Society published call for thesetting up of a photographic society was answered with itsestablishment in 1853.Fenton managed to make over 350 usable large formatnegatives. An exhibition of 312 prints was soon on show inLondon.
American Civil War 1861Matthew B. Brady was one of the most celebrated 19th century AmericanPhotographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and his documentationof the American Civil War.He is credited with being the father of photojournalism.His ﬁrst popular photographs of the conﬂict were at the First Battle of Bull Run,here he got so close to the action that he barely avoided capture.In October 1862 Brady opened an exhibition of photographs from The BattleAntietam in his New York gallery titled "The Dead of Antietam."This was the ﬁrst time that many Americans saw the realities of war inphotographs as distinct from previous "artists impressions".During the war, Brady spent over $100,000 to create over 10,000 plates.
First Colour Image 1871Maxwell known for presenting the ﬁrst durable color photograph in 1861 andfor his foundational work on the rigidity of rod-and-joint frameworks likethose in many bridges.Maxwell contributed to the ﬁeld of optics and the study of colour vision,creating the foundation for practical colour photography.During an 1861 Royal Institution lecture on colour theory, Maxwell presentedthe worlds ﬁrst demonstration of colour photography by this principle ofthree-colour analysis and synthesis, the basis of nearly all subsequentphotochemical and electronic methods of colour photography.
Dry Plate /Film 1888Richard Leach Maddox (August 4, 1816 - May 11, 1902) was an EnglishPhotographer who invented lightweight gelatin negative plates forphotography in 1871.Initially Maddox tried other bases. He combined silver bromide with"vegetable gummy matters" (lichen, linseed, quince), and "starchysubstances" (rice, tapioca, sago). Finally he tried gelatine from a packet ofNelson’s Gelatine Graduals.Maddox prepared a number of plates, exposing by contact-printing them fromother negatives, and putting each through a different exposure trial.The resulting prints were very delicate in detail, of a colour varying between abistre and olive tint, and after washing dried to a brilliant surface.The advantages of the dry plate were obvious: photographers could usecommercial dry plates off the shelf instead of having to prepare their ownemulsions in a mobile darkroom.Negatives did not have to be developed immediately.
Kodak 1888Eastman Kodak Company, known as Kodak: photographicequipment, materials and services.1888: The ﬁrst model of the Kodak camera appeared. It took roundpictures 6.4 cm (2.5 inches) in diameter, was of the ﬁxed focus type, andcarried a roll of ﬁlm enough for 100 exposures.1889: the ﬁrst photographic camera was introduced.Kodak is best known for its wide range of photographic ﬁlm products.During most of the 20th century Kodak held a dominant position inphotographic ﬁlm, and in 1976 had a 90% market share of photographicﬁlm sales in the United States.He coined the advertising slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest."
35mm Format 192935 mm ﬁlm was ﬁrst introduced for Edisons Kinetograph ﬁlm but was not ofsufﬁcient quality for still ﬁlm until the early 1900s.It was not until the 1930s that this smaller ﬁlm size started to become apopular and it was from this time that 35mm cameras began to dominate themarket.In 1934 Kodak produced its ﬁrst 35 mm camera, the Retina.The Leica 35mm camera made of metal with black leather covering. The baseplate with locking mechanism slides off to reveal the ﬁlm chamber. Shutterspeed and ﬁlm speed dial at back. View ﬁnder missing, two mounts at top ofcamera. The lens is collapsible. Metal lens cap ﬁts over front of lens. The caseis made of brown leather and has a strap.
Flash Bulb 1931In the 1890s, Louis Boutan – a French zoologist and a pioneer underwater photographer– used a cumbersome magnesium lamp. Powdered magnesium, sealed in a glass jarﬁxed to a lead-weighted barrel to supply oxygen during burning, was ignited by meansof an alcohol lamp.In 1925 Paul Vierkötter used the same principle, when he ignited magnesiumelectronically in a glass globe. In 1929 the Vacublitz, the ﬁrst true ﬂashbulb made fromaluminum foil sealed in oxygen, was produced in Germany by the Hauser Companyusing Johannes B. Ostermeier’s patents.It was quickly followed by the Sashalite from the General Electric Company in theUSA.The ﬂash bulb was an oxygen-ﬁlled bulb in which aluminum foil was burned, withignition being accomplished by a battery. The light of the bulb, although powerful, wassoft and diffused, therefore less dangerous to the eyes than ﬂash powder.Flashbulbs were a big step forward. They weighed little, were easily ﬁred electricallyand were extremely powerful and, therefore, convenient. Another important aspect ofthe technique was that it was extremely safe, especially compared to the widely usedbefore ﬂash powder.There were also several versions of the ﬂashbulbs released to the consumer that ﬁttedeveryone from professional to amateur photographers. The purpose was mainly to makethe use of the ﬂash more convenient for a novice or an amateur user.
Electronic Flash 1935It was in 1931 when Harold Edgerton – a professor ofelectrical engineering – produced the ﬁrst electronicﬂash tube. One of the most important advantagescompared to the ﬂash bulbs was that the electronic ﬂashintensity could be controlled and adjusted.Another great advantage, of course, was therechargeable aspect of the electronic ﬂash. Flash bulbs,despite being extremely useful, were very expensiveand could only be obtained by professionalphotographers. Electronic ﬂash used batteries of somesort, so it was possible to recharge the system.Today’s ﬂash units are electronic ﬂash tubes. Anelectronic ﬂash contains a tube ﬁlled with xenon gas,where electricity of high voltage is discharged togenerate an electrical arc that creates a short ﬂash oflight.
Colour Slide 1948 In 1935 Kodak introduced the ﬁrst modern integral tripack colorﬁlm called Kodachrome. It was developed by Leopoid Mannes and Leopoid Godowsky, nicknamed Man and GodKoda chrome has three layers of emulsion coated on a single base, each layer recording one of the three additives primary colors: Red, Green and Blue.In 1941, Kodak made it possible to order prints from Kodachromeslides. The print "paper" was actually a white plastic coated with amultilayer emulsion similar to that on the ﬁlm. These were the ﬁrstcommercially available color prints created by the chromogenic dyecoupler method. In the following year, Kodacolor ﬁlm wasintroduced. Unlike Kodachrome, it was designed to be processedinto a negative image which showed not only light and darkreversed but also complementary colors. The use of such a negativefor making prints on paper simpliﬁed the processing of the prints,reducing their cost.
Digital Imaging Processor 1987Digital Image Processing was ﬁrst developed in the 60’s by Jet Propulsion Labs. It is used in computers as a step by step process using calculations to perform image processing on digital images. The process can create a multidimensional model. It allows the use of complexed calculations for image processing creating more sophisticated performances with simple tasks and applicationsThe use of digital Imaging Process in the medical ﬁeld; for X-rays, to create a more efﬁcient, less radiation, cheaper results
Digital Photography: PresentDigital photography is a form of photography that uses an array of lightsensitive sensors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to anexposure on light sensitive ﬁlm. The captured image is then stored as a digitalﬁle ready for digital processing (colour correction, sizing, cropping, etc.),viewing or printingThe ﬁrst attempt at creating the digital camera was Steven Sasson in 1975, itweighed 8 pounds and took 23 seconds to capture an image.How is works:In digital photography, the photographic ﬁlm is replaced by a silicon chipwhich is often called a sensor. While the ﬁlm is limited in the sense that everyexposure results in a photograph and each barrel of ﬁlm can only produce 36images; the silicon chip sensor can be used again and again — thereby givingyou the ability to experiment with your photos in a way which was neverpossible with the ﬁlm camera.So now most of the processing is electronic in theform of 0s and 1s as opposed to the mechanical and chemical operation in thetraditional cameras. The cameras that operate based on this principle are knownas digital cameras and the art of making digital images is called digitalphotography.
Polaroid 1985The instant camera is a type of camera that generates a developed ﬁlm image.The most popular types to use self developing ﬁlm were formerly made by thePolaroid Corporation.The earliest instant camera with a single department was invented by SamuelSheafrock in 1923The later instant camera was developed by Edwin Land in 1948The ﬁlm used pre-1963 was the instant roll ﬁlm; you peel the positive from thenegative at the end of the development process
Bibliography www.makeuseof.com/tag/technology-explained-digital-photography/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_photographywww.webopedia.com/TERM/D/digital_photography.htmwww.digital-photography-school.com/electronics.howstuffworks.com › ... › Digital Cameraswww.rideau-info.com/photos/whatis.htmlwww.shortcourses.com/www.scribd.com/.../Fundamentals-of-Digital-Image-Processing-Anil-www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0169260787900502en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixar_Image_Computeren.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_radiographywww.imageprocessingplace.com/root_ﬁles_V3/publications.htmwww.imageprocessingplace.com/root_ﬁles_V3/publications.htmen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_image_processingwww.polaroid.com/en/...instant/polaroid-300-classic-instant-camerawww.polaroid.com/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instant_cameraen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instant_camerawww.polaroid.com/en/...instant/polaroid-300-classic-instant-camerawww.rememberingokinawa.com/page/COLOR_SLIDES_1965www.apug.org/forums/archive/index.php/t-86687.htmlwww.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our.../1930-1959.htm - United Statesen.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_ﬁlm_systemsphoto.tutsplus.com/articles/.../a-brief-history-of-photographic-ﬂash/http://www.google.ca/search?q=photography&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:ofﬁcial&client=ﬁrefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&hl=en&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=aixfT_abMIqeiQLk4PTNBA&biw=1363&bih=682&sei=dSxfT-jvAsqaiQKu7tivBA