Respiratory system m.gomaa


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Respiratory system m.gomaa

  1. 1. Respiratory System By Prof. Dr. Mona Mohammed Zoair Professor of Anatomy& Embryology Tanta Faculty Of Medicine
  2. 2. <ul><li>The respiratory system consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Nasal passages </li></ul><ul><li>2- Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>(shared with alimentary canal) </li></ul><ul><li>3- Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>4- Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>5- Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>6- Lungs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nasal Cavity <ul><li>Has: </li></ul><ul><li>-Floor: hard palate </li></ul><ul><li>- Roof: for olfaction </li></ul><ul><li>- Lateral wall: </li></ul><ul><li>1- above by orbit and ethmoid sinus </li></ul><ul><li>2- below by maxillary sinus </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pharynx 2 3 4 5 6 1 -It is a tube 13 cm long -Extends from base of skull to 6 th cervical vertebra
  5. 5. <ul><li>It is divided into: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Nasopharynx: behind nasal cavity above soft palate </li></ul><ul><li>2- Oropharynx: behind mouth cavity from soft palate to epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>3- Laryngeopharynx: behind larynx from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage </li></ul>
  6. 7. Larynx <ul><li>-it is the organ of phonation </li></ul><ul><li>-it is 4 cm in length </li></ul><ul><li>-Extends from epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>to trachea </li></ul><ul><li>- Formed of 2 thyroid cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>-They meet in midline in Adam’s apple </li></ul><ul><li>- Thyroid cartilages are attached inferiorly to cricoid cartilages </li></ul>epiglottis trachea
  7. 8. <ul><li>- The inlet of larynx is guarded by epiglottis (leaf shaped elastic cartilages) </li></ul>
  8. 9. - Vocal folds are a pair of folds in laryngeal cavity leaving a fissure between them
  9. 10. Trachea <ul><li>- A tube of fibro-elastic membrane maintained by C- shaped cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>- Posteriorly it is closed by trachealis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- Extends from 6 th cervical vertebra to the level of angle of Louis where it is divided into 2 bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>- It is about 6 inches long </li></ul>
  10. 11. Bronchi 4.5 cm 2.5 cm 25 45 Foreign bodies enter Rt. Bronchus than Lt. bronchus -Wider -Shorter (2.5 cm) - Bifurcates before entering the lungs - Makes 25 degrees with vertical Rt. bronchus - Narrower -Longer (4.5 cm) - Bifurcates after entering the lungs - Makes 45 degrees with vertical Lt. bronchus
  11. 12. Pleura <ul><li>- It is a closed sac invaginated from medial side by the lung </li></ul><ul><li>- It has two layers: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Visceral covers the lung </li></ul><ul><li>2- Parietal lines chest wall </li></ul>Parietal pleura Visceral pleura
  12. 13. Lungs <ul><li>- Each lung looks like half a cone </li></ul><ul><li>- It has an apex and a base (diaphragmatic surface) </li></ul><ul><li>-Borders of the lung: </li></ul><ul><li>1- anterior border </li></ul><ul><li>2- posterior border </li></ul><ul><li>3- inferior border </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Surfaces of the lung: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Costal surface </li></ul><ul><li>2- Mediastinal surface </li></ul><ul><li>3- Diaphragmatic surface (base) </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Fissures of the lungs: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Oblique fissure: from 3 rd thoracic vertebra to 6 th rib </li></ul><ul><li>2- Horizontal fissure (only in the right): from 4 th costal cartilage to meet oblique fissure </li></ul>
  15. 16. Broncho- pulmonary segments - It is the functional unit of the lung - Each unit is supplied by: 1- Segmental bronchus 2- Pulmonary artery 3- Pulmonary vein
  16. 17. Differences between right and left lungs - Short, wide with no cardiac notch - Has 3 lobe separated by 2 fissures - Contains 10 bronchopulmonary segments: 3 in upper lobe 2 in middle lobe 5 in lower lobe Right lung <ul><li>- Long, narrow with cardiac notch </li></ul><ul><li>- Has 2 lobes separated by 1 fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 8 bronchopulmonary segments: </li></ul><ul><li>2 in upper lobe </li></ul><ul><li>2 in lingular lobe </li></ul><ul><li>4 in lower lobe </li></ul>Left lung
  17. 19. Right lung (10): - 3 in upper lobe - 2 in middle lobe - 5 in lower lobe Left lung (8): - 2 in upper lobe - 2 in lingular lobe - 4 in lower lobe
  18. 20. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>