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Respiratory system m.gomaa

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tanta university faculty of nursing

tanta university faculty of nursing

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  • 1. Respiratory System By Prof. Dr. Mona Mohammed Zoair Professor of Anatomy& Embryology Tanta Faculty Of Medicine
  • 2.
    • The respiratory system consists of:
    • 1- Nasal passages
    • 2- Pharynx
    • (shared with alimentary canal)
    • 3- Larynx
    • 4- Trachea
    • 5- Bronchi
    • 6- Lungs
  • 3. Nasal Cavity
    • Has:
    • -Floor: hard palate
    • - Roof: for olfaction
    • - Lateral wall:
    • 1- above by orbit and ethmoid sinus
    • 2- below by maxillary sinus
  • 4. Pharynx 2 3 4 5 6 1 -It is a tube 13 cm long -Extends from base of skull to 6 th cervical vertebra
  • 5.
    • It is divided into:
    • 1- Nasopharynx: behind nasal cavity above soft palate
    • 2- Oropharynx: behind mouth cavity from soft palate to epiglottis
    • 3- Laryngeopharynx: behind larynx from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage
  • 6.  
  • 7. Larynx
    • -it is the organ of phonation
    • -it is 4 cm in length
    • -Extends from epiglottis
    • to trachea
    • - Formed of 2 thyroid cartilages
    • -They meet in midline in Adam’s apple
    • - Thyroid cartilages are attached inferiorly to cricoid cartilages
    epiglottis trachea
  • 8.
    • - The inlet of larynx is guarded by epiglottis (leaf shaped elastic cartilages)
  • 9. - Vocal folds are a pair of folds in laryngeal cavity leaving a fissure between them
  • 10. Trachea
    • - A tube of fibro-elastic membrane maintained by C- shaped cartilage
    • - Posteriorly it is closed by trachealis muscle
    • - Extends from 6 th cervical vertebra to the level of angle of Louis where it is divided into 2 bronchi
    • - It is about 6 inches long
  • 11. Bronchi 4.5 cm 2.5 cm 25 45 Foreign bodies enter Rt. Bronchus than Lt. bronchus -Wider -Shorter (2.5 cm) - Bifurcates before entering the lungs - Makes 25 degrees with vertical Rt. bronchus - Narrower -Longer (4.5 cm) - Bifurcates after entering the lungs - Makes 45 degrees with vertical Lt. bronchus
  • 12. Pleura
    • - It is a closed sac invaginated from medial side by the lung
    • - It has two layers:
    • 1- Visceral covers the lung
    • 2- Parietal lines chest wall
    Parietal pleura Visceral pleura
  • 13. Lungs
    • - Each lung looks like half a cone
    • - It has an apex and a base (diaphragmatic surface)
    • -Borders of the lung:
    • 1- anterior border
    • 2- posterior border
    • 3- inferior border
  • 14.
    • Surfaces of the lung:
    • 1- Costal surface
    • 2- Mediastinal surface
    • 3- Diaphragmatic surface (base)
  • 15.
    • Fissures of the lungs:
    • 1- Oblique fissure: from 3 rd thoracic vertebra to 6 th rib
    • 2- Horizontal fissure (only in the right): from 4 th costal cartilage to meet oblique fissure
  • 16. Broncho- pulmonary segments - It is the functional unit of the lung - Each unit is supplied by: 1- Segmental bronchus 2- Pulmonary artery 3- Pulmonary vein
  • 17. Differences between right and left lungs - Short, wide with no cardiac notch - Has 3 lobe separated by 2 fissures - Contains 10 bronchopulmonary segments: 3 in upper lobe 2 in middle lobe 5 in lower lobe Right lung
    • - Long, narrow with cardiac notch
    • - Has 2 lobes separated by 1 fissure
    • Contains 8 bronchopulmonary segments:
    • 2 in upper lobe
    • 2 in lingular lobe
    • 4 in lower lobe
    Left lung
  • 18.  
  • 19. Right lung (10): - 3 in upper lobe - 2 in middle lobe - 5 in lower lobe Left lung (8): - 2 in upper lobe - 2 in lingular lobe - 4 in lower lobe
  • 20.
    • Thank You

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