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Respiratory system m.gomaa
 

Respiratory system m.gomaa

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tanta university faculty of nursing

tanta university faculty of nursing

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    Respiratory system m.gomaa Respiratory system m.gomaa Presentation Transcript

    • Respiratory System By Prof. Dr. Mona Mohammed Zoair Professor of Anatomy& Embryology Tanta Faculty Of Medicine
      • The respiratory system consists of:
      • 1- Nasal passages
      • 2- Pharynx
      • (shared with alimentary canal)
      • 3- Larynx
      • 4- Trachea
      • 5- Bronchi
      • 6- Lungs
    • Nasal Cavity
      • Has:
      • -Floor: hard palate
      • - Roof: for olfaction
      • - Lateral wall:
      • 1- above by orbit and ethmoid sinus
      • 2- below by maxillary sinus
    • Pharynx 2 3 4 5 6 1 -It is a tube 13 cm long -Extends from base of skull to 6 th cervical vertebra
      • It is divided into:
      • 1- Nasopharynx: behind nasal cavity above soft palate
      • 2- Oropharynx: behind mouth cavity from soft palate to epiglottis
      • 3- Laryngeopharynx: behind larynx from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage
    •  
    • Larynx
      • -it is the organ of phonation
      • -it is 4 cm in length
      • -Extends from epiglottis
      • to trachea
      • - Formed of 2 thyroid cartilages
      • -They meet in midline in Adam’s apple
      • - Thyroid cartilages are attached inferiorly to cricoid cartilages
      epiglottis trachea
      • - The inlet of larynx is guarded by epiglottis (leaf shaped elastic cartilages)
    • - Vocal folds are a pair of folds in laryngeal cavity leaving a fissure between them
    • Trachea
      • - A tube of fibro-elastic membrane maintained by C- shaped cartilage
      • - Posteriorly it is closed by trachealis muscle
      • - Extends from 6 th cervical vertebra to the level of angle of Louis where it is divided into 2 bronchi
      • - It is about 6 inches long
    • Bronchi 4.5 cm 2.5 cm 25 45 Foreign bodies enter Rt. Bronchus than Lt. bronchus -Wider -Shorter (2.5 cm) - Bifurcates before entering the lungs - Makes 25 degrees with vertical Rt. bronchus - Narrower -Longer (4.5 cm) - Bifurcates after entering the lungs - Makes 45 degrees with vertical Lt. bronchus
    • Pleura
      • - It is a closed sac invaginated from medial side by the lung
      • - It has two layers:
      • 1- Visceral covers the lung
      • 2- Parietal lines chest wall
      Parietal pleura Visceral pleura
    • Lungs
      • - Each lung looks like half a cone
      • - It has an apex and a base (diaphragmatic surface)
      • -Borders of the lung:
      • 1- anterior border
      • 2- posterior border
      • 3- inferior border
      • Surfaces of the lung:
      • 1- Costal surface
      • 2- Mediastinal surface
      • 3- Diaphragmatic surface (base)
      • Fissures of the lungs:
      • 1- Oblique fissure: from 3 rd thoracic vertebra to 6 th rib
      • 2- Horizontal fissure (only in the right): from 4 th costal cartilage to meet oblique fissure
    • Broncho- pulmonary segments - It is the functional unit of the lung - Each unit is supplied by: 1- Segmental bronchus 2- Pulmonary artery 3- Pulmonary vein
    • Differences between right and left lungs - Short, wide with no cardiac notch - Has 3 lobe separated by 2 fissures - Contains 10 bronchopulmonary segments: 3 in upper lobe 2 in middle lobe 5 in lower lobe Right lung
      • - Long, narrow with cardiac notch
      • - Has 2 lobes separated by 1 fissure
      • Contains 8 bronchopulmonary segments:
      • 2 in upper lobe
      • 2 in lingular lobe
      • 4 in lower lobe
      Left lung
    •  
    • Right lung (10): - 3 in upper lobe - 2 in middle lobe - 5 in lower lobe Left lung (8): - 2 in upper lobe - 2 in lingular lobe - 4 in lower lobe
      • Thank You