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Obesity
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Transcript

  • 1. Obesity
  • 2.
    • Definition of obesity
    • Obesity is defined by a body-mass index (weight divided by square of the height) of 30 kg m–2 or greater.
    • *BMI is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres.
  • 3.
    • classification of overweight
    • BMI* (kg m–2) WHO classification Popular description
    • <18.5 Underweight Thin
    • 18.5–24.9 — ‘Healthy’, ‘normal’, ‘acceptable’
    • 25.0–29.9 Grade 1 overweight Overweight
    • 30.0–39.9 Grade 2 overweight Obesity
    • ≥ 40.0 Grade 3 overweight Morbid obesity
  • 4. Factors influencing obesity
    • 1-Genetics
    • 2-Environmental factors It seems likely that environmental influences act
    • through increasing energy intake and/or decreasing energy expenditure
  • 5.
    • 3- Energy expenditure . The most variable component of energy expenditure is hysical activity, representing 20–50% of total energy expenditure.
    • 4 - Energy intake There is some evidence that high-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of obesity within populations
  • 6.
    • 5 - Culture
    • 6- Fetal nutrition . Evidence indicates that undernutrition of the fetus during intrauterine development may determine the later onset of obesity
  • 7. Effect of obesity on the body
    • 1- Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • 2- The effects of obesity Cardiovascular function The increase in circulatory preload and afterload lead to left ventricular (LV) dilatation and hypertrophy.
  • 8.
    • 3- Sleep-breathing abnormalities in obesity
    • During sleep, there is alveolar hypoventilation and transient episodes of apnea that are accompanied by a fall in arterial oxygen saturation (hypoxia) and a rise in arterial carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). In some individuals, these factors lead to daytime sleepiness (hypersomnolence) with persistent hypoxia and hypercapnia accompanied by the development of
    • pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and eventually, respiratory failure.
  • 9.
    • 4- Cerebrovascular disease
    • Obesity is linked to an increased risk of stroke in both men and women
    • 5- Gastrointestinal system gastroesophageal reflux
  • 10.
    • -Hepatobiliary disease
    • Obesity is associated with cholelithiasis. In the Nurses’ Health Study, women with BMI <24 kg/m2 had an incidence of symptomatic gallstones of approximately 250 per 100 000 person-years of follow-up. Women with BMI >45 kg/m2 had a seven-fold increase in risk for gallstones
  • 11.
    • -Osteoarthritis
    • -Cancer
    • --Psychosocial function
    • -Gynaecological and obstetric complications
    • - Surgical and anesthetic complications
  • 12.  
  • 13. Management of obesity
    • 1-Dieting
    • 2-Exercise
    • 3-Weight loss programs
    • 4- Medication
    • 5-Surgery