Obesity

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Obesity

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Obesity

  1. 1. Obesity
  2. 2. <ul><li>Definition of obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity is defined by a body-mass index (weight divided by square of the height) of 30 kg m–2 or greater. </li></ul><ul><li>*BMI is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>classification of overweight </li></ul><ul><li>BMI* (kg m–2) WHO classification Popular description </li></ul><ul><li><18.5 Underweight Thin </li></ul><ul><li>18.5–24.9 — ‘Healthy’, ‘normal’, ‘acceptable’ </li></ul><ul><li>25.0–29.9 Grade 1 overweight Overweight </li></ul><ul><li>30.0–39.9 Grade 2 overweight Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>≥ 40.0 Grade 3 overweight Morbid obesity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors influencing obesity <ul><li>1-Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>2-Environmental factors It seems likely that environmental influences act </li></ul><ul><li>through increasing energy intake and/or decreasing energy expenditure </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3- Energy expenditure . The most variable component of energy expenditure is hysical activity, representing 20–50% of total energy expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>4 - Energy intake There is some evidence that high-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of obesity within populations </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>5 - Culture </li></ul><ul><li>6- Fetal nutrition . Evidence indicates that undernutrition of the fetus during intrauterine development may determine the later onset of obesity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effect of obesity on the body <ul><li>1- Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><li>2- The effects of obesity Cardiovascular function The increase in circulatory preload and afterload lead to left ventricular (LV) dilatation and hypertrophy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3- Sleep-breathing abnormalities in obesity </li></ul><ul><li>During sleep, there is alveolar hypoventilation and transient episodes of apnea that are accompanied by a fall in arterial oxygen saturation (hypoxia) and a rise in arterial carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). In some individuals, these factors lead to daytime sleepiness (hypersomnolence) with persistent hypoxia and hypercapnia accompanied by the development of </li></ul><ul><li>pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and eventually, respiratory failure. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>4- Cerebrovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity is linked to an increased risk of stroke in both men and women </li></ul><ul><li>5- Gastrointestinal system gastroesophageal reflux </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>-Hepatobiliary disease </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity is associated with cholelithiasis. In the Nurses’ Health Study, women with BMI <24 kg/m2 had an incidence of symptomatic gallstones of approximately 250 per 100 000 person-years of follow-up. Women with BMI >45 kg/m2 had a seven-fold increase in risk for gallstones </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>-Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>-Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>--Psychosocial function </li></ul><ul><li>-Gynaecological and obstetric complications </li></ul><ul><li>- Surgical and anesthetic complications </li></ul>
  12. 13. Management of obesity <ul><li>1-Dieting </li></ul><ul><li>2-Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>3-Weight loss programs </li></ul><ul><li>4- Medication </li></ul><ul><li>5-Surgery </li></ul>

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