The Design, Development and Construction ofAnterooms on Poultry Farms inBritish Columbia and OntarioProject support and funding provided by:Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA),under the Avian Biosecurity Technology Development FundPrepared by:eBiz Professionals Inc.Suite 107, 150 Research LaneGuelph, OntarioN1H 4T21
Table of ContentsAcronyms 4Executive Summary 51. Introduction 62. Background 63. Project Description 74. Steering Committee 85. Selection Process for Participants 95.1 Farm Visits 105.2 Selected Farms 115.3 Producer Participation Agreements 116. Anteroom Components 126.1 Flow of Anterooms 126.2 Anteroom Components, Equipment and Materials 136.3 British Columbia Mandatory Standards 206.4 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 207. Design and Construction of Model Anterooms 217.1 Turkey Farm 227.2 Egg Farm 267.3 Chicken Broiler Farm 317.4 Broiler Breeder Farm 367.5 Summary of Components of the Model Anterooms 408. Anteroom Issues 412
9. Mobile Anteroom 429.1 Components of Agbio 26 439.2 Layout of the Agbio 26 4410. Findings and Conclusions 4611. Next Steps 47Appendix 1 – Producer Participant Agreement 48Appendix 2 – British Columbia Poultry Standards 49Appendix 3 – Rossdown Farms Ltd. SOPs 55Appendix 4 – Siemens Farms Ltd. SOPs 58Appendix 6 – KJ Poultry SOPs 623
AcronymsAAFC Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaAI Avian InfluenzaBC British ColumbiaCFIA Canadian Food Inspection AgencyCFO Chicken Farmers of OntarioEFO Egg Farmers of OntarioNABAC National Avian Biosecurity Advisory CouncilOBHECC Ontario Broiler Hatching Egg and Chick CommissionOFFS On-Farm Food SafetyPPE Personal Protective EquipmentPSRMP Private Sector Risk Management PartnershipsSOP Standard Operating Procedure4
Executive SummaryAn anteroom is a predefined area that enables the segregation of the animal housingarea from the exterior environment. The anteroom is generally the area inside the outerbarn door and prior to the interior door but can also be a separate building in closeproximity to the barn. Designed and used properly, anterooms help producers preventthemselves and/or visitors from being a vector for disease agents.As a minimum standard for poultry production operations, anterooms must provide anarea sufficient in size to allow visitors to transition from a dirty (or exterior) area through,across or over a delineated barrier to a clean (or interior) area. They provide a space forpersonnel going into the barn to change out of street clothes, disinfect boots and hands,and change into barn clothes. These same steps in reverse can then be taken whenexiting the barn. The clean and dirty areas must be separated by some type of barrier.eBiz Professionals Inc. was granted funding from the Canadian Food InspectionAgency’s Avian Biosecurity Technology Development Fund to study designing,constructing and operating anterooms in the four poultry sectors and to cost out thematerials and labour needed to complete each type of facility. This project wasoverseen by a steering committee comprised of producers, industry associations andother stakeholders involved in the poultry industry from British Columbia and Ontario.Four farms were selected as model sites, three in British Columbia and one in Ontario,representing each of the four poultry sectors. With the help of the project team, eachparticipating producer designed and constructed an anteroom and implementedbiosecurity protocols on their farm. Each participant tracked and recorded costs relatedto his anteroom, and provided the information to the project team for analysis.It was discovered through work with the model sites that anterooms need to bedesigned to suit the site configuration and operation of each farm. One anteroomdesign does not work for every farm. This is not to say that standards do not apply tothe design, construction and use of anterooms – quite the contrary. Standard anteroomcomponents and solutions are used in the pilots described in this report, and can beapplied to specific requirements on each farm.The resulting facilities will meet externally-required standards, in the case of BritishColumbia-located producers, and all will be the product of decisions by each produceron the relative risk profile of his/her facility, and on the cost/benefit of each solution.Finally, anteroom design and use must be considered in concert with the developmentand enactment of standard operating procedures (SOPs).5
1. IntroductionThe interior door of any barn is the last real opportunity to stop the spread of disease toa producer’s flock. Similarly, the exterior door is the last possibility to contain anymaterial, virus or biological agent from being taken away to another location. Therefore,it is essential that there be an area for the farmer and visitors to utilize to minimize theprobability of moving a disease agent into or out of the facility. The area inside the outerbarn door and prior to the interior door should be constructed to prevent diseasespread. Designed in this way, the area is commonly referred to as an anteroom. Ananteroom allows for individuals who are about to enter the actual production space tofollow appropriate biosecurity protocols – to keep contaminants from outside the barnfrom entering. The anteroom is also important for exit from the production facility. Itprovides biocontainment of contaminants from within the barn. The anteroom providesspace, facilities and equipment to allow individuals to properly don or remove protectiveclothing and dispose of or clean contaminated items.This project was designed to study the construction and use of anterooms on poultryfarms in British Columbia (BC) and Ontario. The project has facilitated the developmentof four model anterooms on three poultry farms in BC and one in Ontario. A followingphase of this project, which is currently underway, is designed to provide a plan forfunding and sources of materials for anterooms in all participating sectors of theCanadian poultry industry. With these building blocks in place, the industry will then beable to voluntarily proceed with the implementation of the program.This project was funded by the Federal Assistance Program through the Canadian FoodInspection Agency (CFIA) and both the BC and Ontario poultry industries areparticipating partners. The project was managed by a steering committee comprised ofproducers, industry associations and other stakeholders involved in the poultry industryfrom both provinces. The project was managed by eBiz Professionals Inc. and finalresults will be posted on www.agbiosecurity.ca .2. BackgroundA project called the “Examination of the Potential Outcomes of Risk Practices in OntarioPoultry Services Industries and Biosecurity Programs for the Services Sector” whichwas funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) under the Private Sector RiskManagement Partnerships (PSRMP) program was recently completed. Through theprocess of completing this previous assignment, many issues regarding poultrybiosecurity were identified. Chicken catchers and other farm services personnelinvolved in the project identified concerns regarding their inability to properly cleanthemselves and their equipment on many farms as they lack adequate facilities for thispurpose.Participants in the project acknowledged thirty-eight roadblocks to the development of afully-effective biosecurity program for their activities. The study team for the PSRMPproject recorded the biosecurity roadblock issues that were identified and further6
committed to pursuing solutions to the list of concerns. In one instance, they identifiedthat many poultry farms in Ontario do not maintain a clear break between the clean(farm side) and the dirty (outside) areas to limit the opportunity for disease to enter orleave a barn. The participants expressed a concern that contamination on themselves,their clothing and equipment could be a threat for spreading disease agents such asAvian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease as well as food poisoning agents such asSalmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp.In response to a call for proposals under the CFIA’s Avian Biosecurity TechnologyDevelopment Fund, eBiz Professionals Inc. in partnership with the several poultrymarketing boards in British Columbia (BC) and Ontario submitted a proposal to developand construct pilot anteroom facilities and to collect information regarding the actualcosts of each facility. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for each facility were alsoto be developed, and a photographic and written record was to be produced.This studys objectives were to explore designing, constructing and operating anteroomsin the four poultry sectors and to cost out the materials and labour needed to completeeach type of facility.3. Project DescriptionThe purpose of the project was to work with producers and their local organizations toestablish several demonstration units that could be used as examples by theircolleagues across Canada. By investigating alternative designs and components, andby collecting the costs of construction in each case, the project would provide to otherswishing to build or renovate their anteroom areas, a base of useful information to helpthem decide how to proceed.The project team contacted potential participants through both industry boards andassociations and via personal contact. Existing guidelines and requirements werecollected, in both British Columbia and Ontario, and through research of internationalpublic sources, in other jurisdictions.Steps in design and construction were observed, and decisions on each site wererecorded. The resulting facilities were documented, both from the perspective ofconstruction and use, and the protocols designed to work with each facility werecollected. The results are presented in this report.The study team completed the following tasks in order to meet the project’s objectives:1. Established a joint management group consisting of producers, industryassociation representatives, service providers and other stakeholders from theBC and Ontario poultry industries to provide guidance throughout the duration ofthe project.7
2. Selected four farms, three in BC and one in Ontario, from each of the four poultrysectors as model sites. Specifications and blueprints specific to each test sitewere developed. All model anterooms have been completed.3. Identified specific costs for each model anteroom.4. Developed an educational/demonstration program for use in the facilities,industry and other interested stakeholders. This component includesphotographs of the constructed anterooms as well as protocols for their use.5. Developed a plan including schedule and costs for a follow-up project which willinclude the determination of costs of constructing anterooms on all regulatedpremises in Canada and how these will be financed. This project (Phase 2) isunderway at time of writing this report.6. Ascertained the costs and construction needs and provided recommendationsrelating to protocols for the model anterooms. A broader cost analysis is beingfurther explored in Phase 2.7. All materials from this phase will be posted on www.agbiosecurity.ca and will befreely available to all interested parties. In addition, presentations were given tothe BC Poultry Association.8. Interim reports will be completed after each Phase and a summary of the entireproject will be prepared following final completion. All information will be sharedwith other provinces. To date the project team has made three presentations tothe BC Poultry Association and two to the National Avian Biosecurity AdvisoryCouncil (NABAC) on the project.In addition to the original objectives, the project team compared fixed anterooms and amobile anteroom unit. The latter was recently constructed in Ontario.The poultry industry and its stakeholders have been informed of the progress andfindings of the project. Information was provided through industry presentations and viathe steering committee, and will soon be available on www.agbiosecurity.ca .4. Steering CommitteeThe steering committee was comprised of representatives from each of the four BCpoultry sectors and all but turkey production was represented from Ontario. In addition,eBiz consulting was represented from Ontario and BC. The first conference call of thesteering committee was held on March 15, 2007.The following people participated as members on the Steering Committee:• Pam Bolton, Egg Farmers of Ontario HACCP Coordinator• John Kraay, Ontario Broiler Hatching Egg Producer and OBHECC Vice-Chair8
• Niels Holbeck, BC Poultry Biosecurity Program Coordinator/ eBiz ProfessionalsInc.• Ron Kilmury, BC Chicken Marketing Board• Craig Bellamy, CFIA• Tom Beischlag, Chicken Farmers of Ontario• Calvin Breukelman, BC Broiler Breeder Producer• Dave Janzen, BC CAC• Toni Wells, Director Policy and Government Relations Chicken Farmers ofOntario• Ian Richardson, eBiz Professionals Inc.• Jim Pettit, eBiz Professionals Inc.• Chris Vanderkooy, eBiz Professionals Inc.The steering committee provided guidance and advice for the duration of the project.Many of these members will be consulted on future project activities.5. Selection Process for ParticipantsOne of the first requirements in this project was to locate producer participants. Thepoultry boards in each province assisted in locating participants by putting forth thenames of potentially-willing producers. Seven producers, four in BC and three inOntario, were surveyed by the project team to determine which four would be mostsuited to construct a new anteroom or to retrofit their existing facilities.In addition to the farms surveyed for model anteroom construction, several other farmswere visited by the project team to gain an understanding of current industry practices.Egg Farmers of Ontario (EFO), Ontario Broiler Hatching Egg and Chick Commission(OBHECC), Chicken Farmers of Ontario (CFO) and the BC Chicken Industry assisted inidentifying producers willing to allow the project team to conduct a farm visit. These farmvisits allowed the team to gather information, develop ideas and gain an understandingof minimum biosecurity requirements while having exposure to high quality anteroomfacilities and protocols.For example, the team visited three egg farms during the information-gathering phase.These farms included walk-through showers and associated shower in-and-outprotocols for use in case of an elevated biosecurity alert in the area. During one of theinspections, a farmer who noted that his anteroom had the minimum requirementslearned that the anteroom area was arranged in such a way that the facility’s biosecuritywas compromised by a non-optimal layout. The path followed as product was movedfrom egg collection to the cooler area required crossing the path from the entrance tothe live production area. The farmer is currently contemplating an expansion and isplanning to rearrange the work flow.Some of the facilities had a washroom and lunch space available. These same facilitiessimply had a restricted access zone delineated by a red line painted on the floor, coathooks, a bench for changing footwear, and available hand sanitizer. The team observedthat long-lived birds, including layers and hatching eggs, have more rigorous biosecurity9
SOPs; the importance of SOPs being used in concert with selected facility componentsbecame apparent and impacted the ongoing plans of the project.5.1Farm Visits Initial farm visits were conducted to choose the participants of the study. Some of thefarms that were not chosen for the purposes of the project already had basic anteroomsin place. A few simple anteroom components including a line on the floor, hand sanitizerand coat hooks are sufficient to prevent disease transmission if used properly. It wasdetermined by the study team that these basic anterooms adequately served theirpurpose and an enhanced anteroom might not provide a great deal of additional value.The four farms chosen to participate in the project were visited before, during and afterconstruction. The purpose of these visits was to document progress, ensure compliancewith the objectives of the project, secure budget updates, take photographs andmeasurements, answer questions and record suggestions from producers. Thefollowing steps were followed on each farm visit.Before Construction Phase:1) Recorded all steps taken with respect to biosecurity prior to and on arrival at thefarm, including car washes and the use of full Personal Protective Equipment(PPE). Discussion with the producers concerning their biosecurity practices andrequirements was conducted as early as possible in the visit. The teamattempted to visit the farm when it was out of production.2) Photographed areas outside and inside the anteroom to record both access andegress perspectives.3) Collected a copy of the biosecurity checklist used on the participating farm.4) Determined if the producer would retrofit existing space or build a new anteroom.5) Brainstormed what types of materials would be used, with particular attention tocleanable surfaces.6) Determined if a contractor would be used or renovations done by the producer.7) Discussed the proposed budget and the proposed deliverables.8) Estimated a timeline for completion.During Construction Phase (This step was not required on each participating farm):1) Recorded all steps taken with respect to biosecurity prior to and on arrival at thefarm, including car washes and the use of full Personal Protective Equipment(PPE). Discussion with the producers concerning their biosecurity practices andrequirements was conducted as early as possible in the visit. The teamattempted to visit the farm when it was out of production.2) Photographed areas outside and inside the anteroom, essentially the sameviews/perspectives as first visit.3) Recorded information relating to problems, opportunities and anecdotalobservations or experiences from producer.4) Requested information on budget status and attempted to anticipate budget tocompletion.10
After Construction Phase:1) Recorded all steps taken with respect to biosecurity prior to and on arrival at thefarm, including car washes and the use of full Personal Protective Equipment(PPE). Discussion with the producers concerning their biosecurity practices andrequirements was conducted as early as possible in the visit. The teamattempted to visit the farm when it was out of production.2) This phase was designed to capture the new or renovated anteroom forpublication and educational purposes.3) Retraced original footsteps from visits one and two and photographed themodifications to establish before, during and after records.4) Recorded information relating to problems, opportunities and anecdotalobservations or experiences from the producer.5) Determined final budget for that farm/barn supported by invoices to confirm thefinal cost totals.5.2Selected Farms Four farms were chosen to participate in the program. The participating farms includeone turkey farm in BC, one table egg farm in BC, one broiler farm in BC and onehatching egg farm in Ontario. Farmers were offered $5,000 at the start of the projectand up to $5,000 at the completion as long as the project costs totaled $15,000 or more.All four farms met this original target.It should be noted that several other farms were willing to participate and in fact askedto be put on a list if additional funds became available for additional pilot sites.The following four farms were chosen to participate in this project:1. Turkey: Rossdown Farms Ltd. – Abbotsford, BC2. Table Eggs: Siemens Farms Ltd. – Abbotsford, BC3. Broiler Chickens: Jolena Holdings Inc. – Abbotsford, BC4. Hatching Eggs: KJ Poultry – Clinton, ON5.3 Producer Participation Agreements Each of the four producers signed a participation agreement prior to the constructionphase. The agreement detailed the financial commitment of the project, thedocumentation requirements, and an agreement to release design documents andgranted permission for study team to visit the farm periodically. The form of theparticipation agreement is included in Appendix 1.11
6. Anteroom ComponentsThe project team discovered through this project that anteroom components required bydifferent types of poultry farms generally fall into two categories: activity elements orfacility elements. For example, as a minimum standard common across all four types ofpoultry production operations, the anteroom must provide an area sufficient in size toallow visitors to transition from a dirty area through, across or over a delineated barrierto a clean area. The clean and dirty areas may be delineated by means of a physical(e.g. a bench) or a representative (e.g. a line painted on floor) barrier. In addition,anterooms must be accompanied by SOPs and be in compliance with all applicablerules and regulations.6.1Flow of Anterooms Effective biosecurity depends on the flow of traffic. Traffic flow from the clean and thedirty side must never cross. The diagram below shows the order of steps that should befollowed by personnel coming onto the farm.12
6.2Anteroom Components, Equipment and Materials While anterooms may incorporate only some of the following components.,consideration must be given to all of them when planning for the most effectivebiosecurity defence. All reasonable risks must be addressed, either by an activityelement or by a physical element. The following examples have been observed ineffective use, and have been incorporated into some or all of the pilot anteroomsbuilt within the project.1) A space to allow for use of a boot brush, scraper and foot bath1should belocated immediately outside the exterior barn entrance to be used by visitorsprior to entry. Signage alerting visitors of biosecurity protocols should be visiblein this same area.2) A visitor log to monitor traffic coming onto the farm should be kept just inside theanteroom door. It should include name, company, time of arrival, previous farmsvisited and time of departure. (dirty side of anteroom)1When a reference is made to the use of a footbath in this report, its effectiveness as a biosecurity aid requires thatit is properly maintained.13
3) An area to allow for use of a footbath should be located immediately inside theanteroom on the dirty side of the delineation line. (dirty side of anteroom)4) An area to allow for a sink or hand sanitizer station to be used prior totransitioning from the dirty side of the anteroom to the clean side. (dirty side ofanteroom) A hand sanitizer placed at every threshold will enhance biosecurity.14
5) An area sufficient in size to allow the maximum number of individuals required tocross into the barn at one time to remove and store footwear and outerwear. Abench and closet is necessary for this purpose. Benches are convenient for bootchanges. (dirty side of anteroom)6) A shower that affords some privacy located on the dirty/clean border to allowvisitors to shower in and shower out in the case that the farm’s SOPs require it orwhen a state of elevated biosecurity exists. Walk-through showers are preferredbecause they simplify anteroom flow and assure that contaminants are leftbehind on the dirty side. Hooks and shelving are required on each side of thedemarcation. (both sides)15
7) Barn clothing should be available for workers and visitors. The type and length ofwork to be performed will dictate the type of clothing to be provided. Sizes toaccommodate any potential visitor should be on hand. (clean side of anteroom).8) A space available to dress in clean barn clothing and footwear must be availableon the clean side of the barrier prior to entering the production space. (clean sideof anteroom)16
9) An area for use of a foot bath containing a fresh, approved disinfectant must belocated on the clean side of the demarcation line and ready for use prior toentering the production space. (clean side of anteroom)10) An area to remove and clean barn clothing and footwear upon exiting theproduction space is required on the clean (barn) side of the anteroom.Consideration should be given to a washer and dryer for cleaning re-usable barnclothing. (clean side of anteroom)17
11) Where necessary, given the nature of the work performed by visitors and farmservice personnel on site, a lunch and rest area should be provided within theanteroom. Paper lunch bags should be encouraged to avoid the requirement toclean and disinfect lunch pails brought into and removed from the anteroom.(clean side of anteroom)12) Materials on or used to fabricate the walls, floors, benches and other potentiallycontaminated areas must be readily cleanable with water, detergent anddisinfectants in keeping with biosecurity procedures set out for the use of theanteroom. New paints are available that have excellent clean-ability andmicrobial-resistant qualities. (both clean and dirty sides)18
13) Consideration should be given to including a sink and toilet and the capture ofgrey and black water. A portable toilet is a viable solution for some producers. Itmay be necessary to periodically bring in a portable toilet to accommodate largeworking crews. (clean side)14) The outside door to any anteroom must have a lock and a sign warning thatbiosecurity is in effect.19
6.3British Columbia Mandatory Standards Mandatory biosecurity requirements have been established for poultry farms in BritishColumbia. These requirements were developed from the lessons learned from the AIoutbreak in 2004. The biosecurity reference guide for poultry producers, developed bythe B.C. poultry industry committee includes details regarding farm access standards,barn access standards, flock health management standards, and farm management.It is a mandatory standard in BC that all poultry barns have an anteroom at all primaryentrances to allow personnel to comply with the farm biosecurity procedures duringentry and exit. The mandatory standards also state that the barn entryways andanterooms must be maintained clean and free of debris at all times. These mandatorystandards along with the associated interpretive guidelines were used in the researchfor this project even though they do not apply to producers outside of BC. The BCMandatory Standards are included in Appendix 2 of this report.6.4Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) The combination of a properly designed and equipped anteroom and good biosecuritySOPs will afford the producer the most comprehensive risk management tool available.SOPs set out the activities required by the producer in relation to the behavior of visitorsprior to entry and upon exit of any poultry production facility.Clearly the safest thing for any poultry producer to consider in relation to visitorsentering the production space is to keep those visits to a minimum. The reality is thatevery producer will need to consider the implementation of protocols to be followedwhen an inevitable visit does occur.The following protocols should be incorporated into any farm’s anteroom biosecurityprogram:1) Where possible the producer should be aware of any visitor’s attendance prior toarrival. The producer should prepare fresh footbaths, set out boot brushes, andensure that PPE is available, either supplied on the farm or provided by visitorsthemselves.2) The producer should explain the farm’s biosecurity protocols immediately uponvisitors’ arrival, including directions where to park vehicles, and:a. Ask where visitors have been prior to their visit and learn specifically aboutprior contact with other farms and birds.b. Have all visitors sign the farm’s visitor logbook prior to entering theproduction space.c. Advise visitors that they are required to clean their footwear with a bootbrush or scraper and step into a footbath prior to entering the anteroomarea.20
d. Upon entry into the anteroom ensure that visitors clean their hands withhand sanitizer or water and soap.e. On the dirty side, instruct visitors to remove outwear (including hats,sweaters, coats and coveralls) and store in appropriate area.f. Afford the visitors a shower where appropriate.g. Ensure removal of outside footwear while crossing over demarcation lineto clean side. Have visitors put on clean boots or cover boots beforesetting step on clean side. Leave outer boots on dirty side.h. Once visitors enter clean side, instruct them to cover their outerwear orchange into clean clothes. Use of a hair net and face mask provide anadditional layer of protection against introducing or removing anyinfectious agents.i. Require use of a boot brush and footbath prior to entering the productionarea if appropriate.3) Have visitors reverse steps upon exit for decontamination. Remove barn clothesand leave on clean side. Remove barn boots while crossing over demarcationline. Wash or sanitize hands followed by the use of footbath before exit.Examples of anteroom SOPs that will provide complete detail of the activities outlinedabove can be found in Appendix 3 through 6. Every farm must develop and enforceSOPs that meet their needs.7. Design and Construction of Model AnteroomsThe final designs of the four model anterooms were created with combined input fromproducers, engineers, eBiz Professionals Inc., construction contractors, and the BCPoultry Association. Each anteroom design was tailored to the participating producer’ssite, business and specific needs. It was evident early in this project that a singleanteroom design would not work for every farm.All of the producers involved in this project, including prospective and participatingproducers, raised the issue of costs of construction, and in particular the cost, theapplication process and the equipment required to manage grey and black watergenerated by showers, sinks and washers, and toilets, respectively. Many producersmentioned that both the costs and benefits of an anteroom had to be considered whendeveloping their specific plans.Participants recorded costs in all areas of anteroom design and construction: planning,engineering (if required), site preparation, materials, labour, specialized equipment and21
rental equipment costs. These were summarized in a template provided by the projectteam, and submitted to eBiz to be incorporated in the analysis of the study and thisreport. It is interesting to note that the range of costs estimated to make the appropriatemodifications to an existing facility or to build a standalone anteroom is $3,000 and$40,000. Clearly, some very effective installations can be completed quiteinexpensively, while others, especially for flocks requiring a higher level of biosecurity,can be quite significant.Information regarding the designs and costs of the model anterooms that wereconstructed for this study are detailed in the following section.7.1Turkey Farm Rossdown Farms Ltd. – in Abbotsford, BCRossdown Farms Ltd. has a brand new production facility near Agassiz, BC housingapproximately 23,000 birds. The owner decided to build a standalone anteroom at theentrance to the farm and a secondary anteroom for use upon entering into each of thethree production units within the one single-storey barn.There are usually two to three shipments from the farm each week and two or threeloads of turkey poults are received. Eight to ten catchers arrive to load the birds.The principal anteroom measures 24’ wide x 36’ long and has been designed as a flow-through unit including benches, three walk through showers, lockers, boot racks, andlaundry machines. A separate area for the farm’s generator and a water room isincorporated in the free-standing facility. The newly-constructed building is picturedbelow.22
237.1.1 Anteroom SpecificationsThe stand-alone anteroom includes the following components:• Lockers• Three walk-through showers• Bench between clean and dirty side• Storage space for clothing on clean side• Boot rack• Counter• Washer and dryer• Toilet and sinkSeveral of these features are illustrated in the photographs below.
7.1.2 Anteroom Cost Record The total cost of the Rossdown anteroom was $41,257.54. Details of the costs areshown in the template below.Farm Name: Rossdown Farms Ltd.Planning and Design: Construction Labour:Preliminary design Framing $31,500.00Construction drawings $700.00 MasonryPlanning Board (etc.) Fees $282.00 RoofingSubtotal Planning $982.00 Exterior FinishingInterior Finishing (incl.Doors/Windows)Site Preparation: Electrical Incl.Clearing $500.00 HVACFill Plumbing $250.00Footings/Foundation Other $4,607.50Subtotal Site Prep $500.00 Subtotal Labour $36,357.50Construction Materials: Installed Equipment:Framing/Trusses/Etc. Hand Cleaning Station $200.00Concrete $736.16Biosecurity Fixtures andEquipmentBlocks/Bricks RefrigeratorRoofing Material Washer $150.00Exterior Wall Covering Dryer $150.00Insulation Benches/Seating $100.00Interior Wall Covering $202.33 Tables $100.00Electrical Parts and Materials Other EquipmentLight Fixtures Subtotal Equipment $700.00HVAC Parts and MaterialsPlumbing Parts and Materials $316.79Equipment Rentals(list):Plumbing Fixtures $35.47Doors/WindowsOther Materials $1,427.29Subtotal Materials $2,718.04 Subtotal Equipment Rentals 0Column Total $4,200.04 Column Total $37,057.50Total Costs $41,257.5425
7.1.3 Standard Operating Procedures Rossdown’s SOP for housekeeping and entry and exit of the anteroom is included inAppendix 3.The SOP identifies that cleaning and disinfection of the anteroom must beconducted frequently as the farm is a multi-age production facility. The routinemaintenance of the anteroom requires monitoring and replacement of the suppliesinventory, footbath solution replacement and cleaning of the bench and crossoverzones.The procedure for entry into the farm applies to everyone coming onto the farm for anyreason. It recognizes that the prescribed biosecurity zones must be observed.Lastly, the SOP includes procedures for entering and exiting the barn. The purpose ofthese procedures is to prevent any potentially-infectious material from entering orexiting the production facility. This SOP must be followed by the farm manager,assistant manager and other farm employees as well as by any visitors entering theproduction area.7.2Egg Farm Siemens Farms Ltd. – Abbotsford, BCSiemens Farms Ltd. is an egg production facility housing 40,000 pullets and 30,000layers. Previously, all production areas were accessed through one main door as thebuildings are joined by a hallway system. The producer decided to build an anteroom inthe hallway system, in the area immediately accessed by the exterior door. The singleanteroom serves all production areas. Access to the balance of the hallway is controlledby a set of double doors at each end of the anteroom.It was important to determine that the maximum number of visitors arriving at any onetime is twelve to eighteen people. The anteroom was therefore sized to accommodatethese numbers. It measures 12’ wide x 32’ long and the center piece of the room is acustom-built bench which establishes a demarcation line between the clean and dirtyside of the anteroom. The bench consists of three linked sections measuring 26” wide x24” tall and 102” long and is built from plastic coated lumber for easy cleaning. Thedesign of the bench is such that to access the rest of the facility, visitors are naturallyencouraged to sit down to remove their outside shoes on the dirty side of the barrier(bench) and pivot to the clean side of the barrier to put on their barn shoes. These stepsare included in the established protocols at this farm.A photograph of the exterior of the barn is included overleaf. Access to the anteroom isthrough the door under the permanent awning on the side of the building facing thecedar hedge.26
7.2.1 Anteroom Specifications The anteroom includes the following features:• A wide bench made of plastic coated lumber• Industrial style shelving to keep any items off the floor• Clothing racks to hang outerwear• Tote bins for in barn clothing• Dedicated in barn footwear and outerwear• A Germstar touchless dispensing system for hand sanitizer• A plastic deck box for footwear• A washer and dryer for in barn clothing• All materials are easily cleanable• A counter top with sink and hot water• Footbaths• A portable toilet which is located on the exterior of the facility within thecontrolled access zone• Lunch areaSeveral of these items are illustrated in the on-site photos overleaf.27
7.2.2 Anteroom Cost Records The total cost of the egg farm anteroom was $20,040.65. Details of the costs are shownin the template below.Farm Name: Siemens Farms Ltd.Planning and Design: Construction Labour:Preliminary design Framing $ 550.00Construction drawings MasonryIn-Kind Planning Board (etc.)Fees $ 300.00 RoofingSubtotal Planning $ 300.00 Exterior FinishingInterior Finishing(incl. Doors/Windows) $ 688.00Site Preparation: Electrical $ 625.40Clearing HVAC $ -Fill In Kind Plumbing $ 300.00Footings/FoundationIn kind installationOther $ 500.00Subtotal Site Prep $ - Subtotal Labour $ 2,663.40Construction Materials: Installed Equipment:Framing/Trusses/Etc. $ 800.00 Hand Cleaning Station $ 662.92Concrete $ 276.60Biosecurity Fixtures andEquipment $ 1,575.00Blocks/Bricks RefrigeratorRoofing Material Washer $ 450.00Exterior Wall Covering Dryer $ 500.00Insulation Benches/Seating $ 1,441.93Storage racking, closets,shelving $2,000.00 Tables $ 100.00Electrical Parts and Materials $ 840.58 Other Equipment $ 3,570.00Light Fixtures $ 396.90 Subtotal Equipment $ 8,299.85HVAC Parts and Materials $ 300.00Plumbing Parts and Materials $ 697.73Equipment Rentals(list):Plumbing Fixtures $ 599.09 In kind Hilti rental $ 100.00Doors/Windows $1,489.30Other Materials $1,277.20Subtotal Materials $8,677.40 Subtotal Equipment Rentals $ 100.00Column Total $8,977.40 Column Total $11,063.25Total Costs $20,040.6530
7.2.3 Standard Operating Procedures Siemens Farms Ltd. developed their SOPs to meet the BC Poultry Associationstandards. The SOP for the anteroom is contained in Appendix 4 of this report.SOP 4 is associated with anteroom housekeeping and entry and exit procedures. Itincludes the maintenance and supply inventory required to be maintained in theanteroom. The minimum supply quantity for each required biosecurity item is listed.Cleaning directions and timelines are outlined in detail. Also, step-by-step instructionsfor entry and exit are given.Other SOPs have been prepared for the facility and work together and in conjunctionwith the anteroom facility design to provide for a comprehensive biosecurity program.7.3Chicken Broiler Farm Jolena Holdings Inc. – Abbotsford, B.C.Jolena Holdings Inc. is a broiler production facility near Abbotsford, B.C. housingapproximately 160,000 birds per flock. All production areas are accessed through onemain anteroom building and each of the six barns has a small separate anteroom whichis used prior to entry into the respective production area.The anteroom measures 10’ wide x 20’ long and the center piece of the room is acustom built bench which establishes a demarcation line between the clean and dirtyside of the anteroom. The anteroom is an addition to the existing generator building andis effectively a three-stage flow-through design. Visitors enter through one door andremove their outerwear, go to and use one of the two available walk-in showers and puton their barn attire at the third stage. The third stage is also equipped with a washer anddryer for laundering barn clothing without its being moved outside of the clean area.In-barn footwear is provided for each barn, to be put on before entry into the activeproduction area, in the in-barn anteroom.Interior walls of the main and in-barn anterooms are covered with a material called“Barker Board” which has a lacquer finish to make the interior completely and effectivelywashable. A portable toilet is located on a separate concrete pad just outside the newanteroom.An exterior view of one of the in-barn anterooms is provided in the photograph overleaf.The entry to the anteroom is seen in the centre of the picture31
7.3.1 Anteroom Specifications The main anteroom contains the following components:• Three benches• Boot racks• Storage for street clothes• Two showers with slatted floors• Sink• Stacked washer and dryer• Storage shelves for barn clothes and biosecurity supplies• Counter and drawers• Portable washroom outside of the anteroomSeveral of these features are illustrated in the photographs overleaf.32
357.3.2 Anteroom Cost Record The total cost of the broiler anteroom was $23,166.89. Details of the costs are shown inthe template below..Farm Name: Jolena Holdings Inc.Planning and Design: Construction Labour:Preliminary design Framing $915.00Construction drawings MasonryPlanning Board (etc.) Fees RoofingSubtotal Planning $0.00 Exterior FinishingInterior Finishing (incl. Doors/Windows)Site Preparation: Electrical $1,200.00Clearing HVACFill Plumbing $300.00Footings/Foundation $175.00 Other $10,324.00Subtotal Site Prep $175.00 Subtotal Labour $12,739.00Construction Materials: Installed Equipment:Framing/Trusses/Etc. $492.12 Hand Cleaning Station $1,473.94Concrete $1,849.00Biosecurity Fixtures andEquipmentBlocks/Bricks RefrigeratorRoofing Material $1,067.16 Washer $300.00Exterior Wall Covering DryerInsulation $378.91 Benches/SeatingInterior Wall Covering $585.05 TablesElectrical Parts and Materials $1,043.63 Other EquipmentLight Fixtures Subtotal Equipment $1,773.94HVAC Parts and Materials $339.55Plumbing Parts and MaterialsEquipment Rentals(list):Plumbing Fixtures $839.50 $30.00Doors/Windows $681.85Other Materials $1,172.18Subtotal Materials $8,448.95 Subtotal Equipment Rentals $30.00Column Total $8,623.95 Column Total $14,542.94Total Costs $23,166.89
7.3.3 Standard Operating Procedures The SOP for anteroom housekeeping and entry and exiting procedures for JolenaHoldings Inc. is contained in Appendix 5. It includes steps for cleaning and disinfectionand routine maintenance in addition to anteroom entry and exit steps.According to the SOP, the anteroom is to be cleaned after each flock is placed orremoved. Required regular maintenance includes replacement of supplies, wiping downthe bench and crossover zones, and sweeping the floor. The procedure for anteroomentry and exit details the steps that must be taken by personnel coming onto the farm.These procedures are essential to ensure the proper use of the anteroom.7.4Broiler Breeder Farm KJ Poultry- Clinton, ONKJ Poultry houses fewer than 25,000 birds per flock. The producer needed to add spaceto the end of an existing barn to house spiking males and decided to construct a newanteroom at the same time.The anteroom measures 9’ wide x 25’ long within a larger area outside the productionspace. The anteroom is on the main floor, with the housing area for the spiking malesdirectly above. The anteroom has a washroom and shower. It is designed to havevisitors remove clothing and footwear near the entrance, use shower if necessary andenter into clean side. Considerable money was spent on a wellhead, and on a septicsystem to manage black water.The producer built the anteroom to accommodate eight people at one time, themaximum number of people that enter the barn simultaneously.The entrance to the anteroom can be seen on the right side of the barn in thephotograph below.36
377.4.1 Anteroom Specifications The anteroom contains the following components:• Two sinks• Shower• Toilet• Lunch Area• Counter• Four hand sanitizersSeveral of these are illustrated in the photographs below.
397.4.2 Anteroom Cost Record The specific details regarding the costs for the broiler breeder anteroom are unavailableas the contractor hired for the project did not provide a final breakdown.The total cost of the anteroom was reasonably estimated to be $40,200.00. Theconstruction costs were estimated based on the proportion of square footage of theanteroom within the complete barn addition, including the new barn area for spikingmales.The costs related to plumbing and the septic system made up a significant portion of thefinal cost. The permit for the septic system was $533.16. The septic system wasoriginally estimated to be in the $5,000 to $6,000 range. However, unexpected heavyclay created problems that increased costs above the original estimate, and the septicsystem actually cost $10,573.77. Plumbing for the anteroom was approximately$4,800.00. The septic and plumbing costs combined were about 60% of the total cost ofthe anteroom.7.4.3 Standard Operating Procedures The SOP for the Anteroom at KJ Poultry is available in Appendix 6. It outlinesprocedures for anteroom maintenance and entry and exit.Biosecurity for breeder birds is very important. The anteroom is to be swept andcleaned at the end of every day to limit disease risk. A thorough cleaning anddisinfection is scheduled to be conducted every week.The SOPs outline the procedures for entering and exiting the barn. The anteroom is tobe locked unless someone is in the barn. Showering is required if personnel are goingto another barn. These procedures will be enforced by the farm manager.
407.5Summary of Components of the Model Anterooms *KJ Poultry (Broiler Breeder Farm) is in the process of adding shelving, coat hooks and a bench.Shower Foot Bath Shelving BenchStoragePlace forClothingon DirtySideStoragePlace forClothingon CleanSideStoragefor BootsPlace toWash/SanitizeHandsCounterWasherand DryerWashroom(Toilet andSink)LunchAreaTurkeyFarmX(3 WalkThrough)X X X X XXX X X XEgg Farm X X X X XXX X XX(PortableToiletLocatedOutside)XChickenBroilerFarmX(x2)X X X X X X X X XX(PortableToiletLocatedOutside)BroilerBreederFarm*XXX XX XXX
41The model anterooms built for this project contain almost all of the recognized andeffective biosecurity components. They serve as excellent examples for the rest of theindustry. A comprehensive anteroom provides the best opportunity for prevention ofdisease transmission into and out of a facility. However, every addition to an anteroomraises the cost. Producers must weigh the costs and benefits of each component fortheir operation; based on its own configuration, operating controls and SOPs, and riskprofile, every farm does not require every component.8. Anteroom IssuesFrom observations and through conversations with producers, many issues related toanterooms were brought to the attention of the project team. As every farm is different,and every producer faces different challenges when building an anteroom andimplementing SOPs.This following comments and concerns are presented as input to the ongoing learningabout anterooms, their design and configuration, and their use.Current Circumstances• Some farms, including those with long-lived birds, do not currently haveanterooms at all.• Very few anteroom facilities actually have a demarcation line and often use adoor as the demarcation threshold. This cannot be effective.• Many anterooms have no place to dispose of contaminated disposable items.• Biosecurity protocols are generally not posted for visitors’ use.Design and Layout• Every farm is unique and one anteroom design does not work for everyone.• Different production systems have different disease risk profiles that will affectthe design and use of anterooms.• Rules for septic systems vary by municipality.o One producer was required to install a grease trap for eggs.• A septic system sized to accommodate large service crews is a costly option,especially if their visits are infrequent.o One particular township asked for the maximum number of visitors at onetime and required the producer to increase the size of his septic system toaccommodate that rare occasion• Biosecurity enhancements must be consistent with On-Farm Food Safety (OFFS)programs.• Vehicle traffic (e.g. feed trucks) crossing the walking path from the anteroom tothe barn provides high potential for disease transmission.• Multi-use anterooms (i.e. incorporation of office/ egg room/generator room/ luncharea into same building) invite traffic flow issues.• Location of stand-alone anteroom determines the flow of traffic on the site.• Access to multi-storey barn must be considered in anteroom design andplacement.
42Cleaning and Maintenance• Walk-through showers are difficult to keep clean. They endure a lot of traffic anddirt collects if they are not used and/or cleaned frequently.• Footbaths become contaminated easily.• Fluorescent light covers do not survive pressure washing.• Open surfaces (e.g. unpainted wood) are difficult to clean and disinfect.• Electrical wires are an obstacle when cleaning.Use and Protocols• Unexpected visitors are difficult to accommodate. They often require PPE andother equipment to be supplied, and need to be familiarized with the specificprotocols and practices of the farm before they are allowed to enter any part ofthe facility.• Portable toilets can present a risk for pests and disease.o One producer mentioned that he received a portable toilet infested withaphids/lady bugs that hatched and moved into his barn.• Boot changes are awkward for large groups.• Clutter makes anterooms more difficult to clean and use effectively.• Service crew members are frequently different, and may not be aware ofindividual farms’ biosecurity requirements.• Anything taken into the clean side of anteroom (e.g. lunch pails) needs to becleaned and disinfected before it is removed.• Barriers between the dirty and clean sides of anterooms can be ignored easily iftheir use is not enforced.• Carrying mortalities through the anteroom is a source of contamination.Equipment and Supplies• Cloth coveralls are expensive and need to be washed, but they are morecomfortable for workers.• Disposable coveralls are inexpensive but are warm and uncomfortable to wearfor a long period of time.• Rubber boots cause irritation on bare legs.9. Mobile AnteroomIn parallel with this project, a mobile anteroom was developed in Ontario, with theleadership of Brian’s Poultry. Brian Herman had seen the need for anteroom facilities forhis catching crews on client farms, and was also well aware of the need by the industryfor such a unit in case of an outbreak. Timing and common interest brought the trailerproject and the anteroom project together, and Brian asked eBiz to manage thedevelopment of the unit. Chris Vanderkooy, working with eBiz, and Chris Hamers ofHamers Mechanical completed the design and retrofit of the trailer in under eight weeks.The mobile anteroom that was developed in this program is a fully-equipped and self-contained 26’ trailer, known as the Agbio 26. It is designed for use by groups of peopleworking on farms, particularly when on-site facilities are not available. The trailerfunctions as a separation between the internal and external environments on the farm,
43to reduce the risk of AI or any other animal-related disease from spreading from farm tofarm. It also provides bio-secure change-room, shower and toilet facilities for groups ofworkers, and an area for rest periods and lunch breaks.While conducting research into existing trailers of this type, the project team discoveredthat the United States’ military uses decontamination trailers at sites where chemicalagents may be present. These trailers were reportedly built for approximately $190,000per unit. The team also worked with a trailer manufacturer in Indiana through a salesagent located in Jordan Station, Ontario to develop exact specifications for the trailer tobe constructed for this project. The trailer sourced through this channel proved to bebeyond the budget available through the project, at approximately $75,000. Anothermanufacturer was approached and proposed a trailer that was effectively a largemodular office trailer renovated to the project specifications. Their quote of aconstruction cost estimate of $49,000 fit the project budget, but the modular office hadlarge exterior dimensions, making it very difficult to move without a specialized towingvehicle.The Agbio 26, which suited our use and mobility requirements, was purchased second-hand and retro-fitted to our specifications, at an approximate total cost of $50,000.9.1Components of Agbio 26 The design of the Agbio 26 includes two completely separate areas to allow personnelentering a farm premise to change out of their street clothes, pass through a showerarea, and enter a completely separate clean area to dress in protective clothing beforeentering the farm. Upon completion of their work, personnel would re-trace their steps,leaving their work clothes in a sealed bag at the farm, shower, and then dress back intotheir street clothes before exiting the farm premise through the trailer.The trailer is equipped with bulk fresh water storage and grey and black water holdingtanks. Two walk-through showers allow for movement of several people through thecleaning process in an efficient manner. The interior of the Agbio 26 is completelywashable to allow for thorough cleaning and disinfection after use.In the event that the trailer is ever needed at a location that cannot supply hydro orwater hook-ups, the unit is completely self-contained. The trailer has a 5,000 wattgenerator and carries approximately 100 gallons of fresh water. In addition, extra airconditioning and heating units were installed to allow for separate climate controls oneach side of the trailer.The Agbio 26 contains the following components:• Benches with storage space inside• Washroom• 2 walk-through showers• Cupboards for storage• Space for lunch area• Heating and air conditioning (separate for each side)• Fresh water storage and water heating; gray and black water storage• Generator for electricity
The interior of the trailer. Separate entry and exit doors.A fully washable interior. Fully self-contained.The project has proven the concept of a trailer that can be suitably equipped for use atan agricultural operation where a disease is suspected or present. The trailer can bebuilt at a comparatively low cost.45
4610. Findings and ConclusionsThe overall goal of this project has been to determine how anterooms can expand thecapability of poultry farmers to reduce the risk of a disease outbreak on their farm and intheir industry. The study includes configuration, components, equipment and supplies,and protocols to govern the use of anterooms on each type of poultry farm. While therehas been no attempt to measure or order the relative risk addressed by anterooms andthese attendant factors, there are several important findings and conclusions that arepresented here for consideration.The Technical Committee of the National Avian Biosecurity Advisory Council hasidentified that cleaning hands and wearing appropriately clean protective footwear arethe two most important activities in a basic biosecurity defense. The most basicanterooms, and attendant equipment, provide a venue for these activities, and canincorporate an area for storage of materials and equipment to accomplish them. SOPsfor the use of anterooms will include the detailed directions on how and when to performthese actions, and what to use when doing so.While farm biosecurity is delivered by a number of known, consistent practices and theuse of common defenses, anteroom configuration is specific to each farm. A biosecurityplan and the specifics of an anteroom will therefore be based on an educated selectionfrom both the practices and the anteroom design elements that are described in thisreport.The case is made that an anteroom is not enough on its own. In order for an anteroomto be effective, SOPs must be developed and used to complement the anteroom andother farm biosecurity protocols. Conversely, a farmer can create an anteroom in such away that encourages compliance with their SOPs. For example, by making a bench asthe clean and dirty side divider too wide to step over, visitors will be encouraged to sitdown and change footwear. SOPs and an anteroom used in combination provide thebest biosecurity solution for producers.Every producer involved in this project indicated that cost was a major consideration fortheir design and construction/renovation of an anteroom. The “value proposition” wascited in this context, and most producers would see a reduction in cost as the mostaccessible way to improve the equation. The biggest cost challenge, and an itemtherefore that generated much discussion was the cost of managing black and greywater – versus the potential need for shower and toilet facilities in the anteroom.Other producers expressed a dilemma in making capital improvement decisions in theface of uncertainty under on-going World Trade Organization talks. Others suggestedan investment didn’t make sense given that any catastrophic losses would likely becovered by the CFIA.An anteroom is a key component to any farm’s biosecurity plan. It has the potential toprevent a devastating disease outbreak. The cost of an anteroom is incomparable to thedamages that would be caused to a farm by a devastating disease. Prevention isessential.
4711. Next StepsThis project report has provided information and a guide for producers who may beconsidering building new anterooms or renovating existing space in or near their barns.The four producers who have participated in this pilot study have been able to establishnew and improved facilities within a relatively short time, and are better prepared toresist or contain disease on their farms. Protocols for use of an anteroom have alsobeen demonstrated by their work.As noted, cost is a front-and-centre issue for producers, when the return on investmentof a capital expenditure is not immediately apparent. While the authors and a growingnumber of poultry producers see risk reduction as a key return on the investmentrequired to build or improve an anteroom, encouraging producers to consider such aninvestment is important to several industry stakeholders. A second project has beenapproved to study the potential for a funding and financing program to encourageproducers, over a several-year period, to consider new and improved anteroomfacilities.The new study will take the findings of the initial program and attempt to quantify thenumbers of anterooms that might be built in the coming few years. This information,together with the cost data collected in the first study will allow an estimate of totalcapital cost to be prepared, upon which decisions concerning funding can be made bygovernments, and designs of financing programs can be undertaken by agriculturallenders.In addition, the project team for the new project is studying the availability of newmaterials and construction methods that will further enhance the efficacy of anteroomsand other farm facilities, and are looking into ways to reduce the cost of materials,equipment and supplies for use in anteroom construction and biosecurity programs.The proposed program will provide pre-tested anteroom design options for participantsin all sectors of the poultry industry and all poultry production regions of the country, sothat common, effective standards will be available to maintain a "level playing field" inthis important biosecurity area. Suppliers in each region will understand the biosecuritystandards, and producers will therefore achieve the performance expected from theirnew or renovated facilities.Finally, this report will be distributed to the industry stakeholders who have assisted inthe program to date, and will then be provided to the industry-at-large as another tool inproducers’ biosecurity arsenal.
48Appendix 1 – Producer Participant AgreementI _____________________________ (“Producer”) hereby agree to participate in the BC/Ontario Bio-Security Anteroom Project (“The Project”). My involvement in the Project will run from March 30,2007 until the construction of a new anteroom or renovation of an existing anteroom at theProducer’s poultry farm (“The Construction”) are complete, expected to be by the end of June, 2007.I hereby agree to the following terms and conditions:1) eBiz Professionals Inc. (“eBiz”) will provide an advance against costs for the Construction inthe amount of $5,000.00 (the “Advance”) for all Producers who have executed a ProducerParticipation Agreement dated on or before March 31, 2007. This payment is an advance onthe full maximum payment provided for in paragraph 2 below.2) eBiz will provide funding equal to two-thirds of total costs for the Construction, up to amaximum of $10,000.00 (the “Funding”) for all Construction-related expenses paid by theProducer, as supported by receipts. The Producer will not hold eBiz accountable for anycosts beyond his maximum eligible amount or $10,000, whichever is less, and acknowledgesthat any Advance paid subject to paragraph 1 above will be deducted from payments arisingfrom this paragraph 2.3) The Funding provided will be used for construction of a new anteroom or renovation of anexisting anteroom at the Producer’s poultry farm. Such Construction will satisfy the design,specifications and performance criteria established by eBiz and its project team. Thespecifications and design(s) will be provided to and reviewed with the Producer and hiscontractor(s) in April, 2007.4) The Producer will review and approve a project plan prepared for his Construction before thecommencement of activity on the site.5) The Producer will keep all receipts for the purchase of any services, equipment, or materialsrequired for the Construction and remit copies of those receipts to eBiz as proof ofexpenditures against the initial payment or as proof of additional expenses relating to theConstruction.6) The Producer will allow access to his facility by a reasonable number of individuals for thepurpose of viewing, photographing and measuring the site, barn and/or existing anteroomprior to the commencement of the Construction, during the period of Construction, and uponcompletion of Construction.7) The Producer will keep eBiz informed of the progress of the Construction, and any deviationin planned activity.8) The Producer agrees to make any information gathered about the design, the Construction,project costs, and the use and performance of the anteroom created under this Agreementavailable to all other producers in Canada.____________________________ __________________________(Producer signature) (Date)
49Appendix 2 – British Columbia Poultry StandardsWhere it is either not feasible or not economically reasonable for a poultry producer to implement amandatory biosecurity standard, and where an alternate approach can be implemented that meets theintent of the standard, and where that alternate approach has by virtue of a risk assessment anacceptable level of biosecurity risk, the certification agent may, upon a successfully completed auditof the standards, issue a biosecurity certificate of compliance to the farm.1. Farm Access Standards1.1 Secure Barrier Mandatory Standard # 11.1.1 A secure barrier that restricts vehicle entry must be present at all primary and secondaryaccesses to the Controlled Access Zone.Rationale: Secure barriers are the first line of defense in minimizing the transmission of infectiousdiseases both to and from the farm operation.1.1.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. The barrier should be a fixed gate, chain or equivalent that restricts access.b. The secure barrier must remain closed other than when a vehicle is passing into or outof the Controlled Access Zone.c. The secure barrier should deter unauthorized foot traffic.d. The barrier must be capable of being secured with a lock.e. Secondary accesses must be locked and secure at all times.f. Driveways that do not provide vehicular access to the Controlled Access Zone do notrequire a secure barrier.g. For safety reasons, the primary access should provide sufficient room for all vehiclesto get completely off a public road.h. Where feasible, farm residences should be accessed from outside the ControlledAccess Zone.1.2 Access Signage Mandatory Standard # 21.2.1 Approved biosecurity signage must be clearly displayed at all primary and secondaryaccesses.Rationale: The security of the Controlled Access Zone is strengthened by effective signage.1.2.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. Biosecurity signage must be those approved by the appropriate board or commission.b. Signs must be readily visible, clean, legible and located where they can be readilyviewed.c. The sign for secondary accesses must include instructions to locate the primaryaccess.d. Signs must communicate that the zone to be entered is a biosecure area.1.3 Primary Access Surface Mandatory Standard # 31.3.1 All primary accesses to the Controlled Access Zone must be constructed of hard surface orgravel that prevents any persistent accumulation of pooled water.
50Rationale: Standing water can harbour infectious diseases that may be transported to or from thepremises by vehicular traffic and people. Such protected pathogens also serve as a reservoir that mayre-infect the farm after cleaning and disinfection.1.3.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. Persistent standing water must not be evident on the driveway.b. All driveways, particularly gravel driveways, must be maintained to prevent grades orpotholes that allow the persistent accumulation of pooled water.1.4 Cleaning and Decontamination Site Mandatory Standard # 41.4.1 All primary accesses to the Controlled Access Zone must have an approved cleaning anddecontamination site for vehicles and personnel.Rationale: Visible accumulations of organic matter can transport infectious disease onto or off of thepremises. As with water-protected organisms, this organic debris can serve as a reservoir that may re-infect the farm. These accumulations must be removed to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In theevent of an infectious disease outbreak, disinfection may be required to further reduce the opportunity fordisease to spread to or from the premises.1.4.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. The cleaning site must include the availability of a source of pressurized water.b. The decontamination site must provide the potential to undertake disinfectionmeasures as deemed necessary.c. Contaminated wash water and disinfectants that may pollute must be contained anddisposed of in a manner consistent with regulatory requirements.d. Procedures must be available that describe how vehicles and personnel are to becleaned and/or decontaminated.1.5 Access Maintenance Mandatory Standard # 51.5.1 The Controlled Access Zone must be maintained clean and free of organic debris at all times.Rationale: Visible accumulations of organic matter can harbour and allow transport of infectiousorganisms onto or off of the premises and can serve as a reservoir for reinfection.1.5.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. Any organic material accumulation in the Controlled Access Zone that might result ininfectious material being transported onto or from the farm by foot ware, vehicle tiresor a vehicle’s undercarriage must be cleaned up.b. A high standard of on-farm housekeeping will reduce the work required to clean theControlled Accessed Zone.2. Barn Access Standards2.1 Locked Barn Entrance Mandatory Standard # 62.1.1 All poultry barn entrances shall remain locked at all times that the barn is unoccupied byfarm personnel.Rationale: Barn entrances are high disease transmission risk areas and are the last line of defense inpreventing disease transmission. It is therefore necessary to prevent inappropriate access.2.1.3 Interpretive Guidelines:
51a. Barn entrances that can only be opened from the inside are considered locked.b. Barns should provide sufficient functional exits for the safety of personnel inside thebuilding.2.2 Approved Signage Mandatory Standard # 72.2.1 Approved restricted access signs shall be posted at all barn entrances.Rationale: The barn entrance is a high disease transmission risk area and is the last line of defense inpreventing disease transmission. It is therefore appropriate to post signs to limit non-essential access.2.2.3 Interpretive Guidelines:a. Signs posted must be those approved by the appropriate board or commission.b. Entrance signs will identify that the area beyond the entrance is a restricted accesszone.c. Entrance signs must be readily visible, clean and legible.2.3 Anteroom Mandatory Standard # 82.3.1 All poultry barns must have an ante room at all primary entrances that allow personnel tocomply with the farm biosecurity procedures during entry and exit.Rationale: Primary barn entrances are the last line of defense in preventing disease transmission.The ante room provides a unique opportunity to reduce the risk of disease transmission by minimizingany contaminants moving from the outside environment to the inside and from the inside environmentto the outside.2.3.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. The anteroom provides a transition zone and must:• permit adequate space for a distinct physical separation of the “outside area” andall “inside areas”• have a clearly identifiable demarcation between the outside and the inside areasb. The anteroom needs to allow for:• hands to be cleaned with appropriate disinfectants• a change of clean/disinfected boots across the outside and inside demarcation• a change of clean/disinfected outer-ware including head cover• sufficient space for the number of personnel utilizing the anteroomc.As an additional line of protection, a well-maintained footbath and boot brush orpreparatory cleaning and disinfection area for boots may be located at the entranceto the anteroom and the bird-holding area.d.The minimum standard for a free range farm anteroom will consist of a coveredarea with a well maintained footbath.2.4 Anteroom Maintenance Mandatory Standard # 92.4.1 Barn entryways and ante rooms must be maintained clean and free of debris at all times.Rationale: Visible accumulations of organic matter may harbour infectious organisms and increase therisk of the transmission of these organisms either into or out of the barn. Accumulations of organic mattermust be removed to reduce the risk of disease transmission.2.4.3 Interpretive Guideline:a. Ante rooms must be regularly cleaned and disinfected.
523. Flock Health Management Standards3.1 Flock Health Records Mandatory Standard # 103.1.1 Individual flock health records must be maintained.Rationale: In the event of a disease outbreak the individual flock health records will provide invaluableinformation to assist in containing the outbreak.3.1.2 Interpretive Guideline:a. Records must include a count of mortalities collected at least once each day.b. Production records, including feed intake and, for breeders or layers, egg productionmust be kept.c. Veterinary and diagnostic reports are also part of the health records.d. Any response to an unusual mortality rise, including submission for diagnosis,treatments undertaken, or management adjustments, must be recorded.e. Any addition or removal of birds to or from a flock must be recorded and all healthrecords accompanying the birds must be kept in the flock records.3.2 Mortality Management Mandatory Standard # 113.2.1 Poultry mortalities and cull eggs must be handled and disposed of in an approved manner.Rationale: Dead birds and cull eggs may be a high risk source of infectious disease organisms andmust therefore be handled and disposed of in an approved manner.3.2.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. Producers must dispose of mortalities and cull eggs in a manner that is consistent withprovincial standards such as incineration or composting.b. Disposal of mortalities and cull eggs on farm is preferred to off farm transport.c. All mortalities transported off-farm must be placed in clean disinfected containers andthe containers sealed prior to leaving the premises.d. Large numbers of mortalities that result from a disease outbreak must be handled in amanner consistent with industry and government requirements.4. Farm Management4.1 Pest Control Mandatory Standard # 124.1.1 An effective pest control program must be in place.Rationale: Pests are active and passive disease transmitting vectors. Minimizing pest populations willreduce the risk of disease transmission.4.1.2 Interpretive Guideline:a. Premises should be maintained in a manner that minimizes pest infestations.b. Rodent and insect control programs that are designed to reduce existing pestpopulations and prevent further establishment of new pests.4.2 Protection of Feed and Water from Contamination Mandatory Standard # 134.2.1 A management program that prevents the contamination of feed and water sources must bein place.
53Rationale: Contamination from the external environment may introduce and/or transmit disease.4.2.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. Premises should be maintained in a manner that minimizes environmentalcontamination including, but not limited to, the proper storage of feed, the eliminationof water leaks, the maintenance of water quality and generally good housekeepingmeasures such as the removal of debris.4.3 Cleaning and Decontamination of Equipment Mandatory Standard # 144.3.1 All equipment and materials related to the production of poultry that enter or leave theControlled Access Zone, regardless of size or use, must be clean and decontaminated.Rationale: Visible accumulations of organic matter can harbour infectious organisms, allowing theirtransport onto or off of the premises. These accumulations must be removed to reduce the risk ofdisease transmission.4.3.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. All equipment and materials related to the production of poultry must be visibly freeof organic matter accumulations.b. All equipment and materials related to poultry and poultry products production thatare not visibly free of organic matter accumulations must not pass through theprimary access.c. Recycled poultry related equipment such as egg pallets, catching crates, sawdustpipes and manure handling equipment is considered high risk and should betreated appropriately.d. Producers are encouraged to conduct business with allied trades that haveadopted biosecurity practices complementary to the BC On-Farm BiosecurityProgram and the relevant standards.4.4 Manure Management Mandatory Standard # 154.4.1 All farms must have a documented manure management strategy.Rationale: Manure can be a high risk source of disease transmission. The strategy for manuremanagement can therefore be critical in the event of a disease outbreak.4.4.2 Interpretive Guideline:a. A manure management strategy will, at a minimum, document how the manure wasutilized and/or who transported it from the farm.4.5 On-Farm Biosecurity Training for Producers and Farm Employees Mandatory Standard # 164.5.1 On-farm biosecurity training is required for all producers and farm employees.Rationale: In order to achieve the intent of the standards it is essential that producers and employeesunderstand the reasons for the standards and their ability to affect the level of biosecurity attained onthe premises.4.5.2 Interpretive Guidelines:a. An on-farm biosecurity training program must be in place.b. On-farm biosecurity training is an on-going requirement with the need to updatefarm personnel and train new personnel at regular intervals.
544.6 Standard Operating Procedures Mandatory Standard # 174.6.1 Standard Operating Procedures for on-farm biosecurity must be available.Rationale: Standard operating procedures recognize that biosecurity is an on-going activity andprovide processes for maintaining biosecurity standards and assist with biosecurity training.4.6.2 Interpretive Guidelines:Standard operating procedures will include but not be limited to:• Self quarantine procedures• Farm access policies.• Primary and secondary access maintenance scheduling.• Cleaning and decontamination site operation and maintenance• Controlled Access Zone housekeeping procedures.• Ante room procedures and housekeeping.• Building cleaning and disinfection procedures.• Pest control program• Biosecurity training approach.• Mortality disposal procedures.• Manure management strategies.• Scheduling for the review and updating of standard operating procedures.4.7 Visitor and Activity Log Book Mandatory Standard # 184.7.1 An activity logbook for the premises that records daily on-farm activities relevant to thebiosecurity standard operating procedures must be maintained.Rationale: In the event of a disease outbreak the activity logbook for the premises will provide criticalinformation to assist in containing the outbreak. The premises logbook will also providedocumentation verifying that biosecurity standard operating procedures are being followed.4.7.2 Interpretive Guidelines:The activity logbook for the premises will regularly document activities including but not limitedto:• Primary and secondary access maintenance.• Cleaning and decontamination undertaken including barn sanitation and dust management.• Pest control measures undertaken.• Premises visitors including the allied trades entering the Controlled Access Zone andrestricted area(s).• Biosecurity training undertaken.• Flock health diagnostic reports, treatments and mortality.• The name of company or individual transporting manure off the farm and, where known,the receiver.
55Appendix 3 – Rossdown Farms Ltd. SOPsSTANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 4FARM NAME: Rossdown Farms Ltd.TITLE: Anteroom Housekeeping and Entry & Exiting ProceduresDate: April 17, 2008 Supersedes:Objective: To describe the procedures for maintaining the anteroomResponsibility: Employees- Farm manager, assistant manager and farm help____________________________________________________________________________Introduction:A clean and tidy anteroom not only reflects on the perceived quality of care that the flock withinthe barn receives but also provides an environment in which the risk for accumulation ofpathogens is significantly reduced. This will also be an environment that discourages thepresence of pests that may be vectors of pathogens.A. Housekeeping ProceduresThe anteroom must have a distinct physical separation between the “outside” and “inside” areas.1. Cleaning and disinfection• The anteroom will be cleaned and disinfected periodically as this is a multi age farm.2. Routine Maintenance• Wash and replace all dirty smocks/coveralls:i. Remove used disposable coveralls from the barn in plastic bags for garbagecollection.ii. Re-usable ones: Put coveralls directly into the washing machine.• Check all supplies prior to service crews arriving to ensure that a sufficient inventoryis readily available. The following re-useable supplies should be in stock:– Hand sanitizer bottles or stations.– Permanent coveralls.– Permanent boots and disposable ones.– Disposable coveralls.– Box of dust masks.• Check and replace the footbath solution as required, where needed.• Wipe down bench/ crossover zones with hot water and sweep the floor areaperiodically.
– On the “inward” side of the barrier, sweep up all debris and dispose of it in thebird holding area (into the litter or manure pit).– On the “outward” side of the barrier, sweep up all debris and dispose of thesweepings in an area away from the barn entrance and into the garbage bins.B. Procedures for entering farmProcedure:1. All farm workers, service personnel and visitors will park outside the controlled access zoneand determine if they need to bring vehicle or equipment into the controlled access zone. If it isdetermined that it is necessary, the vehicle and equipment must be sprayed with auto spraystation, or hand station provided at the anteroom.C. Procedures for entering or exiting the anteroomIntroduction:In order to prevent any potentially infectious material from entering or leaving the CAZ +Restricted Access Zone.Procedures:1. Barn Entry• Rinse or brush outside footwear to remove soil and other organic material.• All crews and or visitors must sign in the visitors log.• Step into footbath while entering anteroom….or change footwear prior to crossing theRAZ.• Remove outside outerwear (coats, sweaters, hats) and hang in “outward” side of theanteroom barrier.• Remove outside footwear while crossing over demarcation line (or bench) to“inward” side, putting on inside boots (or while putting on plastic boot covers…orwhile changing into permanent footwear)• Put on barn outerwear.• Wash or sanitize hands• If going to more than one barn, go from youngest birds to oldest.2. Barn Exit• Brush or scrape all manure off boots before leaving the bird holding area or usefootbath• Remove outerwear.Remove boots and st• ep over demarcation line (or bench) putting on outside footwear.If plastic boot covers used, remove while stepping out of the “inward” side of the•anteroom and dispose into proper container.Wash or sanitize hands.•56
57Applicable:OP # in your Board or Commission’s On-Farm Food Safety Programs. TurkeyIfPlease refer to S(Turkey On-Farm Food Safety)
58Appendix 4 – Siemens Farms Ltd. SOPsSTANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 4FARM NAME: SIEMENS PLANEVIEW G&WTITLE: Anteroom Housekeeping and Entry &Exiting ProceduresDate: January 30th, 2008 Supersedes: Version OneObjective: To describe the procedures for maintaining the anteroomResponsibility: Employees whose role/division it may reference:Vaccinating crews: ErwinFowl Catching crews: Staff on duty for shippingChick deliveries and pullet loading: Staff on duty for shippingIntroduction:A clean and tidy anteroom not only reflects on the perceived quality of care that the flock withinthe barn receives but also provides an environment in which the risk for accumulation ofpathogens is significantly reduced. This will also be an environment that discourages thepresence of pests that may be vectors of pathogens.A. Housekeeping Procedures:The anteroom must have a distinct physical separation between the “outside” and “inside” areas.1. Cleaning and disinfection• The anteroom will be cleaned and disinfected after each flock is placed or removedand/or vaccinated in the case of pullets.2. Routine Maintenance• Wash and replace all dirty smocks/coveralls:i. Remove used disposable coveralls from the barn in plastic bags for garbagecollection.ii. Re-usable ones: Put coveralls directly into the washing machine. Clean thefloor and washing machine with a disinfecting cleaner to remove any potentialcontamination.• Check all supplies prior to service crews arriving to ensure that a sufficient inventoryis readily available. The following re-useable supply amounts should be in stock:– 2 Hand sanitizer bottles or stations.– 20 pairs of permanent smocks/labcoats.– 20 pairs of permanent coveralls.
59– 20 T’s for the heat of summer jobs.– 20 pairs of permanent boots and at 20 pair disposable ones.– 12 pairs of spare disposable coveralls.– Box of dust masks.• If any of these supplies are below the minimum, have a new supply readily available.• Check and replace the footbath solution as required, where needed.• Wipe down bench/ crossover zones with hot water and sweep the floor area everyTuesday.– On the “inward” side of the barrier, sweep up all debris and dispose of it in thebird holding area (into the litter or manure pit).– On the “outward” side of the barrier, sweep up all debris and dispose of thesweepings in an area away from the barn entrance and into the garbage bins.B. Procedures for entering or exiting the anteroomIntroduction:In order to prevent any potentially infectious material from entering or leaving the CAZ +Restricted Access ZoneProcedures:1. Barn Entry• Rinse or brush outside footwear to remove soil and other organic material.• All crews and or visitors must sign in the visitor log.• Step into footbath while entering anteroom or change footwear prior to crossing theRAZ.• Remove outside outerwear (coats, sweaters, hats) and hang in “outward” side of theanteroom barrier.• Remove outside footwear while crossing over demarcation line (or bench) to“inward” side, putting on inside boots (or while putting on plastic boot covers…orwhile changing into permanent footwear)• Put on barn outerwear.• Wash or sanitize hands.2. Barn Exit• Brush or scrape all manure off boots before leaving the bird holding area.• Remove outerwear.• Remove boots and step over demarcation line (or bench) putting on outside footwear.If plastic boot covers used, remove while stepping out of the “inward” side of the•anteroom and dispose into proper container.Wash or sanitize hands.•If Applicable:Please refer to SOP in your Board or Commission’s On-Farm Food Safety Programs.Table Egg (Start Clean, Stay Clean)
60Appendix 5 – Jolena Holdings Inc. SOPsSTANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 4FARM NAME: Jolena HoldingsTITLE: Anteroom Housekeeping and Entry and Exiting ProceduresDate: January 29, 2008 Supersedes: This is the original SOPObjective: To describe the procedures for the care and control of the separate anteroom, asused for farm entry.Responsibility: Farm Manager T. KeddyIntroduction:A clean and tidy anteroom not only reflects on the perceived quality of care that the flock withinthe barn receives but also provides an environment in which the risk for accumulation ofpathogens is significantly reduced. This will also be an environment that discourages thepresence of pests that may be vectors of pathogens.A. Housekeeping Procedures:The anteroom must have a distinct physical separation between the “outside” and “inside”areas.1. Cleaning and disinfection• The anteroom will be cleaned and disinfected after each flock is placed or removed.2. Routine Maintenance• Replace disposable coveralls, gloves, hairnets and boots.• Check all supplies prior to service crews arriving to ensure that a sufficient inventoryis readily available. The following reusable supply amounts should be in stock:o 2 Hand sanitizer bottles or stationso 15 permanent smocks, lab coatso 30 pairs of disposable coverallso 20 pairs of permanent boots and/or 20 pair of disposable bootso 1 box of dust maskso 1 box of hairnets• If any of these supplies are below the minimum, have new supply available.• Wipe down bench/ crossover zones with hot water and sweep the floor area weekly.• Sweep up all debris and dispose of the sweepings into the garbage bins.
61B. ProceduIntroduIn order CAZsitor must sign in the visthing and hang in “outward” side of the anteroomer and step into the shower area.After working in barns, return toteroom Exitover the demarcation line (or bench) putting on clothing and• anitize hands and then exit to leave the farm CAZIf A lPlease e afety Programs.Chicke Sres for Entering and Exiting the Anteroomction:to prevent any potentially infectious material from entering or leaving theProcedures:1. Anteroom Entry• All crews and/or vi itor’s log• Rinse or brush outside footwear or remove soil and other organic material• Step into footbath while entering anteroom• Remove outside footwear and clobarri• As directed, use the showers (2 of them) and step into the next part of the anteroom toput on biosecurity clothing, coveralls, boots, hair nets, gloves, etc.• Wash or sanitize hands• Enter the CAZthe anteroom and prepare to exit.2. An• Remove boots and stepoutside footwear, disposing barn clothing into proper containersSpp bica le:ref r to SOP in your Board or Commission’s On-Farm Food Sn ( afe, Safer, Safest)
62Appendix 6 – KJ Poultry SOPsFARM NAME: KJ PoultryTIT ntenance and Entry and Exit ProceduresDate: M yObject :Respon b ce personnel and visitors.STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURELE: Anteroom Maia 12, 2008ive To describe procedures for maintaining and using the anteroom.si ility: Farm managers, farm employees, serviA. Anteroom Maintenance ProceduresIntrodu tiA clean eives andalso pro d ich the risk for the accumulation of pathogens is significantlyreduced n environment that discourages the presence of pests that may beroom will be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected every week.2.irty outerwear/coveralls every week.n a weekly basis to ensure that a sufficient inventory is readilyavailable.• Replace any supplies that are low.• Check and replace the footbath solution as required- should be replaced at least every2 days and more as required.• Check for and remove any non-essential equipment everyday to minimize clutter.• Sweep the floor and remove any debris everyday.o On the inward side dispose of dirt and debris in bird holding area (into litter ormanure pit).o On the outward side dispose of dirt and debris in an area away from barnentrance.c on:he quality of care that the flock within the barn recand tidy anteroom reflects tvi es an environment in wh. This will also be avectors of pathogens.1. Cleaning and Disinfection:• The ante• Clean and disinfect the room according to the procedures outlined below.Routine Maintenance:• Wash and replace all d• Remove garbage as necessary.• Check all supplies o
63IntroductionThe correct st aterial fromtion area. Make sure that the door to the anteroom is locked whencurity warning sign.fore using thefor a minimum• Visitors must sign the log book.outside footwear or put on boot covers while crossing demarcation line• unch room and washroom available on the inward side of the anteroom.2.ear to remove organic material before leaving ther sanitize hands.net and dust mask on inward side.roper storage space.ecurity or if going to another barn.• m• Wash or sanitize hands.•• Use footbath while exiting the anteroom.If Applicable:Please refer to SOP in your Board or Commission’s On-Farm Food Safety Programs.Hatching Egg (Cheq Program)B. Anteroom Entry and Exit Procedures:eps in the proper order will help to prevent any potentially infectious mentering or leaving the producno one is in the barn. A contact number should be visible on the biose1. Barn Entry• Rinse or brush outside footwear to remove organic material befootbath available outside barn entrance.• Use footbath before entering anteroom for disinfection. Keep feet in the footbathof 30 seconds.• Wash or sanitize hands on outward side.• Remove outwear and store on outward side of the anteroom.• Shower if necessary in case of heightened biosecurity.• Removeto clean side.• Put on coveralls, gloves, hair net and dust mask on inward side.• Wash or sanitize hands.LBarn Exit• Rinse or brush outside footwbird holding area.• Wash o• Remove coveralls, gloves, hair• Place any disposable items in garbage pail on inward side.• Return re-usable items to p• Wash or sanitize hands.• Shower if necessary in case of heightened biosRe ove footwear or boot covers while crossing demarcation line to dirty side.Put street clothes back on.