The CompleteHome Veterinary          Guide
THE COMPLETE  HOME VETERINARY            GUIDE                Chris C. Pinney, DVM                                    Thir...
Copyright © 2004 by Chris C. Pinney. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United Statesof America. Except as permitted...
CONTENTS            Introduction                             xixPart I Dogs and Cats                                  1   ...
vi   CONTENTS                Litter Training Your Kitten                44                Solving Challenging Behaviors   ...
CONTENTS                                                               vii               Coronavirus                      ...
viii   CONTENTSChapter 9     The Cardiovascular and              Hemolymphatic Systems                                191 ...
CONTENTS                                                                     ix             Anal Sac Disease              ...
x   CONTENTSChapter 15     The Eyes and Ears                                   297               The Eyes                 ...
CONTENTS                                                                     xi             Degenerative Disk Disease (DDD...
xii   CONTENTS                 At-Home Physical Exam                         402                 Nail Trimming            ...
CONTENTS                                                 xiiiChapter 25   Guinea Pigs                         457         ...
xiv   CONTENTS                 Nutrition                    496                 Reproduction                 496          ...
CONTENTS                                                               xv             Preventive Health Care              ...
xvi   CONTENTS                   Molting                                           572                   Preventive Health...
CONTENTS                                                                xviiChapter 42   Reducing Stress and Promoting Men...
xviii   CONTENTSAppendix A Clinical Signs and Complaints in Dogs           and Cats                                733Appe...
INTRODUCTIONW   elcome to the Third Edition of The Complete Home Veterinary    Guide, your one-stop resource for informati...
xx    INTRODUCTIONfrom a veterinary perspective, this book provides an objective “nuts-and-bolts” look at pet care. It doe...
INTRODUCTION                                                                     xxi   I How to maintain high      water q...
xxii   INTRODUCTION                                                Part IV presents a vari-                               ...
INTRODUCTION                                                 xxiiiincreasing       your     pet’slongevity, reducing stres...
xxiv   INTRODUCTION                                            everyone’s mind these                                      ...
PART                                  1         DOGS AND CATSA  ccording to a recent (as of 2003) study conducted by the A...
2   DOGS AND CATS         DID YOU KNOW ?                                                 The modern-day dog               ...
DOGS AND CATS                                                                       3   Interestingly, over the years, the...
CHAPTER                                                                   1Choosing the Right Petfor YouB  ecause dogs and...
6   DOGS AND CATS           DID YOU KNOW ?                                                         that strikes your fancy...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                              7ents is not k...
8   DOGS AND CATS                                                    company. If so, a cat or toy                         ...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                          9pack members (and...
10   DOGS AND CATSFIGURE 1.5   The thrill of competition.that bring owners and their performers in from all over the count...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                         11time that cat own...
12   DOGS AND CATSF I G U R E 1 . 6 Dogs with long coats and/or thick undercoats should not be housedoutdoors in hot clima...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                             13than do older...
14   DOGS AND CATSnaturally occurs during this time, a greater bond will form between itand your child.New Pets and Other ...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                         15FIGURE 1.8   Dogs...
16   DOGS AND CATS          DID YOU KNOW ?                          to accept financial respon-                           ...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                       17society or animal s...
18   DOGS AND CATSThe Prepurchase ExamOnce you think you’ve finally found the perfect companion, nowwhat? For starters, yo...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                         19especially are me...
20     DOGS AND CATSTable 1.1 Congenital or Inherited Disorders in Dogs*Eyes                                     Microphth...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                      21    Don’t feel awkwa...
22   DOGS AND CATSTable 1.3 Supply Checklist for Your New                                                Petproofing YourD...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                    23   Cats love to jump o...
24   DOGS AND CATS    If you plan on further confining your dog to a pen or run, usea smooth concrete or quarry tile as fl...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                      25sleeping area is in ...
26   DOGS AND CATSover when the cat attempts to scratch. A sturdy piece of soft wood isideal for this purpose. Other comme...
CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU                                                                        27    For dogs, toys...
28    DOGS AND CATS                                                        The same rules of mod-                         ...
CHAPTER                                                              2Training EssentialsP  roper training is definitely t...
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
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The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
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The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
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The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
The complete home veterinary guide (3rd edition)
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  1. 1. The CompleteHome Veterinary Guide
  2. 2. THE COMPLETE HOME VETERINARY GUIDE Chris C. Pinney, DVM Third Edition McGraw-HillNew York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto
  3. 3. Copyright © 2004 by Chris C. Pinney. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United Statesof America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part ofthis publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored ina database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.0-07-143395-3The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-141272-7All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademarksymbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fash-ion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement ofthe trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed withinitial caps.McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums andsales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, pleasecontact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069.TERMS OF USEThis is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) andits licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms.Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve onecopy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, mod-ify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish orsublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may usethe work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strict-ly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with theseterms.THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS”. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKENO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY ORCOMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK,INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THEWORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANYWARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TOIMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICU-LAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the func-tions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be unin-terrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or any-one else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for anydamages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of anyinformation accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hilland/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential orsimilar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of themhas been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall applyto any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort orotherwise.DOI: 10.1036/0071433953
  4. 4. CONTENTS Introduction xixPart I Dogs and Cats 1 History of the Dog 1 History of the Cat 2Chapter 1 Choosing the Right Pet for You 5 Housing Considerations 10 Pets and Children 12 New Pets and Other Pets 14 The Responsible Pet Owner 14 Finding the Right Dog or Cat for You 16 The Prepurchase Exam 18 Petproofing Your Home 22 Your Dog’s Outdoor Home 23 Naming Your Pet 24 Introducing Your Pet to Its New Home 24 Special Considerations for Cats 25 First Encounters 26 Rules of Play 26Chapter 2 Training Essentials 29 Main Principles of Training 30 Socializing and Desensitizing Your Pet 33 Basic Training for Dogs 37 Housebreaking Your Puppy 41 Basic Training for Cats 43 v
  5. 5. vi CONTENTS Litter Training Your Kitten 44 Solving Challenging Behaviors 45 Canine Behavioral Disorders 45 Feline Behavioral Disorders 58Chapter 3 Traveling with Your Dog or Cat 65 Traveling by Car 65 Traveling by Air 67 Vacation Planning 68Chapter 4 Preventive Health Care 71 At-Home Physical Exam 71 Vaccinations and the ABCs of Immunity 72 Controlling Internal Parasites 81 Controlling Fleas and Ticks 82 Preventing Heartworm Disease 87 Dental Care 89 Feeding Your Pet 92 Battling Obesity in Dogs and Cats 100 Caring for the Canine Ear 105 Maintaining a Healthy Skin and Coat 108 Nail Trimming 112 Expressing Anal Sacs 114Chapter 5 Elective Surgeries in Dogs and Cats 115 The Facts Concerning Anesthesia 115 Neutering 117 Tail Docking and Dewclaw Removal (Dogs) 119 Cosmetic Ear Trimming (Dogs) 120 Declawing (Cats) 121 Postsurgical Care for Dogs and Cats 123Chapter 6 Infectious Diseases 125 Infectious Diseases in Dogs 125 Canine Distemper 125 Parvovirus 129
  6. 6. CONTENTS vii Coronavirus 131 Infectious Canine Hepatitis (ICH) 131 Canine Contagious Respiratory Disease (CCRD) 132 Herpesvirus 134 Leptospirosis 135 Rabies 136 Bacterial Disease 140 Ringworm and Fungal Disease 140 Infectious Disease in Cats 142 Parvovirus (Panleukopenia; Feline Distemper) 142 Feline Infectious Peritonitis 143 Enteric Coronavirus (EC) 146 Feline Upper Respiratory Disease (URD) 146 Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) 150 Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) 153 Rabies 155 Bacterial Disease 156 Higher Bacterial and Fungal Disease 156Chapter 7 Parasitic Disease 159 Fleas 159 Ticks 160 Mites 161 Tapeworms 164 Roundworms 166 Hookworms 169 Whipworms 171 Warbles 172 Heartworms 173 Coccidia 178 Ehrlichiosis 179 Lyme Disease 181 Cytauxzoonosis 182 Hemobartonellosis 182Chapter 8 The Immune System 185 Anatomy and Physiology 186 Immunosuppression 189 Allergies and Autoimmune Disease 189
  7. 7. viii CONTENTSChapter 9 The Cardiovascular and Hemolymphatic Systems 191 Anatomy and Physiology 191 Heart Disease and Heart Failure 194 Arterial Thromboembolism (Cats) 200 Anemia 201 Bleeding Disorders 202Chapter 10 The Respiratory System 205 Anatomy and Physiology 205 Rhinitis 207 Nasal Foreign Bodies 207 Nasopharyngeal Polyps (Cats) 208 Tracheobronchitis (Dogs) 209 Collapsed Trachea (Dogs) 209 Feline Asthma 210 Pleural Effusion 211 Pneumonia 212 Chronic Obstructed Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 213 Metastatic Lung Disease 214Chapter 11 The Digestive System 215 Anatomy and Physiology 215 Gastrointestinal Response to Disease and Treatment 218 Disorders of the Teeth and Oral Cavity 220 Esophageal Disorders 228 Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Complex (Dogs) 230 Gastrointestinal Ulcers 231 Hairballs (Cats) 232 Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis (Dogs) 233 Intussusception 234 Intestinal Obstructions 236 Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) 236 Colitis 237 Megacolon (Cats) 239
  8. 8. CONTENTS ix Anal Sac Disease 239 Pancreatitis 241 Hepatitis and Liver Disease 243Chapter 12 The Urinary System 247 Anatomy and Physiology 247 Kidney Disease 248 Urinary Incontinence 251 Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) 251 Canine Urolithiasis (Urinary Stones) 255 Urinary Tract Infections 258Chapter 13 The Reproductive System 261 Anatomy and Physiology 261 Accidental Mating (Mismating) 265 False Pregnancy 266 Eclampsia 267 Vaginitis and Metritis 268 Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia (Pyometra) 269 Phimosis and Paraphimosis (Dogs) 270 Prostate Disorders 271Chapter 14 The Skin and Haircoat 273 Anatomy and Physiology 273 The Itchy Pet 274 Hair Loss (Alopecia) 281 Seborrhea 284 Acanthosis Nigricans (Dogs) 285 Bacterial Skin Disease 285 Miliary Dermatitis (Cats) 289 Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex (Cats) 290 Feline Acne 291 Neurodermatitis (Cats) 292 Solar Dermatitis 292 Skin Lumps and Masses 293
  9. 9. x CONTENTSChapter 15 The Eyes and Ears 297 The Eyes 297 Anatomy and Physiology 298 Corneal Ulcers 300 Conjunctivitis 302 Glaucoma 303 Cataracts 305 Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (Dry Eye) 305 Retinal Degeneration and Disease 306 Prolapse of the Third-Eyelid Gland (Cherry Eye) 308 Entropion 308 Ectropion 309 Masses Involving the Eyelids 310 The Ears 310 Anatomy and Physiology 311 Otitis Externa 313 Ear Mites 316 Otitis Media and Interna 317 Ruptured Eardrums 318 Deafness 318 Aural Hematomas 320Chapter 16 The Musculoskeletal System 321 Anatomy and Physiology 321 Arthritis and Degenerative Joint Disease 322 Patellar Luxation (Dogs) 327 Torn Knee Ligaments (Cruciate Injuries) 329 Hip Luxation 330 Fractures 330 Osteomyelitis 331 Spondylosis Deformans (Dogs) 331 Metabolic Bone Disease 332 Mucopolysaccharidosis (Cats) 333 Myositis and Myopathies 333 Hernias 336Chapter 17 The Nervous System 339 Anatomy and Physiology 339 Seizures 341 Paralysis 344
  10. 10. CONTENTS xi Degenerative Disk Disease (DDD) 344 Vertebral Instability (Canine Wobbler Syndrome) 349 Myelopathies 349 Vestibular Disease 350 Feline Hyperesthesia Syndrome 351 Ischemic Encephalopathy (Cats) 352Chapter 18 The Endocrine System 353 Anatomy and Physiology 353 Hypothyroidism (Dogs) 355 Hyperthyroidism (Cats) 357 Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Disease) 359 Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s Disease) 361 Diabetes Mellitus 363 Diabetes Insipidus 366Part II Birds 369Chapter 19 Choosing the Right Bird for You 371 Factors to Consider 371 Taming and Training Your Pet Bird 379 Proper Nutrition 381 Housing Your Pet Bird 384Chapter 20 Avian Anatomy and Physiology 389 The Digestive System 389 The Respiratory System 390 The Urogenital System 391 “Sexing” Your Bird 392 The Endocrine, Circulatory, and Nervous Systems 393 The Musculoskeletal System 393 The Integumentary System 394 Vision and Hearing 396Chapter 21 Preventive Health Care 397 Preventing Injury or Accidental Poisoning 399 Restraint 400
  11. 11. xii CONTENTS At-Home Physical Exam 402 Nail Trimming 406 Beak Care 407 Feather Clipping 407 Bathing 409Chapter 22 Avian Diseases and Disorders 411 Respiratory Tract Diseases 412 Digestive System Disease 414 Neurologic Disorders 418 Cardiovascular Diseases 419 Endocrine Malfunctions 420 Eye Disorders 420 Ear Problems 421 Disorders of the Skin and Feathers 421 Hormone-Induced Feather Loss 425 Musculoskeletal Disorders 427 Reproductive Disorders 429 Infectious Diseases 430 Bacterial Infections 433Chapter 23 General Treatment of Sick Birds 435 Care for Sick Birds 435 Tube Feeding 436 Hand-Raising Baby Birds 440 Emergency and First Aid Procedures in Birds 441Part III Exotic Pets 445Chapter 24 Rabbits 447 Restraint 447 Housing 448 Nutrition 450 Reproduction 451 Preventive Health Care 452 Diseases and Disorders 453
  12. 12. CONTENTS xiiiChapter 25 Guinea Pigs 457 Restraint 458 Housing 458 Nutrition 459 Reproduction 459 Preventive Health Care 461 Diseases and Disorders 461Chapter 26 Hamsters and Gerbils 467 Restraint 468 Housing 469 Nutrition 470 Reproduction 471 Preventive Health Care 472 Diseases and Disorders 472Chapter 27 Mice and Rats 477 Restraint 477 Housing 478 Nutrition 479 Reproduction 479 Preventive Health Care 480 Diseases and Disorders 480Chapter 28 Chinchillas 483 Restraint 484 Housing 484 Nutrition 487 Reproduction 488 Preventive Health Care 488 Diseases and Disorders 489Chapter 29 Prairie Dogs 493 Restraint 495 Housing 495
  13. 13. xiv CONTENTS Nutrition 496 Reproduction 496 Preventive Health Care 497 Diseases and Disorders 497Chapter 30 Hedgehogs 501 Restraint 502 Housing 503 Nutrition 504 Reproduction 504 Preventive Health Care 505 Diseases and Disorders 505Chapter 31 Sugar Gliders 509 Restraint 510 Housing 510 Nutrition 511 Reproduction 512 Preventive Health Care 512 Diseases and Disorders 512Chapter 32 Ferrets 515 Restraint 516 Housing 516 Nutrition 517 Reproduction 518 Preventive Health Care 519 Diseases and Disorders 521Chapter 33 Miniature Pot-Bellied Pigs 525 Restraint 526 Housing 527 Training 527 Nutrition 527 Reproduction 528
  14. 14. CONTENTS xv Preventive Health Care 528 Diseases and Disorders 530Chapter 34 Reptiles 537 Care of Snakes 537 Restraint 538 Housing 538 Nutrition 540 Shedding 541 Care of Lizards 542 Restraint 542 Housing 543 Nutrition 546 Care of the Pet Chelonian 547 Restraint 548 Housing 548 Nutrition 549 Preventive Health Care for Reptiles 550 Diseases and Disorders 550Chapter 35 Amphibians 553 Restraint 555 Housing 556 Nutrition 559 Preventive Health Care 559 Diseases and Disorders 560Chapter 36 Invertebrates 563 Tarantulas and Scorpions 563 Restraint 564 Housing 566 Nutrition 568 Molting 568 Preventive Health Care 569 Hermit Crabs 569 Restraint 570 Housing 570 Nutrition 571
  15. 15. xvi CONTENTS Molting 572 Preventive Health Care 572 Diseases and Disorders of Invertebrates 572Chapter 37 Tropical Fish 575 Getting Started 577 Water-Quality Control 580 Selecting Fish for Your Aquarium 584 Diseases and Disorders 587Part IV Other Interesting Pet TopicsChapter 38 First Aid for Dogs and Cats 593 The Five Goals of First Aid for Pets 593 What to Do When You Encounter an Emergency Situation 594 Planning for the Emergency 596 General First Aid Procedures 598 Addressing Immediate Life-Threatening Conditions 602 Managing Trauma in Pets 607 Managing Poisoning in Pets 610 Other Common Emergencies in Pets 613Chapter 39 Caring for Injured and Orphaned Wildlife 633 Caring for Injured or Ill Wildlife 634 Caring for Orphaned Wildlife 636Chapter 40 Geriatrics: Caring for Your Older Pet 641 Physical Challenges in Older Pets 642 Saying Good-bye to an Older or Terminally Ill Pet 647 Grieving for a Lost Pet 647Chapter 41 Increasing Your Pet’s Longevity 651
  16. 16. CONTENTS xviiChapter 42 Reducing Stress and Promoting Mental Wellness in Dogs and Cats 657Chapter 43 Cancer in Companion Animals 663 Tumor Definition and Types 664 Causes, Occurrence, and Diagnosis of Cancer in Pets 666 Treating Cancer in Pets 670 Specific Types of Neoplasia in Dogs and Cats 674Chapter 44 Zoonotic Diseases 685 Animal Bites and Scratches 685 Rabies 686 Intestinal Worms 690 Heartworms 691 Ringworm 692 Infectious Diarrhea 692 Toxoplasmosis 693 Leptospirosis 693 Flea- and Tickborne Illnesses 693 Mites 695 Psittacosis 695 Control Summary 695Chapter 45 An Introduction to Holistic Pet Care 699 Botanical (Herbal) Medicine 701 Nutritional Medicine 706 Homeopathy 708 Chiropractic Care 713 Acupuncture 716Chapter 46 Ten Super Strategies for Reducing the Cost of Pet Ownership 723
  17. 17. xviii CONTENTSAppendix A Clinical Signs and Complaints in Dogs and Cats 733Appendix B Medications for Dogs and Cats 749Glossary 761 Index 779
  18. 18. INTRODUCTIONW elcome to the Third Edition of The Complete Home Veterinary Guide, your one-stop resource for information on companion ani-mal husbandry and health care. This Third Edition has been com-pletely updated and contains many new and exciting features,including a newly formatted and expanded section on pet first aid, aglossary of veterinary terms, a listing of the most common drugs andmedications prescribed for pets, a section on injured or orphanedwildlife, and much, much more! It’s no secret that pets are an integral part of our society today, as evi-denced by the billions of dollars spent each year on food, supplies, hous-ing, and pet care services. And of the over 60 million households thatcontain companion animals in this country alone, many are home tomore than one pet, and oftentimes these pets are of differing species.Because of this, a resource was needed that contained information on avariety of companion ani-mal species, all condensedinto one easy-to-read vol-ume. Hence, The CompleteHome Veterinary Guide, acomprehensive, up-to-dateguide to caring for compan-ion house pets, was created. The Complete HomeVeterinary Guide is loadedwith illustrations and cov-ers important topics con-cerning husbandry andhealth care for all popularspecies of pets. Written xix
  19. 19. xx INTRODUCTIONfrom a veterinary perspective, this book provides an objective “nuts-and-bolts” look at pet care. It doesn’t matter if you own one pet or mul-tiple species of pets, The Complete Home Veterinary Guide coversthem all. Here are just a few of the subjects presented and questions answered in this expanded Third Edition: I Simple steps that you can take to improve your pet’s mental health and well-being I Matching clinical signs and complaints to disease conditions in dogs and cats I Ten strategies for reducing pet care costs that you can imple- ment today I How to treat annoying behavioral problems in dogs and cats I Complementary medicine and holistic approaches to pet care I What to do if you find an injured or orphaned bird or wild animal I The vaccination controversy: What is a pet owner to do? I How to treat skin challenges without steroids I The universal warning signs of illness in pet birds I Vital first-aid proce- dures, all of which could save your pet’s life someday I Seven ways to help our pets live longer and healthier lives I Protecting your family and yourself from zoonotic (petborne) diseases I The care and husbandry of exotic pets, from sugar gliders to tarantulas
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION xxi I How to maintain high water quality in aqua- riums Part I of this book dealswith dogs and cats. Informa-tion ranging from selectinga pet to preventing diseaseis covered in this section.Fighting fleas, managingallergies, and coping withvarious medical conditionssuch as arthritis and dia-betes are just a few of thetopics that will prove valu-able to everone who ownsone or more of these triedand true companions. The popularity of petbirds is quickly closing thegap on that of dogs and cats.Part II covers importantinformation regarding theselection, housing, feeding,and preventive health careof pet birds, as well as selectdiseases and disorders.There are even sections on hand raising baby birds and on emergencyand first aid procedures for our feathered friends. For those pet fanciers who prefer less conventional choices forcompanionship, Part III is where it’s at! This section deals with exoticor alternative pets, including rabbits, guinea pigs, small rodents, chin-chillas, prairie dogs, hedgehogs, sugar gliders, ferrets, miniature pot-bellied pigs, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates. For tropical fishlovers, there’s also a chapter on aquarium maintenance and diseaseprevention in fish.
  21. 21. xxii INTRODUCTION Part IV presents a vari- ety of topics of interest to pet owners. You may have wondered how to adminis- ter cardiopulmonary resus- citation to a dog or cat, or what to do if your pet swal- lows a poison. Chapter 38 covers those and other important topics regarding emergencies and first aid procedures for dogs and cats. In fact, this could very well be the most important section of the book, since, in emergency situations, timing is of the essence. As a result, foreknowledge of the material presented in this chapter could verywell save your pet’s life one day. Other interesting and useful information presented in this section in-cludes caring for orphaned or injured wildlife, caring for the older pet,
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION xxiiiincreasing your pet’slongevity, reducing stressand promoting mentalwellness in pets, andunderstanding cancer indogs and cats. The chaptercovering zoonotic diseases,or diseases that can betransmitted from pets topeople, is sure to open someeyes! Although the chancesof transmission can be min-imized through good pre-ventive health care, manypet owners fail to realize theimportance of such care. Asa result, they can inadver-tently place their healthand, indeed, that of theirfamilies, in jeopardy. With the growth in popu-larity of holistic approachesto health care among peo-ple, it is no wonder thatmany satisfied followers areseeking such approaches fortheir pets. As a result, thera-pies such as acupuncture,herbal medicine, homeopa-thy, chiropractic, and nutri-tional medicine, as theyrelate to the health and well-being of our pets, are pre-sented in Chapter 45. Whatyou read may surprise you! Saving money seems tobe first and foremost on
  23. 23. xxiv INTRODUCTION everyone’s mind these days. And by following the 10 superstrategies sug- gested in Chapter 46 for reducing the cost of pet ownership, you’ll quickly realize that this book is one of the best invest- ments you’ll ever make! Of course, despite all the information mentionedabove, this book is not designed to replace quality veterinary care forpets, but rather to supplement it. If your pet is exhibiting signs ofinjury or illness, always consult your veterinarian. Remember: Thesooner a correct diagnosis can be made by a qualified veterinarian, thegreater the chances are for a successful treatment. Now get set for an informative voyage into the world of petswith The Complete Home Veterinary Guide as your tour leader.Regardless of your pet fancy, this book is sure to increase your “petsavvy” as well as enrich the relationship you have with your lov-ing companion(s)!
  24. 24. PART 1 DOGS AND CATSA ccording to a recent (as of 2003) study conducted by the American Veterinary Medical Association, there are over 110 million cats anddogs living in the United States alone. Pet owners spend billions ofdollars each on veterinary medical services and supplies for theirfour-legged companions. And this figure does not even include thefood they feed them! There is no doubt that, in American society atleast, dogs and cats are here to stay.History of the DogFor over 10,000 years, the dog has been an integral player in man’ssocial and cultural development. It’s blood and toil have helpedhumans discover new lands and build civilizations, and its use in warhas helped topple the same. It has hunted alongside humans for cen-turies and has been hunted by man for food. As eyes for the blind andears for the deaf, the dog has become an indispensable member of ourmodern society. But what really sets the dog apart from all the rest? Mil-lions of dog lovers will agree that it’s the special loyalty and devotionthe dog exhibits toward members of our own species—a characteristicthat has justly earned it the proper title of “[hu]man’s best friend.” 1
  25. 25. 2 DOGS AND CATS DID YOU KNOW ? The modern-day dog (Canis familiaris) descen- Dogs are believed to be the first ded from the wolf, with animals ever domesticated by humans. four distinct groups recog- nized. The first group, thedingo group, is descended from the wolves of Asia. Its members weredispersed throughout the Asian, African, and Australian continents.Modern-day descendants of this group include Rhodesian ridgebacks,basenjis, and the dingoes of Australia. One distinguishing characteris-tic of this group is that they don’t like to bark too much. A second group of dogs, the greyhound group, is believed to haveevolved from wolves inhabiting the open plains of central Asia, Africa,and the Middle East. The oldest member of this group, the saluki, isthought to have originated prior to 1400 B.C.! Distinguishing features ofthe greyhound group include keen eyesight and incredible speed, twocharacteristics that the Egyptians found especially useful for huntingpurposes. Besides the saluki, other modern representatives include theAfghan hound, the borzoi, and, of course, the greyhound. The Northern dog group is believed to have evolved from the largegray wolf of northern Europe. Generally regarded as one-master dogs,descendants of this group have been used for a variety of functions,including pulling sleds (Alaskan malamutes, Siberian huskies), hunt-ing game (Norwegian elk hound), and guarding flocks (collies). A final group, the mastiff group, arose from wolves occupying themountainous regions of Eurasia. Gifted with a keen sense of smell,members of this group were commonly used as war dogs and as hunt-ing dogs. We still utilize the hunting skills of retrievers, setters, andpointers today. The mastiff, the St. Bernard, and the Great Pyrenees area few of the more sizable members of this group.History of the CatLike the dog, the cat is thought to also have wolflike ancestors. Themodern cat, Felis catus, is a direct descendent of Felis libyca, theAfrican wildcat, and Felis sylvestris, a European wildcat with a tabby-like appearance.
  26. 26. DOGS AND CATS 3 Interestingly, over the years, the domestic cat has undergone onlylimited selective breeding. As a result, it has the closest ties to its“wild” ancestors when compared to other domesticated animals. Evi-dence of this phenomenon can be seen in the similar size andanatomic features of all cats. Except for variations in characteristicssuch as muzzle and coat length and color, different breeds of cats gen-erally look alike. Compare this, if you will, to the dog, which comesin a multitude of sizes, shapes, and varieties, all brought on by selec-tive breeding. Cats first associated with humans back in the Stone Age, wherethey probably hung around camp for food scraps and leftovers. Itwas not until ancient Egyptian times that humans and felinesbecame true companions. Cats were used to hunt birds and catchfish for the Egyptians, and to rid their granaries of rats and mice. Sorevered did the cat become in early Egyptian society that goddesseswere fashioned after its image, and separate burial grounds were setaside for the mummified remains of those felines that departed fromthis world. As the world trade routes opened up and the high seas became animportant means of interaction between countries and peoples, thecat spread throughout the civilized world. Longhaired varieties soondeveloped, and became highly favored in the European communityuntil the Dark Ages, when superstition began to run rampant and catsbecame symbols of evil and witchcraft. They quickly lost their pre-ferred status, and the European cat population fell into decline.Unfortunately, when the Crusaders returned from the Holy Land car-rying plague-laden brown rats with them on their ships, there werefew cats around to meet this threat. As the bubonic plague devastatedEurope, the importance of the predatory nature of the cat increased,and numbers were soon back on the rise. As they regained their statusin society, cats found their way back into the farmers’ granaries andinto the courts of royalty.To this day, in the eyes of DID YOU KNOW ?millions of cat fanciers, The first evidence of feline domestica-they still command a royal tion dates back over 9000 years!status in our society!
  27. 27. CHAPTER 1Choosing the Right Petfor YouB ecause dogs and cats come in all types of shapes, sizes, colors, coat lengths, and personalities, how do you know which one is going tobe just right for you and for your particular situation? Here are severalquestions you should be asking yourself before you take the plunge:Why do I want a pet and what type do I want?Is it going to be an indoor pet or an outdoor pet?How will this pet interact with my children or other pets in the house- hold?Am I willing to devote the time and money needed to raise this pet? If you are simply look-ing for companionship,then you need only to FIGURE 1.1 Dogs are believed to be descendedchoose a furry individual from wolves. 5
  28. 28. 6 DOGS AND CATS DID YOU KNOW ? that strikes your fancy. Both purebreds and those Over 95 percent of felines in the of “questionable ancestry” United States are hybrids! can make great pets, and the decision concerninggenetic purity is entirely up to you (Figs. 1.1 and 1.2). If you choose togo the purebred route, expect to pay more up front for your purchase.In addition, you run greater risk of facing genetic disorders inherent tothat particular breed. Being very cautious and prudent in your selec-tion process can minimize this risk. If you are like many pet lovers, you might be less finicky about alengthy pedigree and instead prefer a pet with a more mysterious genepool. In fact, there are several advantages to owning mixed-breeddog and cats (also known as domestic shorthairs, domestic medi-umhairs, and domestic longhairs). First, because of their diluted, colorful ancestries, they exhibit a unique genetic phenomenon known as hybrid vigor. Because of hybrid vigor, genetically blended pets, as a group, tend to be healthier and live longer than their purebred cousins. Another obvious advan-F I G U R E 1 . 2 Cats can be just as social and loving tage of choosing a hybrid isas dogs. that they cost less to pur- chase than do their papered F A C T OR F I C T I O N peers. Ask yourself, “What type of purebred breed(s) do I A dog with AKC “papers” is of higher like best?” Then start looking quality than one without papers. F I C in newspapers, pet stores, F I C T I O N . Because the AKC has no and pounds and other animal real regulatory enforcement of quality standards outside its sanctioned shelters for crosses that con- events, purchasing a pet with “papers” tain the genes of your favored is not a guarantee of quality. breed. In many instances, the genetic makeup of the par-
  29. 29. CHOOSING THE RIGHT PET FOR YOU 7ents is not known, yet you can usually guess the genetic background ofthe candidate by its anatomic features or by its behavior. For instance, let’s say you notice that a dog’s ears stand erect, yetare folded halfway. There is a good chance that this mystery breed ispart terrier. Does the dogenjoy lounging around inits water dish? It could con-tain some retriever blood.Does the cat appear to beslightly cross-eyed? Nodoubt it is part Siamese.Odds are that the individ-ual you encounter will be across between one or moreof this country’s top 10most popular dog or catbreeds. Of course, space limita-tions will play an importantrole in the type of dog or catyou’ll ultimately choose. Forexample, apartment dwellerswill usually want to limitthemselves to a cat or smalldog, whereas those withlarger living spaces will havemore options. However, thereare exceptions to every rule! F I G U R E 1 . 3 Companionship is the number one Are you looking for an reason for dog ownership.exercise companion (Fig.1.3)? If so, you will want tochoose a dog breed with a DID YOU KNOW ? The excellent tracking skills of huntingstride length and aerobic dogs arise in part from their ability tocapacity that won’t slow detect distinct volatile fatty acidsyou down. On the other located on the surface of game or lefthand, you might want a cute over on the ground, brush, and/or trees.lap warmer just to keep you
  30. 30. 8 DOGS AND CATS company. If so, a cat or toy poodle will fulfill that need quite nicely. If you are in the market for a hunting dog, there are many from which to choose (Fig. 1.4). Setters, pointers, retrievers, hounds, and spaniels come in a wide variety of types, shapes, sizes, and abilities. For upland game hunting, set- ters, pointers, and spaniels fit the bill. For waterfowl, retrievers won’t hesitate to plunge into the water to retrieve a fallen bird. For tracking larger game, one of the keen-scented houndF I G U R E 1 . 4 As hunting partners, dogs have noequals! breeds might be what you require. Some hunting dogswill do it all! Keeping your particular needs in mind, research youroptions thoroughly, and talk with local gun club, hunting club, and/orbreed club members to assist you in the decision-making process. Perhaps you want a dog for protection purposes. If you