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Liver& gall bladder
Liver& gall bladder
Liver& gall bladder
Liver& gall bladder
Liver& gall bladder
Liver& gall bladder
Liver& gall bladder
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Liver& gall bladder

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  • 1. Liver and bile secretion Bile is a complex fluid formed by the liver cells andBile is a complex fluid formed by the liver cells and pass through bile ducts into the duodenumpass through bile ducts into the duodenum it mayit may be considered as secretionbe considered as secretion because itbecause it contain specific substance very important for bodycontain specific substance very important for body function, bile salts .function, bile salts . It may considered as excretionIt may considered as excretion due todue to presence of substance which are notpresence of substance which are not needed by the body ,bile pigments. Characters of bile: Volume : 1-2 liter per day: 1-2 liter per day PH: Liver bile : alkaline: Liver bile : alkaline Gall bladder bile : acidic: acidic.. Constituents; inorganic substance ,allinorganic substance ,all composition of plasma proteincomposition of plasma protein Organic : mainly bile salts & bile pigments: mainly bile salts & bile pigments Small amount of cholesterol ,fat, fattySmall amount of cholesterol ,fat, fatty acids, lecithin, and phospholipids.acids, lecithin, and phospholipids.
  • 2. Functions of bile salts: ► 1- Digestion : bile salts are able to decrease the surface tension of fat globules: bile salts are able to decrease the surface tension of fat globules and breaks them into fine particles. This is called emulsifying or detergent action ofand breaks them into fine particles. This is called emulsifying or detergent action of bile salts. this helps in exposing a large surface areas for the action of lipasebile salts. this helps in exposing a large surface areas for the action of lipase enzyme.enzyme. ► 2-2- Absorption: Bile salts are important for the absorption ofBile salts are important for the absorption of ► Fatty acidsFatty acids ► Fat soluble vitaminsFat soluble vitamins D,E and K.D,E and K. ► Help the absorption ofHelp the absorption of iron and calciumiron and calcium.. ► 3-Choleretric:Bile salts are the best stimulant of bile secretion by the liver.Bile salts are the best stimulant of bile secretion by the liver. ► 4- Solvents: Bile salts help to keep cholesterol in solution .so they prevent their: Bile salts help to keep cholesterol in solution .so they prevent their precipitation in the gall bladder and formation of gall stones.precipitation in the gall bladder and formation of gall stones. ► 5-5- Stimulation of peristalsis; BileBile salts stimulate the movements of small & largesalts stimulate the movements of small & large intestine and prevent constipation.intestine and prevent constipation. ► 6-6- Anti-putrefactive: This effect is secondary to stimulation of fat absorption , in theeffect is secondary to stimulation of fat absorption , in the absence of bile salts, the unabsorbed fat form a layer around the protein particlesabsence of bile salts, the unabsorbed fat form a layer around the protein particles that prevent their digestion and absorption ,the unabsorbed proteins act as a goodthat prevent their digestion and absorption ,the unabsorbed proteins act as a good medium for growth of bacteria in the colon.medium for growth of bacteria in the colon. ► 7-7-Neutrilization of gastric HCL.of gastric HCL. ► 8- Excretion of certain drugs, as toxins, copper.of certain drugs, as toxins, copper.
  • 3. Regulation of bile secretion: ► 1- Neural regulation.1- Neural regulation. ► 2- hormonal regulation.2- hormonal regulation. ► 3- Choleretric agents.3- Choleretric agents. ► 1- Neural ► Vagal stimulation increases the rate of bile secretion markedlyVagal stimulation increases the rate of bile secretion markedly ► 2- Hormonal regulation: ► Secretin; can stimulate rate of bile secretion up to 80% above basal levels ,secretinSecretin; can stimulate rate of bile secretion up to 80% above basal levels ,secretin does not increase rate of bile synthesis.does not increase rate of bile synthesis. ► 3- Regulation by choleretric agentsalts ► Bile salts themselves stimulate bile secretion.Bile salts themselves stimulate bile secretion. ► Histamine ,secertin, salicylates and bilocarpine.Histamine ,secertin, salicylates and bilocarpine. ► Bile salts are reabsorbed via enterohepatic circulation rather than loss in faeces andBile salts are reabsorbed via enterohepatic circulation rather than loss in faeces and recycle over and provide a strong stimulus for bile flow by the liver.recycle over and provide a strong stimulus for bile flow by the liver. ► Hepatic blood flow: within limits regulate bile secretion.Hepatic blood flow: within limits regulate bile secretion.
  • 4. Function of gall bladderFunction of gall bladder 1-Storage of bile: which needed for fat digestion.which needed for fat digestion. 2-Concentration of bile:: It concentrate bile from 600 cc to 60 cc (10 times by absorption of H2O , NAHCO3 from bileIt concentrate bile from 600 cc to 60 cc (10 times by absorption of H2O , NAHCO3 from bile secreted by the liver.secreted by the liver. 3-3- Acidification of liver bile : So prevent ca+ stone formation. because ca dissolve in acidic mediaSo prevent ca+ stone formation. because ca dissolve in acidic media 4-Equalization of pressure; The gall bladder help in preventing increase pressure in biliary passage.The gall bladder help in preventing increase pressure in biliary passage. 5- Secretion of mucus; So protect mucosa of gall bladder from highly concentrated bileSo protect mucosa of gall bladder from highly concentrated bile ► Mechanism of gall bladder evacuation: ► 1- Nervous mechanism:: The conditioned & unconditioned reflexes causes weak contraction of gall bladder wall. It isThe conditioned & unconditioned reflexes causes weak contraction of gall bladder wall. It is responsible for 10% of gall bladder evacuationresponsible for 10% of gall bladder evacuation.. ► 2-Hormonal mechanism: The contact of fat and the lesser extent protein with the duodenal mucosa stimulate the secretion ofThe contact of fat and the lesser extent protein with the duodenal mucosa stimulate the secretion of cholecystokinin hormone.it cause strong contraction of gall bladder wall and relax the sphinctercholecystokinin hormone.it cause strong contraction of gall bladder wall and relax the sphincter of oddi. It is responsible for evacuation of 90% of gall bladder content.of oddi. It is responsible for evacuation of 90% of gall bladder content. ► Cholagogue: stimulate gall bladder evacuation.stimulate gall bladder evacuation. Example: cholecystokinin.Magnesium sulphate.Example: cholecystokinin.Magnesium sulphate. ► Choleretric: Stimulate bile secretion as bile salts.: Stimulate bile secretion as bile salts.
  • 5. ► Mechanism of gall bladder evacuation: ► 1- Nervous mechanism :: The conditioned & unconditioned reflexes causes weak contraction of gallThe conditioned & unconditioned reflexes causes weak contraction of gall bladder wall. It is responsible for 10% of gall bladder evacuationbladder wall. It is responsible for 10% of gall bladder evacuation.. ► 2-Hormonal mechanism: The contact of fat and the lesser extent protein with the duodenal mucosaThe contact of fat and the lesser extent protein with the duodenal mucosa stimulate the secretion of cholecystokinin hormone.it cause strongstimulate the secretion of cholecystokinin hormone.it cause strong contraction of gall bladder wall and relax the sphincter of oddi. It iscontraction of gall bladder wall and relax the sphincter of oddi. It is responsible for evacuation of 90% of gall bladder content.responsible for evacuation of 90% of gall bladder content. ► Cholagogue: stimulate gall bladder evacuation.stimulate gall bladder evacuation. Example: cholecystokinin.Magnesium sulphate.Example: cholecystokinin.Magnesium sulphate. ► Choleretric: Stimulate bile secretion as bile salts.: Stimulate bile secretion as bile salts.
  • 6. Jaundice Definition: Yellowish coloration of all tissues caused by hyperYellowish coloration of all tissues caused by hyper bilirubinaemiabilirubinaemia Bilirubin level above 2mg% or20 micromole/literBilirubin level above 2mg% or20 micromole/liter Normal level .0.2-0.8 mg%Normal level .0.2-0.8 mg% Types of jaundice: 1-Haemolytic jaundice;; Due to excessive destruction of RBC, the rate ofDue to excessive destruction of RBC, the rate of formation and excretion of bilirubin is increasedformation and excretion of bilirubin is increased.. 22--Obstructive jaundice: Due to obstruction of biliary passage .the obstructionDue to obstruction of biliary passage .the obstruction may be intra hepatic or extra hepatic .Gall stones &may be intra hepatic or extra hepatic .Gall stones & cancercancer.. 3-Hepatogenic jaundice: Caused by damage of the liver as a resultCaused by damage of the liver as a result of viral hepatitis, or phosphorus poisoningof viral hepatitis, or phosphorus poisoning.. The liver function are impairedThe liver function are impaired..
  • 7. ‫يونايتد‬ ‫فيت‬ ‫لرسره‬ ‫العلميه‬ ‫اللجنه‬ ‫من‬ ‫إهداء‬ Vet UniteD Kfs We Do The Best.... To Be The Best

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