PROF. MOHAMED YOUSSEF
Expensive housing and equipments are not necessary.
However, a clean, dry structure that can be well
ventilated, a brooder or heat lamps to warm the chicks
and feeding and watering equipment are needed.
Provide at least 2 square feet of floor space per broiler.
Openings on three sides of the building provide plenty
of fresh air for the birds. Plastic sheeting can be used to
close sides during brooding and in cold weather. Make
certain the concrete or dirt floor is at least 6 inches
above ground level to prevent flooding.
The roof overhang should be sufficient to effectively
protect against blowing rain.
Preparation and Brooding
Clean and disinfect the poultry house, feeders and waterers at
least two weeks before the chicks arrive.
Wash the house down with soap and water. Then spray a
commercial disinfectant labeled for use in poultry houses.
Be prepared for the chicks 2 days in advance. Put at least 4
inches of litter on the floor of the cleaned, disinfected house.
If a gas or an electric hover-type brooder is used, it
should operate at a temperature of approximately 92 degrees to 95
degrees F. Gradually reduce the temperature 5 degrees each week
until the birds are 3 to 4 weeks old or until the house
temperature reaches 70 degrees F.
When chicks are comfortable, they will bed down in a semicircle
around the perimeter of the heat zone. If cold, chicks will crowd
near the heat source. If too warm, they will move to the outer
limits of the brooder guard.
Chilling can stunt chicks. In cold weather the heat source should
be turned on 48 hours before chicks arrive to adequately heat the
After birds reach 4 weeks of age, the ideal
temperature range is 60 to 75 degrees F.
When winter temperatures permit, the house
should be partially opened to improve airflow
and remove moisture. Supplemental heat may be
needed when the outside temperture is low.
In hot weather, fans or evaporative coolers are
used to cool birds more than 4 weeks old.
Optimum performance is dependent on proper
nutrition. The feed dealer should be informed of the
type of feed required at least 2 weeks before chicks
arrive so that fresh feed can be ordered. It is absolutely
essential that birds receive a high-quality poultry feed
containing at least 20 percent protein. Lower protein
feeds will not do the job. Some exhibitors start chicks
on a high-protein (26 to 30 percent) turkey or game
bird starter to stimulate additional growth. Feed the
higher protein feed for 2 weeks. Switch to a broiler feed
for the remaining feeding period.
feed containing at least 20 percent protein. Lower protein feeds
will not do the job. Some exhibitors start chicks on a highprotein (26 to 30 percent) turkey or game bird starter to
stimulate additional growth. Feed the higher protein feed for 2
weeks. Switch to a broiler feed for the remaining feeding period.
Small amounts of broiler feed lightly moistened with cooking oil
and fed several times during the day will stimulate older birds to
eat more and increase growth. This supplemental feeding
practice can be particularly helpful in hot weather with birds
more than 4 weeks of age. Caution: Do not put out more
moistened feed than the birds can eat in 10 to 15 minutes. Do
not moisten the feed until feeding time. Be certain all birds can
eat at the same time.
An adequate level of vitamins in the diet is required to prevent
leg weakness. Adequate vitamin intake can be ensured and leg
problems minimized by adding water soluble poultry vitamins to
drinking water at the manufacturer‟s recommended level for the
first 7 days. Do not add vitamins past this period. Continued
high levels can create health problems
All birds should be able to eat at once. One pie or cookie pan for
feed and one chick waterer per 25 chicks are needed the first 7
days. For the first 4 weeks, one tube-type feeder per 25 birds is
required. After 4 weeks, one tube-type feeder is needed for every
15 birds. Clean, fresh water must be available at all times. One 2gallon waterer per 50 chicks is required for the first 4 weeks. One
2-gallon waterer per pen is required after birds are culled at the
end of the fourth week. Waterers should be rinsed daily and
scrubbed twice weekly.
Feed must be kept before birds at all times if maximum growth
is to be attained. Tube feeders are recommended because they
hold an ample supply of feed, can be adjusted easily as birds
grow and are less likely to cause bruises than horizontal trough
feeders. Feeders and waterers should be kept adjusted so that the
trough portion is level with the back height of the birds.
Broilers and roasters respond to attention. Walk among birds
and stir feed three to five times per day. This will provide
exercise and increase feed consumption and growth.
Water must be available to broilers at all times. Inadequate water
supply, either in volume or available drinker space, will reduce
growth rate. Monitor the ratio of water to feed consumption to
ensure that the flock is receiving sufficient water.
Measure water consumption to monitor:
* Feed and water system failures.
At 21°C (70°F), the ratio of water to feed should be close to:
*1.8:1 for bell drinkers.•
* 1.6:1 for • nipple drinkers without cups.
*1.7:1 for • nipple drinkers with cups.
Water requirement will vary with feed consumption.
Feather Picking and Cannibalism
Snub the top beaks of birds if feather picking or
cannibalism starts. Trim one-third of the upper
beak with an electric beak snubber.
An anti-peck compound applied to the bloody
pecked spots will usually stop cannibalism if
snubbing is not feasible.
For best broiler performance, it is important to deliver
the chicks to the broiler farm as quickly as possible and
feed them immediately. Provide chicks with the proper
environment and correctly manage them to meet all of
During the first 10 days of life, the chicks‟ environment
changes from the hatchery to the broiler house. Both
current and final flock performance will suffer from
deficiencies in the early environment. Chicks must
establish healthy feeding and drinking behaviors if they
are to achieve their genetic potential for growth.
A series of critical transitions in the first 7 to 10 days of
the chick‟s life affect how and from where it receives its
nutrients. This is why the management in this period is
so essential for optimum flock performance.
Managing environmental impacts during
The extent to which a meat chicken farm impacts on the surrounding
environment largely depends upon the management techniques applied. A
well sited, designed and managed farm should have few impacts to
community amenity (odour, dust, noise, light, and visual) and the
environment (water and soil).
Generally, odour is the most important issue associated with meat chicken
farms as its impacts are frequently more extensive. Even if the design includes
best practice shed insulation, ventilation, cooling, drinking systems and
automated controls, poor management can easily offset these positive aspects
and lead to excessive odour emissions.
Noise can be an issue at some farms, especially where pick-ups occur at night
when the noise tends to travel further, background levels are lower and
neighbours have an expectation that noise will not disturb their sleep.
Meat chicken farms are not significant sources of wastewater. However, dust
fallout may contaminate watercourses either directly or by being washed in by
runoff. Hence, it is important to ensure that watercourses are isolated from
any areas where significant dust fallout occurs. If farms spread spent litter onfarm then specific management practices are required to minimise any
Shed Preparation - Bedding
The type of clean bedding used will depend on the availability and price of
products, but it should have the following attributes:
Contain no matter which will restrict use of the end product (litter) on land
Best Management Practice
Bedding is dry and level.
New bedding is of sufficient depth (typically 50
mm) to keep the birds from contact with the
floor and provide warmth and comfort.
Bedding is transported to farm and installed in
sheds during daylight hours.
If stockpiled, bedding is kept under cover in an
area that limits its impact on neighbours.
Ventilation, Temperature and Humidity
Correct temperature and humidity relative to the age of the birds are critical
for the welfare and efficient rearing of meat chickens. These must be
maintained in accordance with the Broiler Growing Manual.
Tunnel ventilated sheds can be operated using the three modes of ventilation:
· Minimum Ventilatio
· Transitional Ventilation
· Tunnel Ventilation.
Each of these should be used at the appropriate stage of the bird‟s life and in
the context of the climatic challenge and bird requirements in accordance
with the Broiler Growing Manual. Internal curtains may also be used during
brooding to assist in maintaining the required temperature.
Conventional sheds rely on wind flow and fogging to regulate temperatures.
Power ventilation is integral for the operation of both tunnel and
conventional sheds to maintain the necessary bird environment and may
operate 24/7 depending on the age of the birds.
Two basic systems of temperature control are used for brooding broiler
Spot • brooding (canopy or radiant heaters). The heat source is local so chicks
can move away to cooler areas and thus select for themselves a preferred
Whole-house • brooding. The heat source is larger and more widely spread so
chicks are less able to move to select a preferred temperature. Whole-house
brooding refers to situations where the whole house or a defined part of the
house is heated by „forced air heaters‟ only and the aim is to achieve one
temperature in the house or air space.
In both spot and whole-house brooding systems, the objective is to stimulate
both appetite and activity as early as possible. Achieving the optimum
temperature is critical
Best Management Practice
Maximum and minimum temperature is recorded daily on the shed record
cards and HACCP sheets as required.
The shed is pre warmed in winter to suit the birds‟ requirements and also in
summer if needed in accordance with the Broiler Growing Manual.
Shed temperature is adjusted as the birds grow in accordance with the Broiler
Humidity is maintained between 50% and 70% Relative Humidity to optimise
When operating tunnel ventilation mode:
Fans and cooling systems are operated so as to optimise bird comfort in
accordance with the Broiler Growing Manual.
Cooling Pads are sanitised with a Quaternary compound or other approved
disinfectant, applied to the sump in accordance to the manufacturers
recommendations or the processor‟s biosecurity requirements.
Lights are operated inside sheds for management and animal
welfare purposes in accordance with the Broiler Growing Manual. The
ability to manage light intensity is important to bird welfare and is varied
according to the birds‟ age and the operations being undertaken within sheds
usingcontrollers and dimmers. Outdoor lighting is used to facilitate night
operations and security..
Best Management Practice recommendations:
Lighting program is operated in accordance with Broiler Growing Manual.
Throughout the batch lights are maintained in order to provide even light
One row of lights is located in the centre of each shed and is able to be
dimmed to allow for safe night time pickups.
Shade cloth, blinds (black internal surface), shrubs and trees are used to
minimise light in open sheds and so reduce scratching mortality.
The impact of light on neighbours is minimised through shading of lights and
Energy efficient lighting is used wherever possible.
Litter management in the shed
Best Management Practice of litter material is integral to a well-operated
chicken meat farm. It has implications for both the health of the flock and for
dust and odour levels. Factors affecting litter quality are shown in Figure 1
The moisture content of the poultry litter needs to be monitored regularly
with the aim of maintaining it between 15 and 30 per cent. The litter moisture
level is relatively easy to estimate with a reasonable degree of accuracy by
using Table 2. For greater accuracy use a low-cost moisture meter.
Best Management Practice
A vendor declaration is received from the bedding supplier certifying the
material provided is free of contamination (such as, but not restricted to,
treated pine) and this is kept with the batch records.
Shed floors are constructed of an impermeable material. The use of
impermeable hard surfaces such as concrete offer benefits with respect to
cleaning and disinfection. If the floor is constructed of compacted earth, then
it is important to ensure the floor is level and repaired if necessary before
bedding is spread to ensure at least 50mm of uncompacted bedding material
is evenly distributed in all areas of the shed.The amount of bedding required
and supplied in each shed is recorded on the batch card.
Litter moisture content is visually monitored daily in each shed, with
particular emphasis on likely high moisture areas (e.g. around the air inlet,
Litter moisture content is maintained between 15% and 30% (wet basis).
Assess moisture levels in each shed on a weekly basis at equally spaced points
along and across the shed (such as: three points under the drinker lines; three
points between the drinker lines; three points near the shed wall).
Areas of wet or caked litter within the shed are topped up, aerated (rotary
hoed) to enhance drying or the wet litter is removed and replaced.
Foggers must be maintained and operated to avoid coarse drops that fall to
the floor. The misted water should evaporate before reaching the floor so as
not to wet the litter.
Fans and ventilation management must be used in cold weather in a manner
that will avoid moist incoming air condensing on the floor next to the wall
causing wet cold litter. Heaters should be used if necessary to maintain target
Ammonia level in sheds is controlled for both bird and human health by
ensuring they are consistently below levels where they can be detected by
smell (10 – 15 ppm). (When ammonia levels cause irritation (> 25 ppm)
immediate action must be taken to reduce levels by reducing litter moisture
content and/or increasing ventilation).
When ventilating to remove ammonia from the shed, temperature and
humidity must be maintained to a standard appropriate to the age of the
Excessive dust generation is controlled by fogging the shed when required.
Gut problems in birds can cause wet litter, and immediate action must be
taken to identify and, if possible, eliminate these problems.
Vaccination alone cannot protect flocks against overwhelming
disease challenges and poor management practices.
Develop vaccination programs for broilers in consultation with •
trained poultry veterinarians.
Vaccination is more effective when disease challenges are
minimized through well-designed and implemented biosecurity
and management programs.
Base vaccination programs on local • disease challenges and
Every bird must receive the intended dose of vaccine.•
Breeder flock vaccination programs must be factored into the •
design of an appropriate vaccination program for broiler
Dead birds result from a range of routine disease, with the largest number of
deaths usually occurring in younger very small birds. Mass death events may
also occur due to catastrophic equipment failure or significant disease events.
This section deals with the safe dispose of dead birds resulting from routine
Animal waste is defined in the Act as including “…dead animals, animal parts and
any mixture of dead animals and animal parts.” Animal waste is pre-classified as
General Solid Waste (Putrescibles). This means that the disposal of dead birds
to land would require a resource recovery exemption or will need to be
subject to an Environment Protection Licence. Carcass disposal practices
must not contaminate ground and surface water, cause odour
nuisance, or land contamination as per the provisions of the POEO Act.
Poor management of dead and or diseased birds could also increase
Best management practice for the treatment of dead birds requires the daily
collection from the shed and removal from the farm for rendering (if the farm
is located close to rendering plants). If farms do not have ready access to
rendering plants the next preferred method of disposal is composting.
Best Management Practice
Farm practices for dead bird management and disposal comply
with the National Farm Biosecurity Manual for Chicken Growers
(Australian Chicken Meat Federation 2010).
Dead birds are disposed of or stored appropriately (for example,
frozen) within 24 hours of dying.
Where there is regular offsite removal of dead birds, the birds are
collected daily, placed in an enclosed container and either taken
off-site or stored in freezers until collection.
A contingency plan is in place for disposal of mass bird
mortalities (for example, from endemic disease, heat stress or
Rendering involves the removal of dead birds off farm. It is
limited by economies of scale and is only viable if a rendering
plant is located close by. Transport to a licensed waste facility
prior discussion with the local waste facility manager.
Birds may also be temporarily stored on site and subject to
agreement of the facility manager
disposed of to an authorised site such as a commercial composting
facility or landfill.
Best Management Practice
Dead birds are stored in specifically designed pick up containers with secure
lids and taken off-site daily or stored in freezers until collection.
Collection point is in a designated area located as far away from the
operational area of the farm and from adjoining residences as possible. It
should also be appropriately screened or
signposted. Ideally the collection vehicle should not enter the production area.
Provide adequate room for stopping and loading.
A contingency plan (e.g. short-term freezing) for situations where mortalities
cannot be collected promptly is developed and maintained.
Any spillage in collection areas is immediately cleaned and decontaminated.
Regular cleaning and disinfection of carcass storage containers and the
collection area is also undertaken to minimise the spread of disease by flies
Records are maintained of collection (date and mass).
Personnel disposing of dead birds should be instructed on the need to
Composting in Sealed Bins
The composting of dead birds and litter should be conducted on
a concrete slab or other suitably impermeable material and
covered by a roof. These measures are designed to prevent
contamination of ground or surface waters or the surrounding
area and to achieve the necessary temperatures for destruction of
pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Composting in Bays and Piles
If performed correctly, composting carcasses in open bays and
piles is an environmentally and biologically safe alternative.
However, these facilities require correct design and management
to avoid any bio-security and odour issues.
Best Management Practice
The design of any on site composting systems complies with
Council regulations and the Environmental Guidelines Composting and
Related Organics (DECC 2004).
The size of the compost bins is sufficient to more than manage
the predicted volume of routine dead birds during production
cycles. Additional capacity should exist to manage periodic
fluctuations, but additional disposal methods will be required for
a mass death event.
Compost bins are located to; as far as possible from property
boundaries and sensitive land uses and are preferable out of
public view. To minimise biosecurity risks they should also be
located away from production areas and sheds.
Any composting bins are sealed and are regularly serviced and
Compost pads are located on an impermeable pad (i.e
concrete or similar material). Any leachate is collected
and managed via drains/ponds with impermeable
Rodents, cats, dogs, feral animals, scavenging birds are
excluded from composting carcasses.
Minimise the presence of flies in dead bird collection
and disposal areas by ensuring bird sare not left
Personnel disposing of dead birds should be instructed
on the need to maintain personal hygiene.
Burial is an economical option and can be appropriate on some sites where
other options are not feasible. Not all soil types or locations are suitable for
on-site burial, for instance areas with a high risk of water table contamination
or shallow soils. Dead bird disposal via burial may also not be appropriate in
more closely settled areas and on smaller properties where there is a higher
risk of odour or of predation by domestic animals: Consult with local
regulatory authorities before considering this option.
Best Management Practice recommendations:
The bottom of the trench or pit is at least 3 metres above the maximum
ground water table.
Burial cells should be lined with a modified soil or clay liner of at least 900mm
of recompacted clay with in-situ permeability (K) of less than 10-9 ms-1 or an
equivalent synthetic liner product. The liner must cover the base and all sides
of the burial cell, so that the ground water is protected from contamination.
The final cover is at least 1 metre of compacted clay soil. The trench or pit
must be covered daily to contain odours and exclude pests
The trench or pit is designed so that there is no surface or sub-surface
seepage and no surface water entering.
Burial sites are located out of public view.
While incineration is biologically the safest carcass disposal method,
it is not the preferred practice for the following reasons:
It must to be performed efficiently, consistently and effectively
to ensure completeincineration and to avoid odour and
particulate nuisance complaints.
Appropriate incineration is expensive. It requires specific
approval and use of specifically designed and authorised
The process eliminates the nutrients and organic matter that can
be beneficially re-used.
Burning carcasses in open fires is unacceptable, as this creates
smoke and odour and is unlikely to maintain a sufficiently high
and consistent temperature. It is also a biosecurity hazard as
thermal updraughts may disperse feathers and other matter.
Management of Extremes and
Extremes and emergencies on a meat chicken farm (i.e. during
high temperatures, loss of power and/or water supply) may
result in mass bird losses. Farms must assess risks for their
operation and have contingency plans in place to deal with these
circumstances to avoid mass bird deaths, welfare issues, impacts
to surface and groundwater and the spread of disease vectors.
The highest risk is interruption to the power supply.
Failure of Power and/or Water Supply
Power supply problems that result in interruptions to ventilation
and cooling equipment can result in mass bird deaths.
Best Management Practice
Warning systems are installed to notify operator of power or
water supply failure.
Back up power supply is available, with adequate fuel supply.
Standby generators are regularly run (at least weekly) to ensure
they are working effectively.
An adequate supply of spare parts is kept on hand (such as water
pump for the cooling or drinker system).
Potential noise impacts are addressed during the installation of
standby generators by installing mufflers and considering
A back-up supply (tanks) or contingency for at least two days
water is provided in case of breakdown or loss of supply (at least
2 litres per bird).
Mass Mortality Event
Farms require a contingency plan to cope with
occurrences of high mortalities. The disposal options
available for a mass death of birds depend upon the
cause of death. Disposal options may include:
Disposal in a land-fill site.
In the event of mass deaths the farm operator must immediately
contact the processor. This will enable an investigation to
ascertain the cause of death and the best option for the disposal
of the dead birds
Best Management Practice recommendations:
Processor is notified and, when appropriate, the processor will
notify the relevant authority.
Farms have a written contingency plan for disposal of mass
A current contingency plan is maintained and displayed, and is
available to all staff.
All staff are aware of their responsibilities should a mass
mortality event occur.
A systematic approach is helpful when
troubleshooting health issues on the farm.
These are the things to look at:
Feed: availability, consumption, distribution, palatability, nutri• tional content,
contaminants and toxins, and withdrawal.
Light: adequate for efficient • growth and development, uniform exposure
Litter: moisture level, • ammonia level, pathogen load, toxins and
contaminants, depth, material used, distribution.
Air: speed, contaminants and toxins, • humidity, temperature, availability,
Water: source, contaminants and toxins, additives, availability, • pathogen
Space: bird density, feed availability, water availability, limiting obstacles,
Sanitation: • hygiene of premises (inside and outside of house), pest control,
maintenance, cleaning and disinfection practices.
Security: biosecurity risks.
أول يوم بمجرد وصول الكتاكيت يتم انزال الكتاكيت داخل الحضانة على االتى :
تشيك بوست ( 5(Chick Boastجم / كتكوت =5 كجم / 0001 كتكوت لمده
42 ساعة ثم علف بادى ( ناعم ) او (تركيبة نباتى - بادى تسمين)
وبعد أول 42 ساعة يتم األستقبال على النحو التالى :
1- ( المضاد الحيوى الناتج من اختبار الحساسيه ) او ( تايلوزين 2/1 جم/اللتر
+ كوليستين 4/1 جم/اللتر ) + فيتامين أ.د 3(2/1سم /اللتر)+ فيتامين
1/2 "%20"Eسم/اللتر) لمدة 27ساعة متصلة
2- امالح معدنيه سائله ( تسيوفوروليجو ) 2سم/اللتر + ب ك كولين1جم/لتر
"مياه" لمدة 84 ساعه
3-منشط مناعه ( أنميونير ) 2/1 سم / اللتر لمدة 42 ساعة
1- عمر 1 يوم رش )021- IB (Hميلاير/ حقن انفلوانزا حى (تروفاك) ميلاير
2.0سم تحت الجلد
2- عمر 7 أيام هتشنر
3- عمر 8 ايام جامبورو 87.D
4- عمر 9 ايام انفلوانزا ( ميت )1( H5Nميلاير) 5.0 سم تحت الجلد
5- عمر 31 يوم جامبورو عترة حامية ( بيرسافين ) او بيرسافاك أو IBD
6- عمر 41 يوم )88IB (CRاو ( 19/4 (
7- عمر51و 61 يوم منشط مناعه ( انميوتير ) 2/1 سم/اللتر لمدة 21 ساعة
8- عمر 71 يوم حقن ميت نيوكسل 3,. سم /الطائر (انترفت)
9-عمر 81 يوم تحصين ( كولون )
01- عمر 03 يوم قياس درجة المناعة