Transcript of "effect of exogenous enzymes on broiler performance"
Effect of exogenous enzymes onbroiler performanceT. I. Mohamed
Endogenous enzymesPoultry produced at significant levels ----> Amylase, isomaltase,maltase, chymotrypsin, pepsin, trypsin and lipaseGIT mircoflora (lower GIT) ---> phytase & fiber hydrolyzing enzymesAmylase secretion by salivary glands ---> very limited.Amylase activity in the crop, glandular stomach and gizzard --->very low limitedAmylase from the duodenum, jejunum to ileum due to a secretionby the pancreas, intestinal secretions increaseLipaseThe main source ---> pancreasBile ---> involved in activation of pancreatic lipase
1- Age- GIT of young broilers is not fully developed to digest starch –protein and lipidYoung birds are more limited in types and amounts of enzymes necessaryto utilize a high carbohydrate and vegetable protein diet ----> affectingnutrient digestibility and the overall performance-Lower amylase activity in young chicks compared to older birds---> digestibility of starch in different ingredients is lower in 21-day-old broilers than in adult.-Low proteolytic activity (15% lower in 1W chicks compared to 4 w).- Low lipase activityFactors affecting Endogenous enzyme activity
2- Enzyme inhibitors (High levels of phytate, fibre (cellulose)and less digestible protein) in most cereal & leguminousgrains ---> negative effect on digestion of starch – protein –lipid ---> significantly decrease conc. of amylase, sucrase,Na+K+-ATPase in the jejunum by 10 to 22%,High levels of Enzyme inhibitors --> increased pepsin,chymotrypsin & trypsin production in poultry --> endogenousamino acid lossesantinutrients as soluble NSPs, ---> increase digesta viscosity---> decrease fat digestibility and increase coccidiosis.
Corn-Soy Diets and Digestibility The corn-soy diets became widely fed at the time of serving asreference feed in terms of nutrient composition and digestibility. The digestibility of energy in corn is relatively high ---> over 90 % The digestibility of energy in soybean (both meal and full-fat)energy ---> 70 - 75 %. This limitation in soya energy yield (and other plant protein sources)associated to the presence of anti-nutritional factors ---> reducedenzyme activity at the animal level. Thus, enzyme supplementation can improve the energy and nutrientutilization of corn-soy diets
2 major feed enzyme groups:amylases and proteases ---> produced at significant levels bypoultry.Other feed enzyme as fibre-hydrolyzing enzymes (NSPases)and phytase – are not directly produced by the birdamylase protease increased daily gain and feed intake & FCR---> due to improve starch & protein digestibility & reduction inendogenous losses through reduction in endogenous proteaseand amylase production.Relationship between endogenous and feed enzymes
Exogenous enzymes DefinitionEnzymes are non living substances,Biological catalyst,Act on specific substrate,Used as feed supplements Types- Proteases- Lipases- Phytases- Non Starch Polysaccharidases as xylanases and beta-glucanases ---> widely used in wheat and barley-based andcorn-soybean dietsphytase, amylase, and protease enzymes used in varioustypes of poultry diets
Characteristics of ideal enzymes Specificity of action Heat stability during the feed preparations Less expensive and more safety Reducing the effects of anti nutritional factors
Objectives of exogenous enz supplementation Improve fiber digestion. Improves protein and starch availability. Improve Digestibility & nutrient utilization. Reduce intestinal viscosity. Reduce pathogenic microflora and the improve health. Reduce feed cost and nutrient excretion. Improves production Efficiency & decrease production cost Reducing the need for amino acids and fat supplementsenz supplementation ---> improved nutrient utilizationfrom diet ---> reduce vegetable oils (high cost) inclusion indiet ---> significant decrease in input costs
ObjectiveIn addition to viscosity reduction, an increase in the productive value withenzyme supplementation can be achieved by: Hydrolysis of certain types of carbohydrate-protein linkages and --->improved availability of amino acids. Release of available phosphorus from phytate hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of “resistant starch” and improved energy utilization.• hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitors found in feed Depolymerization of cell wall polysaccharides ---> elimination of theirnutrient encapsulating effect ---> more effective energy and amino acidutilization. Release of readily available energy from oligosaccharide hydrolysis. Decrease environmental pollution by reduction of nitrogen and phosphorusexcretion by animals
Application of exogenous enzymes enzymes that enhance the digestive ability of the animalnewly hatched birds with immature digestive systems in which someenzymes (α-amylase, sucrase, maltase, protease, lipase, etc.) are notproduced in sufficient quantities which may result in incompleteutilization of dietary nutrients. enzymes that are not produced by animalfor hydrolysis of a variety of indigestible components of poultry feeds.Dietary fiber components (i.e., non-starch polysaccharides,glycoproteins), phytate, oligosaccharides or resistant starch undergo alimited conversion to substrates available for absorption and could bedegradable by exogenous enzymes of microbial or fungal origin --->improving the nutritive value of feedstuffs.
Efficacy of Exogenous EnzymesEfficacy of Exogenous Enzymes depended on enzymes are specific (substrate) maintain a given enzyme : substrate ratio effective when several conditions liketemperature, humidity and pH Formulated diets should be economic (below therecommended nutrient requirements)
Also, Efficacy of Exogenous Enzymes depended on1- feed ingredient costs2- enzyme costs3- dietary specifications4- bird age5- ingredient qualityThere is a synergistic effect for some enzyme activitiescombined phytase and xylanase ---> improve FCR 5.09%xylanase or phytase alone ---> improve FCR 2.66% and 2.28%,respectively•phytase, amylase, protease and xylanase ---> improve FCR 10.4%of broilers fed a corn-based diet•phytase only or a mixture of amylase, protease and xylanase only---> improve FCR a 7.3% and 8.4%, respectively
NSP’s based on Solubility SOLUBLE NSP’s Responsible for increase in viscosity of gut. Slow down the intestinal transit timeProliferation of fermentative organismsAdverse Effect High gut viscosity decreases the rate ofdiffusion of nutrients.
enzymes and FunctionsEnzyme Substrate EffectsCellulase cellulose Degradation of celluloseβ-Glucanase β-glucans Reduction of intestinal digest viscosityPectinase Pectins Reduction of intestinal digest viscosityXylanase xylans Reduction of intestinal digest viscosityGalactisidases Galactisideses Reduction of intestinal digest viscosityPhytase Phytic acid Reduction of intestinal digest viscosityand degradation of phytate
Effect of pentosanase on broiler chicks fed awheat-based dietparameter control Pentosanase(1000XU/ kgSED P ValueDaily gain,g 34a 36.6 b 0.475 0.001Daily intake,g 54a 54.8 b 0.641 0.05Feedefficiency0.634 a 0.657 b 0.003 0.001
Effect of a soy-specific enzyme cocktail containing proteaseand cellulase on broilers fed a wheat, soydietparameter control EnzymesupplementedWeight gain 15 days (g) 549 569Weight gain 29 days (g) 1463 1500FCR 15 days (g ) 1.617 a 1.559 bFCR 29 days (g ) 1.63 a 1.707 b
Effect of xylanase on fat digestibility and intestinalviscosityparameter Soy oil Soy oil +XylanaseWeight 21 days (g ) 681 a 761 bFCR 0-21 days 1.392 ab 1.266 bJejunal viscosity (mpa,s) 438 32CF digestibility 82.3 a 87.3 b
Effect of beta-glucanase on broiler performance fed a barley-based diet (to 39 days). Diet contains 50%barley containing4.3% beta-glucanEnz levelu/ kg feedFeed intakegBodyweight, gFCR0 96.5 a 2163 a 1.742 a100 95 ab 2193 ab 1.692 b200 95.3 ab 2215 b 1.678 b400 93.2 b 2160 a 1.685 a
ConclusionExogenous enzyme supplementation improve digestibility Flexibilization of feed formulation Increase availably of low quality ingredient Reduced production cost