In: Equine Respiratory Diseases, Lekeux P. (Ed.). International Veterinary InformationService, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2...
For further information, see Aerosol Therapy, P. Lekeux and D.H. Duvivier. In: Equine Respiratory Diseases, Lekeux P.(Ed.)...
AntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.CephalosporinsCeftiofur(third-generationcephalo...
AntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Trimethoprim-SulfonamideBorgal®(Intervet)Duopri...
AntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.TetracyclinesOxytetracycline6.6mg/kgq12-24hIVDo...
BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.IpratropiumbromideAtrovent®100-360ugq6h(5-1...
BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Isoproterenol0.1-0.2mg/ horse(untilheartrat...
BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Pentoxiphylline16 g perhorse(~36mg/kg)q12hP...
CorticosteroidsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Prednisone1 mg/kgq12h for1 week,decreaseby ...
CorticosteroidsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.BeclomethasoneBeclazone250inhaler®500ug/hor...
Mucolytic AgentsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Acetylcysteine2 g q12h POMucomist®(Bristol...
ImmunomodulatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Interferon alphaRecommended for the treatm...
AnthelminticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Mebendazole20 mg/kgq24h for 5daysPO Efficient...
Antifungal AgentsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Nystatin TopicalTreats mycoticrhinitis(As...
References1. Meyer JC, Brown MP, Gronwall RR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium in neonatal foals after intramus...
23. Sleeper MM, Kearns CF, McKeever KH. Chronic clenbuterol administration negatively alters cardiac function. MedSci Spor...
51. Ammann VJ, Vrins AA, Lavoie JP. Effects of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate on respiratory function in horseswith c...
Pharmacol 1991; 4:203-208.80. Lester G, Clark C, Rice B, Steible-Hartless C, et al . Effect of timing and route of adminis...
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  1. 1. In: Equine Respiratory Diseases, Lekeux P. (Ed.). International Veterinary InformationService, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2-Mar-2005; B0340.0305Doses of Common DrugsE. Van Erck and P. LekeuxDepartment of Physiology and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman, Liège,Belgium.Table of ContentsImportant Preliminary Remarks!The list of drugs and directions for use and dosage have been compiled on the basis of information provided in thescientific literature. As such, some drugs have not been validated according to quality, safety, and effectiveness criterianecessary for drug approval and commercialization. This list of drugs does not take into account national or communitylaws, regulations or policies regarding the use and commercialization of a series of substances and some drugs cited havenot received legal approval (for instance, the substances listed in the annex IV of the European regulation 2377/90 EC, theuse of metronidazole is forbidden in all horses according to the European directive 2004/28 EC). Local doping rules andrestrictions as well as minimum withdrawal periods should also be checked.The authors decline all responsibility in the event of an incident. The veterinary practitioner engages hisfull responsibility.Treatments are listed by category of action.Inhalation treatments generally require a metered-dose inhalant system. Aerosol delivery systems can significantly affectboth topical and systemic activity of inhaled drugs: Commercially available devices adapted to the equine species are:The Equine Aeromasktm that has a facial mask and built-in spacer: Studies have shown that with a chlorofluorocarbon(CFC) propellant, 6% of actuated drug is effectively and homogeneously distributed to the lungs, and 14% of actuateddrug if an hydrofluoralkane (HFA) propellant is used;The Equine Aerosol Drug Delivery System (EADDS; 3M Animal Care Products, St Paul, MN, USA) is a hand-helddevice composed of a spacer morphologically adapted to the left nostril: 23 - 46% of the drug is uniformly distributedto the lower airway tract. The canister is encased in the device and to this day, only albuterol sulfate canisters arecommercialized (Torpex® Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany);The Equine Haler (Equine Healthcare, APS, Hillerod, Denmark) is a spacer device with a nasal mask adapted to theleft nostril: 8.2 ± 5.2% of actuated dose is effectively delivered uniformly to the lung.Aerosol deposition also depends on correct patency of airways and in cases of severe airway obstruction (e.g., heaves),adequate aerosol distribution to the lower airways is compromised.Preliminary RemarksGlossaryAntibioticsBronchodilatorsCorticosteroidsNSAIDMucolytic AgentsImmunomodulatorsMast Cell Stabilizing DrugsAnthelminticsAntifungal AgentsOthersLocal Anesthetics
  2. 2. For further information, see Aerosol Therapy, P. Lekeux and D.H. Duvivier. In: Equine Respiratory Diseases, Lekeux P.(Ed.) International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2001; B0331.1101.GlossaryPO = Per os (oral) administrationSC = Subcutaneous administrationIM = Intramuscular administrationIV = Intravenous administrationq24h = Administration every 24 hours (once daily)q12h = Administration every 12 hours (twice daily)q8h = Administration every 8 hours (three times daily)q6h = Administration every 6 hours (four times daily)Puff = Delivery of one metered dose (inhalations)AHSA = American Horse Shows AssociationBALF = Broncho-Alveolar Lavage FluidDPI = Dry Powder InhalationEIPH = Exercise Induced Pulmonary HemorrhageFEI = Fédération Equestre InternationaleIAD = Inflammatory Airway DiseaseMIC = Minimum Inhibitory ConcentrationAntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Penicillin CompoundsAmpicillin6.6mg/kgq12hIMEfficient againstS. zooepi-demicus11mg/kgq8hIMAmpicillinWell absorbed POby neonate foalsCan alter intestinalfloraAmoxycillin20-30mg/kgPOSerumconcentrationsmaintained for 5-6hoursCan alter intestinalflora and inducediarrhea in foalsAmoxycillin+ClavulanatePenicillinsodium22 000IU/kgq6hIV, IMor SCSalts can havecardio-depressanteffectsBactericidal, Gram+, Anaerobiccoverage.Recommen-ded againstStreptococci(Strangles,Pneumonia)ProcainPenicillin G22 000IU/kgq12hIM orSCAnaerobic coverage
  3. 3. AntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.CephalosporinsCeftiofur(third-generationcephalosporin)Naxcel®(Pfizer)2mg/kgq24hIMNeeds to berefrigeratedwhenreconstituted asits loss ofpotency isattained after 12hours at roomtemperaturePossible localreactionsEfficient againstS. zooepide-micus,Pasteurella sp.,Actinobacillus.Doses can beincreased ifbacteria have ahigh MIC(Pseudomonas,Klebsiella,Enterobacter)[1,2]Excenel®(Pfizer)2mg/kgq12h inneonatefoals(2-7daysold)IMAminoglycosidesGentamicin6.6mg/kgq24hIVDoes not crossblood/brainbarrierNephrotoxicity[3]Gentocin®(ScheringPlough)50mg/mlNebuliz.12 times greaterconcentration inBALF withaerosol deliverythan with IVadministrationMildinflammatorycell response inBALFBactericidalConcentration-dependentantimicrobialactivityKanamycin7.5mg/kgq8hIV orIMMoreexpensive thangentamycinAmykacin4.4-6.6mg/kgq8-12hor21mg/kgq24hIV orIMLessnephrotoxicthangentamicinLessresistanceof gram- strains incomparisonto gentamicin[4,5]
  4. 4. AntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Trimethoprim-SulfonamideBorgal®(Intervet)Duoprim®(Schering-Plough)Tribissen®Oral Paste(Schering-Plough)Tribissen48%(Schering-Plough)Duphatro-xim®(FortDodge)Trisuprime®(Bayer)12.5-30 mg/gq12h.Often dosed 5/1Sulfa/trimethop.POIMIVSCShould beadministered30 minutesprior tofeeding (bestabsorbed)Can causediarrheaBactericidalCertainstrains of S.zooepi-demicus areresistantMacrolidesErythromycin25 mg/kg q12hTreatmentduration:4-6 weeks incases of R. equiPOCan causediarrheaUsed to treatRhodococcusequi. Can beused inassociationwith rifampin[6]Rifampin3-5 mg/kgq12hPOShould notbe usedalone asmicrobialresistancecan developrapidlyMetronidazole15 mg/kgq6-8hPOEffects onCNS(depression,circling,head tilting)Anaerobiccoverage.Cannot beused in foodanimals[7]Chloramphenicol55 mg/kgq6hPOHalf life is toobrief to alloweffectiveplasmaconcentrationswhenadministeredIVIMinjectionscause painand arecontra-indicated inhorsesGram + and -anaerobiccoverage.Should bemanipulatedwith care ascases of fatalaplasticanemia havebeen reportedin man.Cannot beused in foodanimals[8,9]
  5. 5. AntibioticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.TetracyclinesOxytetracycline6.6mg/kgq12-24hIVDoxycycline10mg/kgq12hPOIV administrationreported to causefatal diarrhea[10]FluoroquinolonesEnrofloxacinBaytril®(Bayer)2.5-5mg/kgq12hPO orIVReports ofarthropathy andpossible cartilagedamage in younghorses (< 4 years)Has not beenapproved foruse in equinespecies[11,12]MarbofloxacinMarboxyl®(Vetoquinol)2mg/kgq24hIV,SC orPOConcentration-dependent anti-Gram - activityTime-dependentanti-Gram +activity~100%bioavailability bySC administration,62% by oraladministrationShould begiven prior tofeeding[13]BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Anticholinergic AgentsAtropine0.01-0.02mg/kgsingledoseIVBradyarrythmias,excitement, gutstasisSingle doseinducesbronchodilationwithin 15 mins inheavey horses[14,15]GlycopyrolateRobinul-V®0.007mg/kgsingledoseIVDoes not crossblood/brainbarrierBradyarrythmias,excitement, gutstasis1-1.5mg/horseq12hInhal.Effects onrespiratorymechanics 15minutes afterinhalation.Effect lasts atleast 60minutesNone reported.Absence oftachycardia intreated horses[16]
  6. 6. BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.IpratropiumbromideAtrovent®100-360ugq6h(5-18puffs)Inhal. None reportedMust bedeliveredusing ametered-doseinhalantsystem2-3ug/kgNebul.Effect lasts 4-6hoursDosedependenteffect[17]2.5-5ug/kgDPIOnset of effectwithin 15minutesDeliveredwith a DPImask[18,19]Beta 2-Adrenergic AgonistsAlbuterolsulfateTorpex®(+3M device)360-720ugq 6hInhal.Onset of effect:5 minutesEffect lasts 30minutes to 3hours[20,21]ClenbuterolVentipulmin®(BoehringerIngelheim)0.7-0.8ug/kgq12hPOIncrease dose by25% if noresponse after 3days. Maximaldose: 0.32 ug/kgLow intensitysweating, muscletremor, and/ornervousness athigher doses. Effectson cardiaccontraction. Cancause abortion inpregnant mares.Differencesin individualresponseaccording toseverity ofclinical signs.[22,23]IV,IM,Nebul.Excitement,tachycardia,sweating, muscletremors after IVinjection.Improvesmucociliaryclearance[24]Fenoterol Berotec®0.9-2mgInhal.Rapid onset ofeffect (< 5mins)Improvesrespiratorymechanicalparameters[25,26]Terbutaline Brethine®2-4mg(10-20puffs)Inhala.Nebul.Lowbioavailability ifgiven PO (100ug/kg)Causes tachycardia,CNS stimulation,hyperventilation andlethargy after IVinjection (10 ug/kg)[27,28]
  7. 7. BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Isoproterenol0.1-0.2mg/ horse(untilheartratedoubles)IV [15]Pirbuterol Maxair®1.2-2.4ug/kgInhal.Onset ofeffect: 5minutesEffect lastsat least 7hoursCausesagitation,tremorssweating andtachycardia, atdosesexceeding 6ug/kg[29,30]Salmeterol Serevent®0.5-1ug/kgInhal.Onset ofeffect: 5minutesDuration ofeffect: 6-8hoursMaximaleffect: 30-60 minutes[31]Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (Methylxanthine Derivates)Theophylline1-5mg/kgq12hPONarrowtherapeuticmarginToxicinteractionwitherythromycinCausestachycardia,increase inlactatemia andhyperoxia[32]20 mg/kgthen15 mg/kgq24hPONarrowtherapeuticmarginToxicinteractionwitherythromycin[33]Aminophylline(Soluble saltoftheophylline)9-15mg/kgdiluted in1Lof fluidsdeliveredover 20-60 minsq12h orq8hIVNarrowtherapeuticmarginToxicinteractionwitherythromycinDose-relatedtachycardia,polypnoea andnervous symptoms(tactile, visual andauditoryhypersensitivity,muscle tremor,sweating)[15],[34-36]5 mg/kgq12 hPO [37]
  8. 8. BronchodilatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Pentoxiphylline16 g perhorse(~36mg/kg)q12hPOPoorabsorption bygastro-intestinaltractNone reported14 daysadministrationimprovedrespiratorymechanics at day 8,but had effect onBALF cytology[38]Alpha 2-Adrenergic AgonistXylazinehydrochloride0.5mg/kgsingledoseIVBronchodilatingeffects are offset byan increase inrespiratory resistancedue to upper airwayrelaxationOther alpha-2adrenergic agonistshave similar effects[39]CorticosteroidsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Dexamethasone0.08-0.164mg/kgq24hPO50%biodisponibilitywhen given PO.Effective within 6hours, peak effect at24 hoursLonger effect whengiven PO incomparison to IV.Feeding decreasesbioavailability[40,41]Azium®(Schering-Plough)0.04-0.1mg/kgq24hIM,IVImprovement oflung function at 2hours (IV), with apeak effect at 4-6hours. Dose shouldbe graduallydecreased tominimum necessaryImproves clinicalsigns, airwayfunction and BALFcytology in heaves-affected horses in3-7 days.[41-44]Dexamethasone-21-isonicotinateVoren®(BoehringerIngelheim)0.04-0.06mg/kg,q3daysIMLong acting form ofdexamethasoneImproves clinicalsigns and airwayfunction in heaves-affected horses in3-7 days. After 10days of treatment,BALF cytology isnot improved.[41,42]
  9. 9. CorticosteroidsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Prednisone1 mg/kgq12h for1 week,decreaseby 25%eachweekPOVery lowbiodisponibilityIneffective forthe treatment ofpulmonaryinflammation[41,42,45-47]2.2mg/kgq24hPOWell absorbedby gastro-intestinalsystem[41]FluticasoneFlovent®(Glaxco-Welcome)2-4ug/kgq12h or2mg/horseq12hInhalationSerum cortisolconcentrationsreturn topretreatmentvalues within a2 day wash-outperiod.Must bedelivered usinga metered-doseinhalantsystem. A 21days treatmentimprovesclinical signs,airway functionand BALFcytology inheaves-affectedhorses in 3-7days.[41,48-50]Beclomethasone1.32-5mg/horseq12hduring 7to 14daysInhalationAdrenalsuppressionoccurs at adose of 528ug/horse q12hbut is restoredafter a 2 daywash-outperiod.Nonereportedalthoughsystemicabsorptionoccursthroughrespiratoryandgastro-intestinaltracts.Improvementnot detectedbefore 24-72 h.Less effectivethan POdexamethasone.Must bedelivered usinga metered-doseinhalant system[51-54]Beclovent®1-3ug/kg(12-15puffs)q12hInhalation(EADDS®)Must bedelivered usinga metered-doseinhalant system[49]Vanceril®(Schering-Plough)InhalationMust bedelivered usinga metered-doseinhalant system[41]
  10. 10. CorticosteroidsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.BeclomethasoneBeclazone250inhaler®500ug/horseq12hInhalation Treatment ofSPAOD in alaminitis-pronehorse. Must bedelivered using ametered-doseinhalant system[55]Triamcinolone Vetalog®0.04-0,09mg/kgsingledoseIMAdrenalsuppressionmaintained after 3weeks ofadministrationLaminitisA single doseimproves heavessymptoms for upto 3 weeks[56]Budesonide Pulmicort®800 ugq12h[57]FlunisolideSafety andefficacy has notbeen evaluated inhorsesNon-Steroidal Anti-Inflamatory Drugs (NSAID). Indicated for symptomatic treatment of fever and pain indiseases such as respiratory viral diseases, strangles, etc.DrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Phenylbutazone3-4.4 mg/kgq12-24hIV, POInefficient againstheaves or IADFlunixineMeglumineBanamine®Binixine®1.1 mg/kg q12-24hIM, POInefficient againstheaves or IAD1.1 mg/kg q12h IVKetoprofenKetofen®Anaphen®2.2 mg/ kgq12hIV, IMDimethylsulfoxide(DMSO)100 ml mixedwith 200 mlglycerin and200 mlpropyleneglycolTopicalLocal treatment ofupper airwayinflammatoryconditions(pharyngitis,epiglottic ulceration,…)[58]SodiumhyaluronateHyonate®(Bayer)40 mg/ horse,two injectionsat 7 daysintervalIVDecreases BALFneutrophils in horsesin remission fromRAO. Possible anti-oxidant properties[59]
  11. 11. Mucolytic AgentsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Acetylcysteine2 g q12h POMucomist®(Bristol)20-60 ml of a20% solutionTopicalGuttural pouch lavagein cases of empyema[60]DembrexineSputolysin®Sputolosin®(BoehringerIngelheim)0.33 mg/kgq12hPOAntitussive properties.Cannot be used in foodanimals[61]Bromhexine Bisolvon® 60 mg/kg PO [62]ImmunomodulatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.PropionibacteriumacnesEqstim®(ImmunovetInc.)3 dosesadministeredevery 2 to 3daysIVFever,anorexia,lethargy within12-24 hoursafter first dosesIncreasesperipheralWBC.DecreasesBALFcytologiccountsincludinglymphocyteandmacrophagepopulations[63-65]Purifiedmycobacterial cellwall extractEquimune®IV,VetrapharmInc.1.5 mlrepeated in 1to 3 weeksIVPulmonarylesions reportedin 5 horses(granulomatouspulmonaryfibrosispneumonitis,bronchiolitis)[66,67]InactivatedparapoxvirusBaypamune®,Bayer460 IU q8hat 48 hintervalIMDeliveryaccording tothepredicteddelay ofhighestinfectiouspressure.1 week= IMinjections atDay 0, Day2 and Day 42 weeks=IMinjections atDay 0, Day2 and Day 9
  12. 12. ImmunomodulatorsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Interferon alphaRecommended for the treatmentof IAD.No effect on severity of clinicalsigns or duration of viralshedding in experimentallyinduced EHV-1 infection[68-71]InterferonAlpha 2arecombinantRoferon-A®50-150IU q24hfor 5daysPORecombinant is less effectivethan the natural interferonInterferonAlpha n3recombinantAlferon®50-150IU q24hfor 5daysPOInterferonAlpha 26recombinantIntronA®50-150IU q24hfor 5daysPOMast Cell Stabilizing DrugsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.CromolynsodiumIntal®(Rhone-Poulenc-Rorer)200 mgq12hNebulizationProphylactic effectonly on mast celldegranulation[72,73]DisodiumcromoglycateIntal®80 mgq12h 1stweek, thenq24hNebulizationDelayedactionProphylactic effectonly on mast celldegranulationNedocromil Tilade®80 mgq12h 1stweek, thenq24hNebulizationProphylactic effectonly on mast celldegranulationAnthelminticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Mebendazole10 mg/kgq24hPOEfficient against P. equorum (adults)and S. vulgaris (adults)
  13. 13. AnthelminticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Mebendazole20 mg/kgq24h for 5daysPO Efficient against D. arnfieldiFenbendazolePanacur®(Hoechst-Roussel)10 mg/kgq24h for 5daysPOEfficient against adults andlarvae of P. equorum and S.vulgarisThiabendazole 88 mg/kg PO Efficient against P. equorumAlbendazole25 mg/kgq12hfor 5 daysor50 mg/kgq12hfor 2 daysPO4-8 mg/kgq12h for 1monthPOTreatment of hydatid cystscaused by EchinococcusgranulosusIvermectin Eqvalan® 200 ug/kg POEfficient against P. equorum(adults) and S. vulgaris(adults and larvae) and D.arnfieldiAntifungal AgentsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Potassiumiodide10-15 gq24h for a450 kghorse5-10 gq24h for aponyfor 30-60dayPOTreatment should bestopped with signs of iodism(lacrimation, coughing,scurfy coat with hair loss).Contraindicated in pregnantmares and in very youngfoals.Enilconazole33.3mg/mlsolutionTopicalIndicated fortreatment ofguttural pouchmycosis[9,74]Miconazole10 mg/kgin 250 mlof salineq24hTopicalIndicated fortreatment ofguttural pouchmycosis[9,74]Itraconazole5 mg/kgq24hPOReported assystemictherapy ofguttural pouchmycosis[74]
  14. 14. Antifungal AgentsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Nystatin TopicalTreats mycoticrhinitis(Aspergillosis) orguttural pouchmycosis[75,76]Natamycin TopicalTreats mycoticrhinitis(Aspergillosis)[76]AmphotericinB0.3 mg/kg day 1,dose increased by0.1 mg/kg on eachsubsequent day, forat least 21-35 daysIVVerynephrotoxicMycotic rhinitis,fungal pneumonia[77,78]OthersDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Furosemide(diuretic)Lasix®1.0 mg/kgInhalation,IVKaliuresisBronchodilatorReduces acutepulmonary edema[9,79]0.5 mg/kg 30minutes to 4hours priorto racingIVUsed to prevent orreduce severity ofEIPH. Prohibited byFEI, the AHSA andmost non-Americanracing rules[80-83]Nasal stripsFlair®EquineNasalstripsReduces EIPH severity [83]Respiratory AnalepticsDoxapram 0.3-1 mg/kg IVHalf life: 2-3 hoursIncreasesheart rateand cardiacoutputCauses transienthyperventilation(approximately 5minutes)[84-87]Topicallavagesolution0.05% to 5%povidine-iodinesolution q12-24h for 5-10daysTopicalSinus, guttural pouchlavage
  15. 15. References1. Meyer JC, Brown MP, Gronwall RR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium in neonatal foals after intramuscularinjection. Equine Vet J 1992; 24(6): 485-486.2. Folz SD, Hanson BJ, Griffin AK, et al. Treatment of respiratory infections in horses with ceftiofur sodium. Equine Vet J1992; 24(4): 300-304.3. McKenzie HC 3rd, Murray MJ. Concentrations of gentamicin in serum and bronchial lavage fluid after intravenous andaerosol administration of gentamicin to horses. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61(10): 1185-1190.4. Orsini JA, Soma LR, Rourke JE, et al. Pharmacokinetics of amikacin in the horse following intravenous andintramuscular administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1985; 8(2): 194-201.5. Orsini JA, Benson CE, Spencer PA, et al. Resistance to gentamicin and amikacin of gram-negative organisms isolatedfrom horses. Am J Vet Res 1989; 50(6):923-925.6. Sweeney CR, Sweeney RW, Divers TJ. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in 48 foals: response to antimicrobial therapy. VetMicrobiol 1987; 14(3):329-336.7. Sweeney RW, Sweeney CR, Weiher J. Clinical use of metronidazole in horses: 200 cases (1984-1989). J Am Vet MedAssoc 1991; 15;198(6):1045-1048.8. Davis LE, Neff CA, Baggot JD, et al. Pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol in domesticated animals. Am J Vet Res1972; 33(11):2259-2266.9. Foreman JH. Equine respiratory pharmacology. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1999; 15(3):665-686, ix-x.10. Riond JL, Riviere JE, Duckett WM,et al. Cardiovascular effects and fatalities associated with intravenousadministration of doxycycline to horses and ponies. Equine Vet J 1992; 24(1):41-45.11. Giguere S, Belanger M. Concentration of enrofloxacin in equine tissues after long-term oral administration. J VetPharmacol Ther 1997; 20(5):402-404.12. Giguere S, Sweeney RW, Belanger M. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in adult horses and concentration of the drugin serum, body fluids, and endometrial tissues after repeated intragastrically administered doses. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57(7):1025-1030.13. Bousquet-Melou A, Bernard S, Schneider M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses. Equine Vet J 2002;34(4):366-372.14. Broadstone RV, Scott JS, Derksen FJ, et al. Effects of atropine in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction. J ApplPhysiol 1988; 65:2720-2725.15. Pearson EG, Riebold TW. Comparison of bronchodilators in alleviating clinical signs in horses with chronic obstructivepulmonary disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 194:1287-1291.16. Art T, de Moffarts B, van Erck E, et al. Effects fonctionnels respiratoires du glycopyrrolate chez le cheval poussif encrise. Prat Vét Equine 2003; 35:23-29.17. Robinson NE, Derksen FJ, Berney C, et al. The airway response of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) toaerosol administration of ipratropium bromide. Equine Vet J 1993; 25:299-303.18. Duvivier DH, Votion D, Vandenput S, et al. Airway response of horses with COPD to dry powder inhalation ofipratropium bromide. Vet J 1997; 154:149-153.19. Duvivier DH, Bayly WM, Votion D, et al. Effects of inhaled dry powder ipratropium bromide on recovery fromexercise of horses with COPD. Equine Vet J 1999; 31:20-24.20. Derksen FJ, Olszewski MA, Robinson NE, et al. Aerosolized albuterol sulfate used as a bronchodilator in horses withrecurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:689-693.21. Rush BR, Hoskinson JJ, Davis EG, et al. Pulmonary distribution of aerosolized technetium Tc 99m pentetate afteradministration of a single dose of aerosolized albuterol sulfate in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res1999; 60:764-769.22. Erichsen DF, Aviad AD, Schultz RH, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of clenbuterol HCl when administered to effectin horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Equine Vet J 1994; 26:331-336.Local AnestheticsDrugTradeNameDose RoutePharmaco-kineticsSideEffectsComments Ref.Lidocaine15-20 ml of a4% solutionTopicalLocal pharyngeal, tracheal orbronchial anesthesia, for instanceduring endoscopic examinationXylazine 5% solution TopicalLocal pharyngeal, tracheal orbronchial anesthesia, for instanceduring endoscopic examination
  16. 16. 23. Sleeper MM, Kearns CF, McKeever KH. Chronic clenbuterol administration negatively alters cardiac function. MedSci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(4):643-650.24. Turgut K, Sasse HH. Influence of clenbuterol on mucociliary transport in healthy horses and horses with chronicobstructive pulmonary disease. Vet Rec 1989; 125:526-530.25. Tesarowski DB, Viel L, McDonell WN, et al. The rapid and effective administration of a beta 2-agonist to horses withheaves using a compact inhalation device and metered-dose inhalers. Can Vet J 1994; 35:170-173.26. Young SS, Tesarowski D, Viel L. Frequency dependence of forced oscillatory respiratory mechanics in horses withheaves. J Appl Physiol 1997; 82:983-987.27. Murphy JR, McPherson EA, Dixon PM. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): effects of bronchodilatordrugs on normal and affected horses. Equine Vet J 1980; 12:10-14.28. Torneke MK, Ingvast-Larsson JC, Johansson JM, et al. 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