DIGESTIVE DISORDERS IN CAMELS1. DISEASES OF PHARYNX 1.1. Chocking: 1.2. Injury of palatal expansion: 1.3. pharyngitis:2. SIMPLE INDIGESTION3. RUMEN ACIDOSIS; RUMEN OVERLOAD4. BLOAT (RUMEN IMPACTION AND TYMPANY)5. RUMEN PUTREFACTION (Rumen alkalosis)6. CONSTIPATION7. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION8. IMPACTION OF THIRD AND FOURTH STOMACH9.DIARRHEA IN ADULT CAMELS10. ENDOTOXICOSIS IN RACING CAMELS
SIMPLE INDIGESTION ETIOLOGY Too excessive grains . Too excessive concentrates CLINICAL SIGNS Inappetance to anorexia . Absence of rumination . Normal other physical parameters . Spontaneous recovery within 2-3 days .
SIMPLE INDIGESTION Laboratory findings: Rapid deviation of rumen and blood parameters to the side of acidosis followed with return to the normal .
Rumen overload or acidosis ETIOLOGY Mainly affect racing and camels; accidentally in camels kept at owners. 1. Eating too much concentrates 2. Eating too much grains (millet, corn and maize) or molasses Signs : 1. stop chewing of kud . 2.walking stiffly and unwilling to move .
Camel may vomit. Prevention *Giving balanced diets with plenty of roughage and prevent over feeding on concentrates
Treatment of both simpleindigestion and rumen acidosis Treatment:1. Oral administration of 0.5-1.0 kg of NaHCO3 (first day); 100gm/day for 2- 3 days. 3. Give 250-500 mg Mg SO4 in 2.5 -5.0 L of water. 2. Buscopan IV 20-30 ml to calm the gut. 4. Bykodigest and Bykehepar orally. 5. Rumen fluid transplantation from healthy camels (0.5-1.0 L).
BLOAT Signs: 1. swelled abdomen at the left side 2. mild signs of pain (colic) 3. stoppage of eating and drinking 4. rolling on the ground from side to side 5. camel may die if not treated within 30 minutes
BLOAT Causes:1. Allowing camel to drink muchwater after grazing certain typesof ground nut leaves androughage Treatment : 1. drench 300-500 ml tympnyl or gas-remedy 2. Ringer lactate 10-15 L for 3 days 3. drench 1 kg of MgSO4 with 1-2 liter of paraffin oil or vegetable oil
Bloat In mild bloat 4. allow camel to walk 500 meters after the drench 1mg/50 kg Neostigmin/ Sc for 3 days In severe cases in sternal recumbancy introduce the stomach tube to introduce 0.5- 1.0 liter of paraffin oil, or pierce the abdomen with troacer and cannula in the left flank 10 cm behind last rib and 7.5 cm below the spines of vertebrae.
RUMEN ALKALOSISPUTREFACTION It occurs in camels kept in a poor management conditions and some times grazing on spoiled fermented forages, agricultural wastes or low quality bean straw. Clinical signs: 1. Anorexia, dullness, depression and inability to rise up. 2. Stiffness in gait and emaciation. 3. Presence of potbelly and diarrhea of offensive odor and dark greenish color in some cases. Laboratory diagnosis: rumen pH between 7and 7.5 .
RUMEN PUTREFACTION presence of metabolic alkalosis . macrocytic hypochromic anemia . The total volatile fatty acids concentration significantly decreased . Treatment: Give each camel acetic acid (vinegar) at the dose of 2m/kg body weight. Intramuscular injection of Terramycin long acting preparation (1ml/10kg body weight); to prevent the secondary bacterial invasions
RUMRN PUTREFACTION Two to three liters of fresh forestomach fluid transfaunation (gained from slaughter house) and administered using the stomach tube for up to 7 days . Good quality grasses; hay or other agricultural crops usually given to the ruminants in those localities . The long-duration of recumbence cases (more than 7 days) or those cases were in lateral recumbence with stiffness and or tremors have bad prognosis, advice the owners to slaughter before treatment .
CONSTIPATION Signs: 1. stop eating or eat less 2. dull and lethargic 3. dung becomes larger and longer 4. straining during act of defecation Cause: 1. in calves: drinking much milk with no roughage 2. lack of fiber in the feed 3. feeding much grain or pilleted food 4. feeding on low quality roughage
CONSTIPATION Treatment: 1. drench 1-1.5 L of paraffin oil or vegetable oil for 3 days(for laxation) 2. drench 250 gm of MgSO4in large amount of water 3. inject 15-20 ml Novalgin IM. 4. fluid therapy 15-20 liters 5. use the rectal enema to relieve the constipation
INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION Signs: 1. increase in the size of right belly gradually complete anorexia 2. few black feces mixed with mucous and later no feces with strain and trying to defecate 3. dull, depression and unwilling to move watery eyes 4. body temperature is below normal 5. death may occur within 10-12 days if not treated
Causes: 1. Twisting of the intestine and telescoping of intestinal folds parasitic blockage, hair balls and foreign bodies 2. eating of strange objects (pica) Treatment: 1. drench paraffin oil or caster oil 2. fluid therapy 10-15 liters of Ringer lactate for 3 days 3. Neostigmin sulfate 1 ml/50kg/ 3days 4. drench 1kg MgCl with 1-2 liters of oil 5. rectal enema 6. surgical interference.
IMPACTION OF AND FOURTH STOMACTHIRD H The consistency of the omasum and abomasum contents in camels normally are soft (Fluctuating); in impaction they are tightly impacted and distended with dry ingesta the cause was in the past due to using of Atoxyle and Suramin in the treatment of trypanosomiasis (They cause paralysis of 3rd and 4th stomach). This condition may occur when camels ingest sands with grazing.
OMASOABOMASAL IMPACTION Symptoms Constipation at first, later complete absence of feces within days, continous shifing of position and dullness. After days vomiting occurs. The fourth stomach if felt hard on palpation behind last rib on the right lower part of abdomen with severe pain. Treatment: use rectal anema with pump twice daily with warm water. Give per-os paraffin oil or linseed oil (2L). Other traditional treatment is giving 2kg trickle with 1 L hot water and repeated with 2/3 of the dose every 8h. The prognosis is good if the only sign was constipation, but if vomiting occurred then the prognosis is bad.
ENDOTOXICOSIS (Haemorrhagic diathesis, haemorrhagic disease, or Bacillus cereus intoxication) Clinical Signs: 1. The disease occurs in young 2-4 years old racing camels and high incidence is in summer months of high temperature and humidity. 2. Initial stage (24-48 h): f ever (41C0), inappetance, depression and dullness. 3. Cough, swelling of the throat with enlarged unilateral or bilateral submaxillary lymph nodes. 4. Complete atony of first compartment, abdominal pain, regurgitation.
ENDOTOXICOSIS IN RACING CAMELS 5. Rectal examination revealed the presence of balls of stool covered with fresh or tar like blood. Little cases develop diarrhea. 6. Within 2-3 days before death; camels come in recumbency with or without central nervous system disturbances, lacrimation and hyper-salivation. 7. Affected camels die within 3rd and 7th day of affection
Necropsy findings: 1. Echymotic hemorrhage in the pharynx, trachea, epicardium, subendocardium, intestinal tract and petechial hemorrhage in the renal pelvis. 2. All lymph nodes are enlarged, hemorrhagic and with necrosis in centers. 3. Lungs are congested with sub-pleural and interstitial hemorrhage. 4. All affected camels had acute rumen acidosis (pH 4-5).
Laboratory clinical findings: 1. Leucopenia due to the sever immunosupression and consequently enhance the secondary bacteremia. 2. Leucopenia persists 1-2 days and reduced after 3rd day. 3. Sharp rise in the serum enzymes in the final stages of affection indicates the internal organs damage. 4. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen greatly elevated indicating renal damage. 5.Rumen fluid of sour smell and yellowish color containing undigested particles of barely, the pH is 4-5 without presence of protozoa.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) :=It is characterized by decreases in the fibrinogen content, presence of solublefibrin and fibrinogen degradation products; sever deficiency in the coagulationfactors which inhibit the thrombin activity, fibrin polymerization and plateletaggregation.=DIC is the most serious consequence in the endotoxicosis. Fibrin increases theblood viscosity and block the glomeruli of the kidney.=Affected camels blood samples produce a very little amount of serum aftercentrifugation and the supernatant fluid is mainly formed of fibrin.
Differential diagnosis:1. Mycotoxic diseases (Aspirgillus fumigatus).2. Richettsia infection.3. Acute rumen lactic acidosis.Treatment and prevention:1. prophylactic administration of pro-biotics.2. Antrisera to the endotoxines and paraimmunity inducers (Paypamun).3. Careful considerations during feeding of racing camels on cow milk,honey, excessive uncrushed barely and alfa alfa.4. Avoid training of very young camels to reduce the stress.