Clamydia lecture
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Clamydia lecture

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Clamydia lecture Clamydia lecture Presentation Transcript

  • Chlamydial abortion Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE), Ovine enzootic abortion, Kebbing
  • Disease of sheep characterized by late term abortion and/or still birth.
  • Etiology • Chlamydiophila abortus (Chlamydia psittici serotype 1) • Gram negative (2 phases). Extracellular infective phase; Elementary body (EB), Intracellular phase; Reticulate body (RB) • formalin & heat susceptible (die in 4-10 days)
  • Epidemiology Susceptibility: sheep (goats, cattle, swine, humans).  Transmission: ingestion.  Source: aborted uterine discharge and placentas.
  • Epidemiology Usually start in first season as sporadic abortion which become storm of abortion in the second season (30% abortion).  Usually in areas with high density of sheep.
  • Clinical Signs  Abortion in the last 2-3 weeks of pregnancy of Well-developed lambs. Some of them are premature or full-term still birth.  Live weak lambs die.  Few give good lambs.
  • Clinical Signs Animals does not abort more than once.  Rams could be infected with orchitis and secrete in semen (no evidence for transmission to ewes). Pathology Necrosis of cotyledons and rough thickening of intercotyledonary tissues.
  • Diagnosis • Clinical + History • Confirmation – Smears of placenta ( stained by modified zeihl-neelsen or Giemsa)red bodies against blue background. – ELISA, CFT  antibody titre. – Isolation on Yolk sac of chick embryos.
  • Control and prevention  Isolation of aborted animals (either culled or kept).  removal of beddings and discharges.  long acting oxytetracycline (20mg/kg) every2 weeks.
  • Control and prevention Vaccination using inactivated adjuvant vaccine 4 weeks before mating then revaccinate every 3 years.  New animals should come from clean flocks.
  • Brucellosis Contagious disease of sheep and goats characterized by storm of abortion at last third of pregnancy.
  • Etiology • B.melitensis (biovar 3 in Egypt) • B. abortus • B. ovis (ram epididymitis, veneral)
  • Epidemiology  Geographic distribution.  Susceptibility: goats and sheep> cattle> humans.  Transmission: contagious: ingestion, inhalation, conjunctival, nasopharyngeal, skin breaks mucous membranes in the male and female reproductive tract and udder .
  • Epidemiology  Source: aborted animals uterine discharge and placentas, urine, milk, faeces. Intrauterine. Latent infection. Chronic carriers especially in goats which secrete intermittently the Brucella throughout its life.
  • Epidemiology A high proportion of infected animals especially sheep eliminate the infection completely (self-limiting) and exhibit long life immunity against reinfection.
  • Clinical Signs • Abortion in the last 2 months of pregnancy ( storm in first season up to 70%) • Retained placenta, interstitial mastitis, reduction of milk production, orchitis of males and infertility of both sexes, hygroma of the joint and arthritis
  • Diagnosis • Signs . • Bacteriological methods • Serological tests ( field fast tests with high sensitivity RBPT, BABA) ( confirmatory tests CFT, ELISA). • Allergic tests ( Brucellin test  herd test).
  • Control Isolation of aborted animals and burning of all foetal discharges.  Isolation of newly born animals and feed them from other negative dams and test them at 3-6 months , if they are positive must culled.  Disinfect the farm with carbolic acid.  Clean farms or countries should test all animals before introduction.
  • Control • Test and slaughter policy in low endemic farms or countries ( < 2% prevalence). And the farm become clean after 3 negative successive tests 2 months apart. • Avoid uncontrolled animal movement and animal trade. • Vaccination of highly infected farms or countries ( > 10% prevalence).
  • Control  Rev 1 vaccine  full dose (3 month sc. Animal must be tested before breeding).  long period of immunity 4.5 years.  Zoonotic, if given to adults  serocoversion and abortion.  So if given to adults , should be reduced dose and conjunctival but still abortifacient.
  • Control  H38 vaccine  Inactivated  Gives protection for 15 month.  Very long antibody titre.  Sever reaction at injection site.  High production cost
  • Braxy acute disease of sheep characterized by inflammation of abomasal wall, toxemia and high mortality rate. .
  • Etiology • Clostridium septicum ( Alpha, Beta toxins), it is naturally inhabitant of soil and ovine GIT. • Pathogenesis • Frosted food abomasitis multiplication of Cl. septicum in the mucosa and sub mucosa of the abomasum exotoxin haemorrhagic inflammation in the wall of the abomasum and toxemia.
  • Epidemiology  mainly good strong sheep 6-18 month.  Transmission: ingestion  Source: soil and faeces of infected animals  cold weather.  case fatality up to 50%.
  • Clinical Signs  Sudden death  Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, isolation , recumbency and comma. • Pathology  Rapid autolysis of carcasses  haemorrhagic abomasitis with ulcers.  sero-anguious fluid in abdominal cavity.
  • • Diagnosis History Clinical signs PM lesions  Isolation and identification • Direct smear large numbers of Gram positive rods. Fluorescent antibody tech. • Culture on blood agar.
  • • Treatment - Of less value (penicillin) • Control and prevention.  Animals should have a dry matter feeding before let out to frosted pasture.  Vaccination: formalized whole culture vaccine in 2 doses 3-6 weeks apart in early winter.