Usually start in first season as sporadic
abortion which become storm of abortion
in the second season (30% abortion).
Usually in areas with high density of
Abortion in the last 2-3 weeks of
pregnancy of Well-developed lambs.
Some of them are premature or full-term
Live weak lambs die.
Few give good lambs.
Animals does not abort more than once.
Rams could be infected with orchitis and
secrete in semen (no evidence for
transmission to ewes).
Necrosis of cotyledons and
rough thickening of
• Clinical + History
– Smears of placenta ( stained by
modified zeihl-neelsen or Giemsa)red
bodies against blue background.
– ELISA, CFT antibody titre.
– Isolation on Yolk sac of chick embryos.
Control and prevention
Isolation of aborted animals (either
culled or kept).
removal of beddings and discharges.
long acting oxytetracycline (20mg/kg)
Control and prevention
Vaccination using inactivated adjuvant
vaccine 4 weeks before mating then
revaccinate every 3 years.
New animals should come from clean
Contagious disease of sheep and
goats characterized by storm of
abortion at last third of pregnancy.
• B.melitensis (biovar 3 in Egypt)
• B. abortus
• B. ovis (ram epididymitis, veneral)
Susceptibility: goats and sheep> cattle>
Transmission: contagious: ingestion,
inhalation, conjunctival, nasopharyngeal,
skin breaks mucous membranes in the
male and female reproductive tract and
Source: aborted animals uterine
discharge and placentas, urine, milk,
Chronic carriers especially in goats which
secrete intermittently the Brucella
throughout its life.
A high proportion of infected animals
especially sheep eliminate the infection
completely (self-limiting) and exhibit long
life immunity against reinfection.
• Abortion in the last 2 months of
pregnancy ( storm in first season up
• Retained placenta, interstitial
mastitis, reduction of milk
production, orchitis of males and
infertility of both sexes, hygroma of
the joint and arthritis
• Signs .
• Bacteriological methods
• Serological tests ( field fast tests
with high sensitivity RBPT, BABA)
( confirmatory tests CFT, ELISA).
• Allergic tests ( Brucellin test herd
Isolation of aborted animals and
burning of all foetal discharges.
Isolation of newly born animals and
feed them from other negative dams
and test them at 3-6 months , if they
are positive must culled.
Disinfect the farm with carbolic acid.
Clean farms or countries should test
all animals before introduction.
• Test and slaughter policy in low
endemic farms or countries ( < 2%
prevalence). And the farm become
clean after 3 negative successive
tests 2 months apart.
• Avoid uncontrolled animal
movement and animal trade.
• Vaccination of highly infected farms
or countries ( > 10% prevalence).
Rev 1 vaccine
full dose (3 month sc. Animal must be
tested before breeding).
long period of immunity 4.5 years.
Zoonotic, if given to adults
serocoversion and abortion.
So if given to adults , should be
reduced dose and conjunctival but still
Gives protection for 15 month.
Very long antibody titre.
Sever reaction at injection site.
High production cost
acute disease of sheep
characterized by inflammation of
abomasal wall, toxemia and high
• Clostridium septicum ( Alpha, Beta
toxins), it is naturally inhabitant of
soil and ovine GIT.
• Frosted food abomasitis
multiplication of Cl. septicum in the
mucosa and sub mucosa of the
haemorrhagic inflammation in the
wall of the abomasum and toxemia.
mainly good strong sheep 6-18 month.
Source: soil and faeces of infected
case fatality up to 50%.
Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia,
isolation , recumbency and comma.
Rapid autolysis of carcasses
haemorrhagic abomasitis with ulcers.
sero-anguious fluid in abdominal cavity.
Isolation and identification
• Direct smear large numbers of
Gram positive rods. Fluorescent
• Culture on blood agar.
- Of less value (penicillin)
• Control and prevention.
Animals should have a dry matter
feeding before let out to frosted pasture.
Vaccination: formalized whole culture
vaccine in 2 doses 3-6 weeks apart in