١٤٣٥/٠٢/٢٤
By
Prof. Dr. Mohamed H. H. Awaad
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University
Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection:
Contagious disease of chickens and turkeys of all ages,
characterized by air sacculiti...
• Retardation of growth (extra-time needed to bring
broilers to market).

• Poor feed efficiency.
• Down grading of carcas...
:Mycoplasma species
✺Very small colonies (0.1-1 mm). Fried
egg appearance.

✺Smallest known free living forms of life (liv...
.Etiology…cont

• Week Gram negative. Stain with Giemsa stain.
• Vary from Viruses and Rickettsia in that they do not requ...
●Very delicate - survive briefly in bird environments (few hours).
●Carriers are essential for their survival (Transmissio...
MG vary widely in pathogenicity; S6 strain of
Zander

Live F strain MG vaccine
(more pathogenic for turkeys than chickens)...
Pathogenesis
(spread of infection)
Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) In Chickens
Infectious Synositis (IS) In Turkeys

It is a serious disease problem of
chi...
Mycoplasma

species

Complications:
E.coli (most commonly)
and respiratory viral
infection (ND, IB, or
even vaccination wi...
Incubation period: 6-21 days (average 11-18 days)
The course: 1-2 months.
Mycoplasma alone
Relatively mild infection.
Comp...
Within one weak later become 810 folds thicker than normal

Formation of yellowish
purelent exudate

Foamy lesions
develop...
Histological appearance
of normal air sac

Hyperplasia and mononuclear
cells infiltration with large
number of polymorphon...
Secondary E.coli infection
leads to severe fibrinopurelent
or Caseous exudates on
pericardium and liver capsule
(fibrinous...
Section of sinus in
chicken. Notice the
subepitheilial infiltration
of mononuclear cells and
the lymphofollicular
reaction...
Catarrhal inflammation of the nasal passages,
sinuses, trachea, and bronchi.
Turkeys: Severe clinical signs
(sinusitis, respiratory distress,
depression,
decreased
feed
intake, and weight loss). More...
Synovitis Form

(lamness, lethargy,
reluctance to move, swollen joints, breast
blister).

Mild
airsacculitis
Tenosynovitis...
Ulceration
of articular
surface of
distal
tibiotarsus

Hyperplastic synovial membrane
with multiple subsynovial
lymphoid a...
Bowing of
tarsometatarsal
bones.

Airsacculitis.

✺High mortality in very
young poults.
✺Drop-off in production
and hatcha...
•CPP (Tentative diagnosis).
•Laboratory Diagnosis (Final diagnosis):
a-Isolation & Idntification:
Isolation: Laborious pro...
b- Seroconversion (For detection of carriers)
1-SPA: Quick, relatively inexpensive,

and sensitive.

(Nonspecific reactors...
Strain identification by RAPD-PCR
MPM

19

20

R

6/85

ts-11
Rapid slide agglutination test - MS
Breeders:

Eradication/monitoring and egg treatment.
Chemotherapy.
Vaccination (killed/live).

Replacement pullets and ...
I- Serological testing:
Uninfected breeding flocks to be used
as a nucleus for breeding replacing
infected stock and separ...
II-Destruction of Mycoplasma
Inside Eggs:
✺Force antibiotics through shell of incubating eggs

prewarmed
eggs into chilled...
Complete elimination:
Unrealistic expectation in mass production.

Treatment:
For short-term amelioration of disease rat...
Precautions For MG Vaccination
1-Used only where eradication is not
feasible.
2-Vaccination should be prior to
field expos...
✺ Single dose - vaccinated birds remain permanent carriers.
6/85
strain
Virulence

ts-11
strain

Connecticut
F strain

No
...
✺ Concentrated suspension of MG in an oil emulsion.
✺ Administered S/C to layer pullets at 12–16 weeks
of age.
✺ Two doses...
N.B.:
✺Broilers (infection reduced by vaccination of
broiler parent breeders).

✺Turkey vaccination with live vaccines is ...
Depends upon:

✺Breaking cycle of venereal
transmission (Serological procedures with
culture tests of phallus, semen and v...
Thank
you
Avian mycoplasmosis. dr. mohamed h. h. awaad
Avian mycoplasmosis. dr. mohamed h. h. awaad
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Avian mycoplasmosis. dr. mohamed h. h. awaad

  1. 1. ١٤٣٥/٠٢/٢٤
  2. 2. By Prof. Dr. Mohamed H. H. Awaad Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University
  3. 3. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection: Contagious disease of chickens and turkeys of all ages, characterized by air sacculitis with caseous exudates. Mycoplasma synoviae infection: Infectious disease of chickens and turkeys characterized originally as joint infection and more recently as a respiratory disease. Mycoplasma meleagridis infection : Severe egg-transmitted infectious disease of turkeys of any age, characterized by inapparant venereal infections in turkey breeders and air sacculitis in embryonating or newly hatched poults.
  4. 4. • Retardation of growth (extra-time needed to bring broilers to market). • Poor feed efficiency. • Down grading of carcasses and presence of large number of unmarketable birds. • Reduced egg production and hatchability. • High condemnation rate. • Increased medication costs.
  5. 5. :Mycoplasma species ✺Very small colonies (0.1-1 mm). Fried egg appearance. ✺Smallest known free living forms of life (live independently). Only 3 species are potent pathogens: M.gallisepticum, M.synoviae & M. meleagridis. M. iowa and M. gallinarum (minor pathogenic capabilities). ✺MG (Most pathogenic and economically significant mycoplasma pathogen of poultry).
  6. 6. .Etiology…cont • Week Gram negative. Stain with Giemsa stain. • Vary from Viruses and Rickettsia in that they do not require living cells for growth. • Vary from bacteria in that they have no rigid cell wall or cell wall-mucopeptide or it’s precursers (highly pleomorphic and resistant to antibiotics which act on bacterial cell walls) They can pass through bacterial filters. • The immunogenicity (and relative low virulence) and protective characteristics of three MG strains (F, ts-11, and 6/85) have been applied to their commercial development as live vaccines. Class Mollicutes Order Mycoplasmatales Family Mycoplasmetaceae
  7. 7. ●Very delicate - survive briefly in bird environments (few hours). ●Carriers are essential for their survival (Transmission by contact; respiratory tract infection) . ● Transovarian (Egg) transmission rates decline as the post infection interval lengthens. Transmission rates of approximately 3% at 8—15 weeks production and approximately 5% at 20—25 weeks. During chronic infections under field conditions, egg transmission is likely to occur at much lower levels. ● Contact with infected or carrier birds may occur upper respiratory tract and/or conjunctiva are portals of entry for the organism in aerosols or droplets. . Contaminated live virus vaccines ● ted Infec egg ted Infec tal n on riz sio Ho smis n tra ● In Mm high egg-transmission rate has been recorded in infected turkey flocks (average of 25% over a season’s lay) , venereal transmission is well known. sion smis ran ical t Vert carrier lthy Hea lth Hea y i ct a nt Co io ct e nf n
  8. 8. MG vary widely in pathogenicity; S6 strain of Zander Live F strain MG vaccine (more pathogenic for turkeys than chickens). The 6/85 and ts-ll vaccine strains (less pathogenic for both chickens and turkeys (brain of a turkey). than F strain). strain) Localization sites: Respiratory tract: trachea, lungs and air sacs. Other sites: Cloaca, reproductive tract of layers (eggs) and cocks (semen), brain (occasionally). Synovial membranes, sheaths and joints in MS.
  9. 9. Pathogenesis (spread of infection)
  10. 10. Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) In Chickens Infectious Synositis (IS) In Turkeys It is a serious disease problem of chickens and turkeys characterized by respiratory signs and inflect heavy economic losses.
  11. 11. Mycoplasma species Complications: E.coli (most commonly) and respiratory viral infection (ND, IB, or even vaccination with their living vaccines) complicate CRD and produce what is called complicated chronic ).respiratory disease (CCRD Weeks CC RD Primary etiology is (PPLO) causing CRD. CRD
  12. 12. Incubation period: 6-21 days (average 11-18 days) The course: 1-2 months. Mycoplasma alone Relatively mild infection. Complication Extensive outbreaks of severe respiratory disease. Signs: Develop slowly in the flock (coughing, sneezing, snicks, and rales, ocular and nasal discharge). In adults; feed consumption and egg production drop.
  13. 13. Within one weak later become 810 folds thicker than normal Formation of yellowish purelent exudate Foamy lesions develop on air sacs Lesions consolidate producing opaque air sacs
  14. 14. Histological appearance of normal air sac Hyperplasia and mononuclear cells infiltration with large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in CRD infected air sac.
  15. 15. Secondary E.coli infection leads to severe fibrinopurelent or Caseous exudates on pericardium and liver capsule (fibrinous pericarditis and fibrinous perihepatitis)
  16. 16. Section of sinus in chicken. Notice the subepitheilial infiltration of mononuclear cells and the lymphofollicular reaction. Section through nasal passages and sinuses of infected chicken. Notice the unilateral mucosal thickening of sinus and nasal passage.
  17. 17. Catarrhal inflammation of the nasal passages, sinuses, trachea, and bronchi.
  18. 18. Turkeys: Severe clinical signs (sinusitis, respiratory distress, depression, decreased feed intake, and weight loss). More severe outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality result with complication. Partial to complete closure of eyes . results from severe sinus swelling Encephalitic form: of MG (in 12—16-week-old) (torticollis and opisthotonos). Drop in egg production.
  19. 19. Synovitis Form (lamness, lethargy, reluctance to move, swollen joints, breast blister). Mild airsacculitis Tenosynovitis (foot pad) Swollen joints Synovitis increased joint fluid
  20. 20. Ulceration of articular surface of distal tibiotarsus Hyperplastic synovial membrane with multiple subsynovial lymphoid aggregates Incised swollen foot pad with granulation tissue and purulent exudate surrounding digital flexors.
  21. 21. Bowing of tarsometatarsal bones. Airsacculitis. ✺High mortality in very young poults. ✺Drop-off in production and hatchability in breeder flocks. ✺Resp. distress, stunting, crooked neck with deformity of cervical vertebrae, leg deformy & thoracic airsacculitis.
  22. 22. •CPP (Tentative diagnosis). •Laboratory Diagnosis (Final diagnosis): a-Isolation & Idntification: Isolation: Laborious process (slow growth – complex nutritional requirement) tubes should be incubated at 37 C for at least 14 days before being discarded as negative. Identification: Biochemical & Serological (growth inhibition test, agar gel precipitation test, ELISA, FAT, HI, Agglutination test).
  23. 23. b- Seroconversion (For detection of carriers) 1-SPA: Quick, relatively inexpensive, and sensitive. (Nonspecific reactors with M. synoviae or those recently vaccinated with oil-emulsion vaccines and/or vaccines of tissue-culture origin against various agents). 2-HI: Confirm SPA. (Time consuming; reagents are not commercially available; and test may lack sensitivity). 3-ELISA tests: Less sensitive but more specific than SPA tests and less specific but more sensitive than HI tests. (Used to detect MG antibodies in resp. tract washings and egg yolk samples “Flock screening”).
  24. 24. Strain identification by RAPD-PCR MPM 19 20 R 6/85 ts-11
  25. 25. Rapid slide agglutination test - MS
  26. 26. Breeders: Eradication/monitoring and egg treatment. Chemotherapy. Vaccination (killed/live). Replacement pullets and Layers: Vaccination (killed/live). Chemotherapy. Broilers: Chemotherapy.
  27. 27. I- Serological testing: Uninfected breeding flocks to be used as a nucleus for breeding replacing infected stock and separation of uninfected chickens from infected flocks.
  28. 28. II-Destruction of Mycoplasma Inside Eggs: ✺Force antibiotics through shell of incubating eggs prewarmed eggs into chilled antibiotic solutions” 400-1000 ppm tylosin or erythromycin for15-20 minutes”). ✺Incubator temperature gradually is raised over a 12-14 hour period to the maximum embryo survival temp., approximately 46.9°C and then cooled immediately and rapidly to normal incubation temp. Automated INOVOJECT® system, allows automated mass application (up to 50 000 ).eggs per hour
  29. 29. Complete elimination: Unrealistic expectation in mass production. Treatment: For short-term amelioration of disease rather than as a long-term solution to the problem). Antimicrobials: Macrolides: (e.g. Josamycin,Tylosin,Spiramycin, Tiamulin, Kitassamycin). Lincomycin, Clindamycin, Spectinomycin, Tetracyclines, 3rd generation Quinolons.
  30. 30. Precautions For MG Vaccination 1-Used only where eradication is not feasible. 2-Vaccination should be prior to field exposure. 3-Keep vaccinated stock isolated from MG free stock.
  31. 31. ✺ Single dose - vaccinated birds remain permanent carriers. 6/85 strain Virulence ts-11 strain Connecticut F strain No No Low Eye 9 Ws. Eye-drop, intranasal, coarse spray or drinking water. 8-14 Ws (2 Ws or less if chicks are at risk). layers Broiler breeders replacement flocks (reduce possible egg transmission). Layers (more eggs) unvaccinated hens in flocks with endemic MG Fine Spray Administ. 6 Ws. Use layers
  32. 32. ✺ Concentrated suspension of MG in an oil emulsion. ✺ Administered S/C to layer pullets at 12–16 weeks of age. ✺ Two doses are desirable. ✺ Effective in preventing egg-production losses and respiratory disease, but they do not prevent infection with wild-type MG. ✺ Recently development (MG surface proteins).
  33. 33. N.B.: ✺Broilers (infection reduced by vaccination of broiler parent breeders). ✺Turkey vaccination with live vaccines is not recommended. ✺ Long-term use of F strain results in displacement of field strains. ✺ F strain displace challenge strains than did others. ✺ Strains 6/85 and ts-11 are safer than F strain.
  34. 34. Depends upon: ✺Breaking cycle of venereal transmission (Serological procedures with culture tests of phallus, semen and vagina before breeding). ✺Practicing the hygienic method of artificial insemination. ✺Veterinary biosecurity.
  35. 35. Thank you

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