Autonomic nervous system
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Autonomic nervous system

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Autonomic nervous system.

Autonomic nervous system.

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Autonomic nervous system Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is a part of nervous system whichThe autonomic nervous system is a part of nervous system which control involuntary actions, glands, cardiac muscle and plaincontrol involuntary actions, glands, cardiac muscle and plain muscles( alimentary canal, air passages, bladder ,blood vessels andmuscles( alimentary canal, air passages, bladder ,blood vessels and eye, it control visceral functions of the body.eye, it control visceral functions of the body. The autonomic nervous system divided into centralThe autonomic nervous system divided into central and peripheraland peripheral.. The central components are the hypothalamus, brainThe central components are the hypothalamus, brain stem ,and spinal cordstem ,and spinal cord.. The peripheral components consists of theThe peripheral components consists of the nerves that innervate the organs of the bodynerves that innervate the organs of the body which is classified as either parasympatheticwhich is classified as either parasympathetic or sympathetic nervesor sympathetic nerves.. This system control arterial pressure, gastro intestinalThis system control arterial pressure, gastro intestinal motility and secretion. urinary bladder emptyingmotility and secretion. urinary bladder emptying ,sweating, and body temperature ,and many other,sweating, and body temperature ,and many other activities .activities . One of the most character is the rapidity and intensityOne of the most character is the rapidity and intensity with which it can change visceral functions.with which it can change visceral functions.
  • 2.  The autonomic nervous system isThe autonomic nervous system is divided into two division;divided into two division;  1-Symphathatic nervous system.  2-Parasymphathatic nervous system  In any organ the two system is antagonistic to eachIn any organ the two system is antagonistic to each other .if one system is excitatory the other is inhibitoryother .if one system is excitatory the other is inhibitory  Origin ; The autonomic fiber arise from limited areasThe autonomic fiber arise from limited areas of CNS.of CNS.  The sympathetic fiber arise all thoracic segments andThe sympathetic fiber arise all thoracic segments and the upper three lumber ( thoracolumber)the upper three lumber ( thoracolumber)  The parasympathetic arise from cranial numberThe parasympathetic arise from cranial number III,VII.IX and X ,And sacral segments numberIII,VII.IX and X ,And sacral segments number 2,3,4(crainosacral)2,3,4(crainosacral)  Somatic nerve; It is the nerve which arise fromIt is the nerve which arise from centre and relay in the organ.centre and relay in the organ.  Autonomic nerve ; It is the nerve which ariseIt is the nerve which arise from medulla oblongata and relay in ganglia .from medulla oblongata and relay in ganglia .
  • 3. The autonomic ganglia  It is a collection of neurons outside C.N.SIt is a collection of neurons outside C.N.S  Function of autonomic ganglia  The ganglion act as distributing centre ,preganglionic neuronThe ganglion act as distributing centre ,preganglionic neuron synapses with 8-9 postganglionic neuron. this compensate for thesynapses with 8-9 postganglionic neuron. this compensate for the limited distribution of the A.N.Slimited distribution of the A.N.S  Types of ganglia  1- Lateral ganglia; present on both side of the; present on both side of the vertebral Column except in cervical region they are three pairsvertebral Column except in cervical region they are three pairs superior ,middle, inferior ,they are for relay of the sympatheticsuperior ,middle, inferior ,they are for relay of the sympathetic nervous system and so called sympathetic chain.nervous system and so called sympathetic chain.  2-Terminal ganglia ; Present inside the organ ,theyPresent inside the organ ,they are for the relay of parasympathetic .are for the relay of parasympathetic .  3- Collateral ganglia ; Present at the origin of bigPresent at the origin of big vessels arising from abdominal aorta, They are for the relay of thevessels arising from abdominal aorta, They are for the relay of the sympathetic& parasympathetic.sympathetic& parasympathetic.
  • 4.  Physiological change in the fight or flight response.Physiological change in the fight or flight response.  These response which prepare the body for the stress of threatening situationThese response which prepare the body for the stress of threatening situation ,emergency .The purpose of the sympathetic system is to provide extra activation,emergency .The purpose of the sympathetic system is to provide extra activation of the body in a state of stress. This is called sympathetic stress responseof the body in a state of stress. This is called sympathetic stress response  The reactions includes ;  1-Respiratory system; Increase oxygenation of the blood and remove the co2,through; Increase oxygenation of the blood and remove the co2,through bronchi dilatation allow better ventilationbronchi dilatation allow better ventilation  Increase depth and rate of respirationIncrease depth and rate of respiration  2- Liver ; glycogenolysi;Increase blood glucose levelglycogenolysi;Increase blood glucose level  3- Lipolysis ; increase free fatty acids in the blood .; increase free fatty acids in the blood .  4- Cardiovascular system; Heart ; increase heart rate and force of contraction; Heart ; increase heart rate and force of contraction  Blood vessels ; vasoconstriction leads to rise the arterial blood pressure .Blood vessels ; vasoconstriction leads to rise the arterial blood pressure . BLOOD ; is shifted from inactive organs( SKIN ,SPLANCHNIC AREA) to active organs ( cardiacBLOOD ; is shifted from inactive organs( SKIN ,SPLANCHNIC AREA) to active organs ( cardiac and skeltal musclesand skeltal muscles((  4- spennic contraction : leads to increased blood volume thus more oxygen is: leads to increased blood volume thus more oxygen is supplyied to tissuessupplyied to tissues  5- sweating  6- Increased field of vision in the eye due to:  - pupillo dialatation,widding of the palpebral fissure- pupillo dialatation,widding of the palpebral fissure  -Exophthalamus-Exophthalamus  7-piloerection  8- Inhibition of gastro intestinal secretion and motility ..  9- Increased secretion of adrenalin from adrenal medulla increase all of these reactions.  10- sweating
  • 5. Functions of the sympatheticFunctions of the sympathetic nervous systemnervous system;; Head and neck;  Eye: Stimulation of dilator pupillae muscle( dilatation of the pupilStimulation of dilator pupillae muscle( dilatation of the pupil(( Contraction of superior and inferior tarsal muscles ,leading toContraction of superior and inferior tarsal muscles ,leading to retraction of the eye lids and widening of the palpebral fissureretraction of the eye lids and widening of the palpebral fissure Motor to retro-ocular muscle ( Muller muscle) ExophthalmosMotor to retro-ocular muscle ( Muller muscle) Exophthalmos..  Glands; Salivary glands ; increase their secretion( Concentrated, smallSalivary glands ; increase their secretion( Concentrated, small amount ,rich in organic materialamount ,rich in organic material((  Vasoconstriction ob blood vesselsVasoconstriction ob blood vessels  Motor to myoepeithelial cells around acini to produce evacuation.Motor to myoepeithelial cells around acini to produce evacuation.
  • 6. Horner's syndromeHorner's syndrome  It is a lesion of innervations of sympathetic supply of theIt is a lesion of innervations of sympathetic supply of the head ,neckhead ,neck  Causes:  Injury in the superior cervical gangliaInjury in the superior cervical ganglia  Injury of the upper two lumber segments.Injury of the upper two lumber segments.  Symptoms;  Potosí's : Dropping of the eye, backward retraction of the: Dropping of the eye, backward retraction of the eye in the orbit .eye in the orbit .  Meiosis: constriction of the eye pupil.: constriction of the eye pupil.  Anhydrosis;;  Loss of sweating due to paralysis of sympathetic nerveLoss of sweating due to paralysis of sympathetic nerve supply of sweat glandsupply of sweat gland  Enophthalamus; Paralysis of the Muller muscle of the orbit; Paralysis of the Muller muscle of the orbit  Vasodilatation of the skin vessels ;The skin become;The skin become worm & redworm & red ..
  • 7. Cardio-pulmonary functions;  Heart:Heart:  Increases all properties of the cardiac muscle as contractilityIncreases all properties of the cardiac muscle as contractility ,conductivity ,excitability ,Rhythmicity,conductivity ,excitability ,Rhythmicity  Vasodilatation of coronary blood vesselsVasodilatation of coronary blood vessels..  Lung:  Bronchodilator.Bronchodilator.  SlightSlight vasoconstriction of pulmonary blood vesselsvasoconstriction of pulmonary blood vessels To abdominal and pelvic viscera:  Stomach ,small intestine ,proximal part of large intestine inhibit tone andStomach ,small intestine ,proximal part of large intestine inhibit tone and movements but excites their corresponding sphinctermovements but excites their corresponding sphincter  Motor to the capsule of the spleen to empty the R.B.C into circulation.Motor to the capsule of the spleen to empty the R.B.C into circulation.  Vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels .Vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels .  Increase secretion of adrenaline from adrenal medulla .Increase secretion of adrenaline from adrenal medulla .  Increase metabolic rate.Increase metabolic rate. Pelvic:  Retention of urine: through the excitation of the internal urethralthrough the excitation of the internal urethral sphincter.sphincter.  Retention of faeces :through inhibition of the large intestine andRetention of faeces :through inhibition of the large intestine and excitation of the internal anal sphincter.excitation of the internal anal sphincter.  Vasoconstriction of blood vessels of erectile tissue of penis &Vasoconstriction of blood vessels of erectile tissue of penis & clitorisclitoris→ shrinkage.→ shrinkage.  In man : Motor to the plain muscle of vas difference ,seminal vesicle ,andMotor to the plain muscle of vas difference ,seminal vesicle ,and ejaculatory ducts.( ejaculation of semen).ejaculatory ducts.( ejaculation of semen).  In woman: uterine ant peristalsis during sexual intercourse.uterine ant peristalsis during sexual intercourse.
  • 8. Functions of parasympathetic nervousFunctions of parasympathetic nervous systemsystem;;  It is anabolic systemIt is anabolic system  It inhibits the cardiac activity and so it saves its energy to ovoidIt inhibits the cardiac activity and so it saves its energy to ovoid its loss as in case of sleep or during rest.its loss as in case of sleep or during rest.  It stimulate the secretary and motor functions of the digestiveIt stimulate the secretary and motor functions of the digestive system to supply tissues with food stuff used for growth andsystem to supply tissues with food stuff used for growth and synthesis of glandular secretion.synthesis of glandular secretion. Oculomotor( III Cranial nerve) Function  pupilloconstriction: Contraction of constrictor pupillaepupilloconstriction: Contraction of constrictor pupillae  Contraction of ciliary muscle leading to increase power of lensContraction of ciliary muscle leading to increase power of lens which is important for adaptation of near visionwhich is important for adaptation of near vision Facial (VII)  Salivary & lacrimal glands secretion and vasodilatationSalivary & lacrimal glands secretion and vasodilatation  Anterior 2/3 of the tongue vasodilatationAnterior 2/3 of the tongue vasodilatation Glosso-pharyngeal (IX)  Salivary glands true secretion and vasodilatation (Parotid G)Salivary glands true secretion and vasodilatation (Parotid G)  Posterior 1/3 of the tongue vasodilatationPosterior 1/3 of the tongue vasodilatation
  • 9. Vagus nerve (x(  It contain 70% of parasympathetic fibersIt contain 70% of parasympathetic fibers  Functions  Heart;  Inhibition of all properties of cardiac muscle ,Decreased coronary bloodInhibition of all properties of cardiac muscle ,Decreased coronary blood flow, and o2 consumption of the heart.flow, and o2 consumption of the heart.  Lungs;  Bronchoconstricition, increased bronchial secretion ,vasodilatation ofBronchoconstricition, increased bronchial secretion ,vasodilatation of pulmonarypulmonary blood vessels.  Gastrointestinal tract:  Motor to the esophagus ,stomach ,small intestine and proximal part ofMotor to the esophagus ,stomach ,small intestine and proximal part of large intestine, but inhibitory to sphincters.large intestine, but inhibitory to sphincters.  Secretory to the glands of the stomach & pancreasSecretory to the glands of the stomach & pancreas  Gall bladder: motor to the wall but inhibitory to the sphincter ofGall bladder: motor to the wall but inhibitory to the sphincter of oddioddi→evacuation of the gall bladder.→evacuation of the gall bladder.  Function of the vagus on the sacral outflow; Vagus nerve is the motor nerve of micturation ,defecationVagus nerve is the motor nerve of micturation ,defecation erectionerection through Rectum; Defecation due to contraction of the wall of the rectum and inhibitory toDefecation due to contraction of the wall of the rectum and inhibitory to internal anal sphincter.internal anal sphincter. Bladder ;Micturation through contraction of the wall of the bladder but inhibitory to the;Micturation through contraction of the wall of the bladder but inhibitory to the internal urethral sphinctersinternal urethral sphincters Male genetalia; secretory to seminal vesicle and prostate; secretory to seminal vesicle and prostate Vasodilatation of the blood vessels of the penis→ erectionVasodilatation of the blood vessels of the penis→ erection Female genitalia erectionof the clitoris.:erectionof the clitoris.: