White blood cells (leucocytesWhite blood cells (leucocytes((
Our bodies are exposed to bacteria ,viruses, fungi, many of t...
 1-1- GranulocytesGranulocytes
 Which have granules in their cytoplasm,and a lobedWhich have granules in their cytoplasm...
Function of WBCsFunction of WBCs
 The most important function is defense againstThe most important function is defense ag...
 Functions of eosinpohils:Functions of eosinpohils:
 They are weak phagpcytic.They are weak phagpcytic.
 They are relat...
 Reticuloendothelial systemReticuloendothelial system
(RES)(RES)
 RES Consists of certain macrophages which is present i...
 The spleenThe spleen
It is the largest lymphoid organ in the bodyIt is the largest lymphoid organ in the body
FunctionsF...
 Lymph nodesLymph nodes
Lymph nodes are oval bodies , they lie between lymph vesselsLymph nodes are oval bodies , they li...
Anaemia & wbc
Anaemia & wbc
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Anaemia & wbc

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Anaemia & wbc

  1. 1. White blood cells (leucocytesWhite blood cells (leucocytes(( Our bodies are exposed to bacteria ,viruses, fungi, many of these agents areOur bodies are exposed to bacteria ,viruses, fungi, many of these agents are capable of causing serious effects.Fourtunately ,our bodies have a specialcapable of causing serious effects.Fourtunately ,our bodies have a special system to protect our bodies from these agent .this is composed of whitesystem to protect our bodies from these agent .this is composed of white blood cells and tissue cells these cell work together inblood cells and tissue cells these cell work together in two different waytwo different way to prevent disease :to prevent disease : 1- By actually destroying invading agents by the process of phagocytosis.and1- By actually destroying invading agents by the process of phagocytosis.and by forming,by forming, antibodies and sensitized lymhocytes,oneantibodies and sensitized lymhocytes,one or both whichor both which destroy the invader.destroy the invader. White blood cellWhite blood cell Leucocyte are spherical living cells with nucleinand are capable of ameboidLeucocyte are spherical living cells with nucleinand are capable of ameboid movementmovement Their size is not uniform and is usually larger than the red cellsTheir size is not uniform and is usually larger than the red cells As no pigment is found in their cytoplasm ,they appear coulerless ,they have noAs no pigment is found in their cytoplasm ,they appear coulerless ,they have no haemoglobulin.haemoglobulin. In adult male there are normally 4.000-11.000 white blood cells/mm3In adult male there are normally 4.000-11.000 white blood cells/mm3 According to the present or absence of granules in their cytoplasm they areAccording to the present or absence of granules in their cytoplasm they are divide into:divide into:
  2. 2.  1-1- GranulocytesGranulocytes  Which have granules in their cytoplasm,and a lobedWhich have granules in their cytoplasm,and a lobed nucleus. They are formed in the bone marrow.nucleus. They are formed in the bone marrow. NeutrophilsNeutrophils: They are highly phagocytic and form: They are highly phagocytic and form 60-75% of leucocyte60-75% of leucocyte EosinophilsEosinophils: these are slightly phagocytic and form: these are slightly phagocytic and form 1-4% of leucocyte.1-4% of leucocyte. Basophils:Basophils: these are not phagocytic and form 0-1%these are not phagocytic and form 0-1% of leucocyte.of leucocyte.  II-Non granulocyteII-Non granulocyte.. They have no granules in theThey have no granules in the cytoplasm and havecytoplasm and have two formtwo form:: Lymhocytes;Lymhocytes; These constitute 20-40% and are notThese constitute 20-40% and are not phagocytic.phagocytic. MonocytesMonocytes:they are highly phagocytic and form2-8%:they are highly phagocytic and form2-8% of leucocytes.of leucocytes.
  3. 3. Function of WBCsFunction of WBCs  The most important function is defense againstThe most important function is defense against microorganism and their toxins.microorganism and their toxins.  Function of NeutrophilsFunction of Neutrophils (Microphages)(Microphages)  They are highly phagocytic.They are highly phagocytic.  They engulf microorganisms.They engulf microorganisms.  They have the propertes of diapedesis andThey have the propertes of diapedesis and chemotaxis.chemotaxis.  Diapedesis: Mean escape of a big leukocyte from aDiapedesis: Mean escape of a big leukocyte from a very narrow pore in the wall of the blood vessels. invery narrow pore in the wall of the blood vessels. in tissue space it moves by pseudopodia like ameba .tissue space it moves by pseudopodia like ameba .  Chemotaxis: Mean movement of leukocyte toward aChemotaxis: Mean movement of leukocyte toward a source of certain chemical substances .a chemicalsource of certain chemical substances .a chemical substance called luecotaxin attracts neutrophilssubstance called luecotaxin attracts neutrophils towards the site of inflammation .towards the site of inflammation .  Phagocytosis : phagocytes have enzymes (hydrogenPhagocytosis : phagocytes have enzymes (hydrogen peroxide) which digest the engulfed organism.peroxide) which digest the engulfed organism.
  4. 4.  Functions of eosinpohils:Functions of eosinpohils:  They are weak phagpcytic.They are weak phagpcytic.  They are related to allergy or hypersensitivityThey are related to allergy or hypersensitivity  They detoxify toxins and foreign proteins which increased in allergicThey detoxify toxins and foreign proteins which increased in allergic condition .condition .  They release plasminogen needed for laysis and removal of blood clots byThey release plasminogen needed for laysis and removal of blood clots by fibrinolysis.fibrinolysis.  Functions of basophiles:Functions of basophiles:  They are not phagocytic.They are not phagocytic.  They secrete heparin ( anticoagulants)They secrete heparin ( anticoagulants)  They are related to allergy.They are related to allergy.  Functions of lymhocytesFunctions of lymhocytes  Formation of antibodies. It can also changed into plasma cell which is theFormation of antibodies. It can also changed into plasma cell which is the main producer of antibodies.main producer of antibodies.  MonocytesMonocytes  They are highly phagocytic.They are highly phagocytic.  Tissue repair after inflammationTissue repair after inflammation  Lymphocyte can changed into highly phagocytic monocytes but they are notLymphocyte can changed into highly phagocytic monocytes but they are not phagocyttic itself.phagocyttic itself.
  5. 5.  Reticuloendothelial systemReticuloendothelial system (RES)(RES)  RES Consists of certain macrophages which is present in theRES Consists of certain macrophages which is present in the bone marrow, lymph nodes ,spleen ,liver.bone marrow, lymph nodes ,spleen ,liver.  Functions of R.E.S ; defenceFunctions of R.E.S ; defence  1-Formation of antibodies.1-Formation of antibodies.  2- Engulf forign particles,dust ,carbon.2- Engulf forign particles,dust ,carbon.  3-Destruction and digestion of micro-organism and protozoa.3-Destruction and digestion of micro-organism and protozoa.  2-Repair of tissue after inflammation2-Repair of tissue after inflammation  They remove dead tissue & provide protein and fat needed forThey remove dead tissue & provide protein and fat needed for repair and growth of damaged tissue .repair and growth of damaged tissue .  3- Blood formation3- Blood formation  R.E cells act as the origin of all blood cellsR.E cells act as the origin of all blood cells  4- Removal of old blood cells4- Removal of old blood cells from circulationfrom circulation and formation of bile pigements.and formation of bile pigements. 
  6. 6.  The spleenThe spleen It is the largest lymphoid organ in the bodyIt is the largest lymphoid organ in the body FunctionsFunctions;;  1-Defense1-Defense; By formation of lymhocyte & plasma cell which play a role in; By formation of lymhocyte & plasma cell which play a role in immunity ,therfore in absence of spleen bacterial infection become more common .immunity ,therfore in absence of spleen bacterial infection become more common .  2- Blood formation2- Blood formation -Erytheropoiesis-Erytheropoiesis : in the middle third of intra uterine life , if bone marrow: in the middle third of intra uterine life , if bone marrow destroyed ,spleen take this function.destroyed ,spleen take this function. Lymphopoiesis:Lymphopoiesis: LeucopoisisLeucopoisis Iron storage needed for erytheropoiesis.Iron storage needed for erytheropoiesis.  3- Removal of old blood cells and HB& bile pigment3- Removal of old blood cells and HB& bile pigment formation.formation.  4-Blood reservoir4-Blood reservoir The splenic blood sinuses can accommodate a large quantity of circulating blood thisThe splenic blood sinuses can accommodate a large quantity of circulating blood this may reach of ¼ blood volume in animalsmay reach of ¼ blood volume in animals The stored blood is squeezed out of the spleen to the general circulation ,this occurs byThe stored blood is squeezed out of the spleen to the general circulation ,this occurs by contraction of muscles of spenic capsule supplied by sympathatic nerves ,the maincontraction of muscles of spenic capsule supplied by sympathatic nerves ,the main stimulus is o2 lack which stimulate symphathatic nervous contraction of the plainstimulus is o2 lack which stimulate symphathatic nervous contraction of the plain muscles of splenic capscule.muscles of splenic capscule.
  7. 7.  Lymph nodesLymph nodes Lymph nodes are oval bodies , they lie between lymph vesselsLymph nodes are oval bodies , they lie between lymph vessels Functions of lymph nodes:Functions of lymph nodes:  1- filteration1- filteration The phagocytic cells in lymph nodes remove foreign particleThe phagocytic cells in lymph nodes remove foreign particle entering the nodes ,through the afferent lymph vessels (carbonentering the nodes ,through the afferent lymph vessels (carbon particles in coal miners).particles in coal miners).  2- Removal of bacteria2- Removal of bacteria:: Bacteria enter lympsh nodes through the afferent lymph vesselsBacteria enter lympsh nodes through the afferent lymph vessels increase Macrophages in the node phagocyte the bacteria.increase Macrophages in the node phagocyte the bacteria. These macrophages much in number during local infection andThese macrophages much in number during local infection and thus the node enlarges,nodes in the neck enlarge when thethus the node enlarges,nodes in the neck enlarge when the ears, nose or pharynx are infected.ears, nose or pharynx are infected.  3-Formation of lymphocytes3-Formation of lymphocytes  4-4- Production of antibodiesProduction of antibodies ::

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