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Discussing the Types of Natural fibers and some application like cotton , silk , wool and carbon fiber and the structure of cellulose and protein's fiber

Discussing the Types of Natural fibers and some application like cotton , silk , wool and carbon fiber and the structure of cellulose and protein's fiber

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  • 1. NATURAL TYPES OF FIBERS By : Mahmoud Galal Zidan Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 2. Types Of Natural Fibers  There’re for three types of natural fibers which comes from : 1. Animals 2. Plants & Vegetables 3. Inorganic Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 3. Animal Fibers  The fibers comes from animals called Protein's Fiber and sources are : 1. Camels  Mohair 2. Goats  cashmere and Catgut 3. Angora  mohair 4. Silkworm  Silk 5. Sheep  Wool and Catgut 6. Ram  Royal-Wool ( catgut ) 7. Animal Muscles  tendon (or sinew) 8. alpaca (Vicugna pacos (  alpaca Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 4. Chemicals of Animal Fibers  Animal fibers generally comprise proteins such as collagen, keratin and fibroin . Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 5. Collagen  Collagen : Collagen is composed of a triple helix, which generally consists of two identical chains (α1) and an additional chain that differs slightly in its chemical composition (α2). The amino acid composition of collagen is atypical for proteins, particularly with respect to its high hydroxyproline content. The most common motifs in the amino acid sequence of collagen are glycine-proline-X and glycine-X-hydroxyproline, where X is any amino acid other than glycine, proline or hydroxyproline. The average amino acid composition for fish and mammal skin is given. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 6. α-Chain Collagen structure Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 7. Keratin  Keratin The first sequences of keratins were determined by Hanukoglu and Fuchs. These sequences revealed that there are two distinct but homologous keratin families which were named as Type I keratin and Type II keratins. By analysis of the primary structures of these keratins and other intermediate filament proteins, Hanukoglu and Fuchs suggested a model that keratins and intermediate filaments proteins contain a central ~310 residue domain with four segments in α-helical conformation that are separated by three short linker segments predicted to be in beta-turn conformation. This model has been confirmed by the determination of the crystal structure of a helical domain of keratins. Fibrous keratin molecules supercoil to form a very stable, left-handed superhelical motif to multimerise, forming filaments consisting of multiple copies of the keratin monomer . The major force that keeps the coiled-coil structure is hydrophobic interactions between a polar residues along the keratins helical segments. Limited interior space is the reason why the triple helix of the (unrelated) structural protein collagen, found in skin, cartilage and bone, likewise has a high percentage of glycine. The connective tissue protein elastin also has a high percentage of both glycine and alanine. Silk fibroin, considered a β-keratin, can have these two as 75–80% of the total, with 10–15% serine, with the rest having bulky side groups. The chains are antiparallel, with an alternating C → N orientation. A preponderance of amino acids with small, nonreactive side groups is characteristic for structural proteins, for which H-bonded close packing is more important than chemical specificity . Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 8. Keratin structure Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 9. Fibroin  Fibroin is an insoluble protein created by spiders, the larvae of Bombyx mori, other moth genera such as Antheraea, Cricula, Samia and Gonometa, and numerous other insects. Silk in its raw state consists of two main proteins, sericin and fibroin, fibroin being the structural center of the silk, and sericin being the sticky material surrounding it. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 10. Some important applications and identifications ( Wool )  Wool : it contains of Keratin contains poly peptide Chain of eighteen different amino acids has general Formula It’s cross linkage poly peptide poly Peptide and the bridges divided from the amino acid cysteine by percentage 5-6% of the wool st.  The wool dyed in acidic medium  Has a commercial Formula Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 11. Some important applications and identifications ( Silk )  Silk contains of fibroin surrounded by sericin and fibroin contains about 400 amino acids has structure  Fibroin is different than keratin that contains no sulpher Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 12. Plant Fibers  Wood 1. Soft Wood 2. Hard Wood  Non Wood 1. Corn ,wheat and rice  Straw fibers 2. Flax , jute and hemp  Bast and skin 3. Sisal and pineapple leaf  Leaf 4. Seed fruit  Cotton and Coir 5. Elephant grass , switch grass , bamboo fiber  Grass Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 13. Short notes of Plant Fibers Fiber crops ( Cellulosic Fibers ) are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope. The fibers may be chemically modified, like in viscose (used to make rayon and cellophane). In recent years materials scientists have begun exploring further use of these fibers in composite materials. Fiber crops are generally harvestable after a single growing season, as distinct from trees, which are typically grown for many years before being harvested for wood pulp fiber. In specific circumstances, fiber crops can be superior to wood pulp fiber in terms of technical performance, environmental impact or cost. There are a number of issues regarding the use of fiber crops to make pulp. One of these is seasonal availability. While trees can be harvested continuously, many field crops are harvested once during the year and must be stored such that the crop doesn't rot over a period of many months. Considering that many pulp mills require several thousand tones of fiber source per day, storage of the fiber source can be a major issue. Botanically, the fibers harvested from many of these plants are bast fibers; the fibers come from the phloem tissue of the plant. The other fiber crop fibers are seed padding, leaf fiber, or other parts of the plant. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 14. Chemicals of Plant Fibers  Cellulose is a polymer of high molecular weight contains long chains of D-Glucose unit by 1,4 glucosidic bonds and the structure repeated about 100 to 3500 times  Each glucose unit contains three alcoholic hydroxyl groups one is secondary and the others is primary  The function group is OH and has appreciation [-Cell- OH]  Cellulose has residence the effect of alkaline medium but very effective by acid medium  The physical range process by making a mixture before dying the fiber in ( NH4OH + NaOH ) . Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 15. Some important applications and identifications ( Cotton) Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim for blue jeans; cambric, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester . It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch jeans. In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture (see nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. Fire hoses were once made of cotton. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 16. Some important applications and identifications ( Cotton) The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oil, which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminant livestock; the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals. Cottonseed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for roughage. During the American slavery period, cotton root bark was used in folk remedies as an abortifacient, that is, to induce a miscarriage. Gossypol was one of the many substances found in all parts of the cotton plant and it was described by the scientists as ‘poisonous pigment’. It also appears to inhibit the development of sperm or even restrict the mobility of the sperm. Also, it is thought to interfere with the menstrual cycle by restricting the release of certain hormones. Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. These curly fibers typically are less than 1⁄8inch (3.2 mm) long. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. In the UK, linters are referred to as "cotton wool". This can also be a refined product (absorbent cotton in U.S. usage) which has medical, cosmetic and many other practical uses. Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits. However, it is hydrophobic (does not absorb water easily), which makes it unfit for use in bath and dish towels (although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen). The name Egyptian cotton is broadly associated with quality products, however only a small percentage of Egyptian cotton production is actually of superior quality. Most products bearing the name are not made with the finest cottons from Egypt. Pima cotton is often compared to Egyptian cotton, as both are used in high quality bed sheets and other cotton products. It is even considered superior by some authorities . Pima cotton is grown in the American southwest. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 17. Cellulosic Structure Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 18. Inorganic Fibers Mineral fibers can be particularly strong because they are formed with a low number of surface defects, asbestos is a common one They are essentially composed by inorganic chemical compounds, based on natural elements like carbon and other minerals such as silicon and boron, which, in general, after receiving treatment at high temperatures, are turned into fibers. The outstanding features of these fibers are their resistance to high temperatures and high mechanical strength. Because of these important properties they are also featured in the so-called “high-performance fibers”. This group includes carbon, glass, boron, metal, aluminum silicate, silicon carbide and rock wool fibers. Carbon and glass fibers outweigh steel (considered to be the most resistant material) to some extent, on their mechanical properties, and with the advantage of not presenting steel’s corrosion problems. Among the most common applications of inorganic fibers are those that require high- performance materials, such as parts of airplanes and spaceships, race cars, equipment and clothing for extreme sports, building materials, concrete reinforcement, equipment and clothing for extreme conditions (fire, corrosive environments, bacterial attacks, rain, and extreme cold), protective clothing (bullet proof vests, cut-resistant gloves, etc). (( In General Nowadays it’s considered as a synthetic fibers ) Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 19. Some important applications and identifications ( Carbon Fibers ) Carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. To produce carbon fiber, the carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber as the crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (making it strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. The properties of carbon fibers, such as high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion, make them very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. However, they are relatively expensive when compared to similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers. Carbon fibers are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. When combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded it forms carbon fiber reinforced polymer (often referred to as carbon fiber) which has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is extremely rigid although somewhat brittle. However, carbon fibers are also composed with other materials, such as with graphite to form carbon-carbon composites, which have a very high heat tolerance. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 20. Structure and properties of ( Carbon fibers )  Each carbon filament thread is a bundle of many thousand carbon filaments. A single such filament is a thin tube with a diameter of 5–8micrometers and consists almost exclusively of carbon. The earliest generation had diameters of 16–22micrometers. Later fibers (e.g. IM6 or IM600) have diameters that are approximately 5 micrometers.  The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite, consisting of sheets of carbon atoms (graphene sheets) arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern, the difference being in the way these sheets interlock. Graphite is a crystalline material in which the sheets are stacked parallel to one another in regular fashion. The intermolecular forces between the sheets are relatively weak Van der Waals forces, giving graphite its soft and brittle characteristics.  Depending upon the precursor to make the fiber, carbon fiber may be turbostratic or graphitic, or have a hybrid structure with both graphitic and turbostratic parts present. In turbostratic carbon fiber the sheets of carbon atoms are haphazardly folded, or crumpled, together. Carbon fibers derived from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are turbostratic, whereas carbon fibers derived from mesophase pitch are graphitic after heat treatment at temperatures exceeding 2200 °C. Turbostratic carbon fibers tend to have high tensile strength, whereas heat-treated mesophase-pitch-derived carbon fibers have high Young's modulus (i.e., high stiffness or resistance to extension under load) and high thermal conductivity. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 21. Structure of C-Fibers Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 22. References  Prof.DrHala Fawzy^ chem.dep, Tanta U “ The Chemistry of dyestuffs “  Balter M. (2009). Clothes Make the (Hu) Man. Science,325(5946):1329.doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a PMID 19745126  Jump up^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E,Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. (2009).30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers. Science, 325(5946):1359.  Jump up^ Kauffman, George B. (1993). "fiber product". Journal of Chemical Education 70 (11): 887. Bibcode:1993JChEd..70..887K. doi:10.1021/ed070p887.  Jump up^ “natural fibre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2013.  Jump up^ Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R Schmid. "Manufacturing Engineering and Technology". International edition. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall, Inc. 2001. ISBN 0-13-017440-8.  Jump up^ James Edward Gordon; Philip Ball (2006). The new science of strong materials, or, Why you don't fall through the floor. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12548-0. Retrieved 28 October 2011. Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team
  • 23. For Contact M7moud.zidan@yahoo.com M7moud.zidan@aol.com M7moud.zidan@gmail.com Zidan4@live.com www.fb.com/M7moud.zidan www.ask.fm/M7moudzidan www.twitter.com/M7moudzidane www.twitter.com/M7moudzidan www.linkedin.com/M7moudzidan www.slideshare.net/mahmoudgalalzidan www.facebook.com/Quatro.team.photography Tel. : +201273937378 Mob. : +201272122218 Copyright 2014 © All right reversed to Mahmoud Zidan & Quatro Photography Science Team