Plasma Arc

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Plasma Arc and Waste Dispoal Conversion

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Plasma Arc

  1. 1. PLASMA ARC AND WASTE DISPOSAL CONVERSION Li HE1, Mahmoud SAYED AHMED2 1Ph.D Assistant Prof, 2M.Eng Student 1
  2. 2. CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. PGP Process Diagram 3. Plasma Gasification PGP, Plasma Arc 4. Reactors 5. Waste-to-Energy and Heat Value 6. Vetrification 7. Management and Applications 8. Conclusion and SWOT Analysis 9. Reference 2
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION 3
  4. 4. 1. INTRODUCTION The increasing concern for environmental issues, regulations by Clean Air Act, the limitation for the landfill usage & Zero Disposal, need of energy, and the consumer price index (CPI) regarding the cost of disposal and energy is the main purpose for this study. 4
  5. 5. 2.1 PROCESS DIAGRAM 5 www.plasma-wr.com/Process_diagram.html
  6. 6. 2.2 Flow Chart The system is mainly consists from four phases:- • Waste preparation and feeding system • Plasma thermal treatment system • Synthesis gas cleaning system • Energy recovery system Pierre Carabin et al 6
  7. 7. 3.1. PLASMA ARC Qin Wang, et al HTT Canada Torch uses various types of gases - Air, Argon (Ar), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), etc. and electrodes from different metals such as Copper (Cu), Hafnium (Hf), Tungsten (W), etc. 7
  8. 8. 3.2. PLASMA GASIFICATION • Gasification is to produces fuel gas to produce steam and electricity. • Partial Oxidation Process C + H2O => CO + H2 C +½ O2 => CO • Typical Range of Operation: 10,000º - 40,000º F (5,600º - 22,400º C) near the arc operating pressure 8
  9. 9. 4. REACTORS • Plasma Cold Hearth Furnace (PCH) • Plasma Rotating Hearth Furnace PRH (Electron Beam – EB) • Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) R. Burkhard et al INEICHEN, Robert 9
  10. 10. 4.2 The PACT System The wastes are fed into a tub rotating at 10– 40 rpm and melted by a plasma arc, forming a molten pool of metals and oxides. The slag cools to form a glass-like, leach- resistant slag, while organics are evaporated, treated, cleaned up, and released . R.K. Womack 10
  11. 11. 4.3 Equation of State (EOS) Any amount of substance contained in a system, the temperature1, volume2, pressure3, and (internal energy) 4 are not independent quantities; they are connected in a relationship. 11
  12. 12. 5. W-t-E AND HEAT VALUE Heat Value is generated from burring of organic David H.F. Liu et al materials 12
  13. 13. Where HHV = higher heating value in Btu/Lb 5.2 Estimating Combustion Velzy and Hechlinger 1987 13 David H.F. Liu et al
  14. 14. 6.1. VETRIFICATION Generates a durable, homogenous, vitrified waste with safe confinement of the hazardous feeds and high organic removal efficiency. J.P. Chu et al 14
  15. 15. 6. J.P. Chu et al 15
  16. 16. 6.2 Phase Separation Producing • Glass • Construction Materials Qin Wang, et al 16
  17. 17. 7. MANAGEMENT & APPLICATIONS Marie Lynn Miranda et al A study done to calculate the estimated prices for landfill versus WTE for several countries based on a production for 578 kWh from 1 ton of waste in landfill or in WTE. 17
  18. 18. 7.1 Electricity Generation & Environment Almost one ton of MSW gives 550 kilowatt of energy which is approximately, the same amount produced by 1 barrel of oil (138.8 kg / barrel of oil). Electricity consumption per capita was recorded to be 16,753 KWh per Capita in Canada, 1,275 KWh per Capita in Egypt, and 2,179 KWh per Capita in China. 18
  19. 19. 7.2 Prevalence of WTE Source: P. Stehlik / Journal of Cleaner Production 17 (2009) 919–931 MSW management in EU is divided into distribution between Landfill, Recycling, and Incineration 19
  20. 20. 8. CONCLUSION & SWOT Strength : controlled temperature Weakness : high operational cost Opportunity : treat all types of wastes Threat : competing technology 20
  21. 21. REFERENCES • Startech Environmental Corp, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhNqL-1VrcE • R.K. Womack, ” Using the Centrifugal Method for the Plasma-Arc Vitrification of Waste “,JOM, 51 (10) (1999), pp. 14–16., • Burkhard, W. Hoffelner and R.C. Eschenbach, “Recycling of metals from waste with thermal Plasma”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 10 ( 1994 ) 11-16. Elsevier Science B.V • US Department of Energy, “Waste Vitrification Systems”, March 1999 • Marie Lynn Miranda, Brack Hale, “Waste not, want not”, ELSEVIER, Energy Policy, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 587-600, 1997 • Pierre Carabin, Gillian Holcraft, “Plasma Resource Recovery Technology”, NAWTEC13-3155, ASME, May 23-25, 2005, Orlando, Florida USA. • Petr Stehlik, “Contribution to advances in waste-to-energy technologies”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Journal of Cleaner Production 17 (2009) 919–931 • David H.F. Liu, “Environmental Engineer’s Handbook”, CRC Press LLC, 1999 • Qin Wang, Jian-Hua Yan, Yong Chi, Xiao-Dong Li, Sheng-Yong Lu, “Application of thermal plasma to vitrify fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators”, Elsevier, 2009 21
  22. 22. Cont. • J. P. Chua, I. J. Hwanga, C. C. Tzengb, Y. Y. Kuob and Y. J. Yub, “Characterization of vitrified slag from mixed medical waste surrogates treated by a thermal plasma system”, Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 58, Issues 1-3, February 1998, Pages 179-194. • Jonathan S. Bilmes, Susan F. Hemenway, “Applying Lessons Learned from WtE Feasibility Study”,NAWTEC14-3183 • Jeremy K. O’Brien, “Comparison of Air Emission from W-t-E Facilities to Fossil Fuel Power Plants”, NAWTEC14-3187 • PWR, Website http://www.plasma-wr.com/PWR_web_fullscreen.html • P. Kavouras, Ph. Komninou*, K. Chrissafis, G. Kaimakamis, S. Kokkou, K. Paraskevopoulos, Th. Karakostas, “Microstructural changes of processed vitrified solid waste products”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 23 (2003) 1305–1311 • Enori Gemellia*, Nelson Heriberto Almeida Camargob, Janaína Brescansinc, “Evaluation of Paper Industry Wastes in Construction Material Applications”, ISSN 1516-1439, Mat. Res. vol.4 no.4 São Carlos Oct. 2001 22
  23. 23. WE COVERED Plasma Arc and Waste Disposal Conversion 1. Introduction 2. PGP Process 3. PGP & Plasma Arc 4. Reactors 5. W-t-E and HHR 6. Vetrification 7. Management 8. Conclusion and SWOT 9. Reference 23
  24. 24. THANK YOU Plasma arc gasification facility is a recourse recovery process Trash + Plasma = Electricity + Obsidian QUESTIONS? Mahmoud S. AHMED M76Ahmed@ryerson.ca www.linkedin.com/in/mahmouchaaban 24

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