1. UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES SGDT 5013 IT in Education Group Presentation Computer Based Instruction Simulation & GamesPrepared For: Prepared By:MR. HASNAN HASSAN •ABDULLAH AL-MAHMOOD(805016) • MD. SHAMSUL ISLAM (805028)
2. Computer Based Instruction When computer delivers some instructional material (Taylor, 1980) then this situation is termed Computer Based Instruction. Computer Based Instruction has traditionally been composed of four main components i.e.I. Drill and Practice;II. Tutorials;III. Games & Simulation; andIV. Modeling.
3. Advantages of CBI: Learner Control: Computer-based instruction allows students learning high speed and yield high rate of reinforcement. Special needs: Computer based instruction is effective with diverse ethnic backgrounds and disable students can proceed at an appropriate pace.
4. Cont…. Record keeping: The record keeping ability of the computer makes individualized instruction feasible .So teacher can prepare individual lessons for all students and can monitor the progress. Information management: Computer can manage all types of information, like graphic, text, audio, and video. Instructors can manage information easily.
5. Cont…. Diverse experience: Computer provides variety of instructional methods and gives basic instruction, remediation, or enrichment. Communication precision: The significant effect of working with computer is that it force us to communicate with them in an orderly and logical way. The user must learn to communicate with exact instructions and responses.
6. Limitations of CBI : Copy right: The software can be duplicated without permission has inhibited some commercial publishers and private entrepreneurs from producing and marketing high quality instructional software. High expectation: Users may have unrealistic expectation from computer based instruction. Many view computer as magical and exact learning to happen with little or no effort, but user s derives benefits proportional to their investment.
7. Cont…. Little range of objectives: Most computer based instruction does not teach “effective motor and interpersonal skills” domain. Even in the cognitive domain. Current program can teach at the lower levels of knowledge and comprehension. Controlled environment: The computer is lavish in its adherence to its program. Creative or original learner responses will be ignored or even rebuked if the programs designer has not anticipated such possibilities.
8. Cont…. Lack of social interaction: Learners tend to work on their own at a computer, and there may be little or no face to face interaction with teachers and other learners. Novelty effect: The novelty associated with CAI in its earlier days has decreased. As the users familiar with computers in the home or workplace, the newness of the computer experience has warn off and may now have less motivational value.
9. What is Simulation? A simulation is an abstraction or simplification of some real-life situation or process. In simulations, participants usually play a role that involves them in interaction with other people or with elements of the simulated environment.
10. Advantages of Simulation: Realistic: The prime advantage of simulations is that they allow practice of real-world skills under conditions similar to those in real life. Safe: Learners can practice risky activities – for example, cardiopulmonary resuscitation – without risking injury to themselves or to others. Simplified: Simulations are intended to capture the essential features of a situation without dwelling on details that might be distracting or too complex for the learner’s current level of understanding.
11. Limitations of Simulation: Time consuming: Simulations are often used with problem-based learning methods, allowing learners to immerse themselves in a problematic situation and to experiment with different approaches. Such trial-and-error learning typically requires more time than more expositive methods. Oversimplification: Constructivists argue that learning should take place in fully realistic situations, with all the complexity of real life. They would be concerned that a simulation might give students a false understanding of the real- life situation.
12. What is Games? A game is an activity in which participants follow prescribed rules that differ from those of real life as they strive to attain a challenging goal. The distinction between play and reality is what makes games entertaining .Most people seem to enjoy setting aside the logical rules of everyday life. Occasionally and entering an artificial environment with different dynamics.
13. Advantages of Game: Attractive: Games provide attractive frameworks for learning activities. They are attractive because they are fun! Children and adult alike tend to react positively to an invitation to play. Novel: As a departure from normal classroom routine, games arouse interest because of their novelty.
14. Cont…. Atmosphere: The pleasant, related atmosphere fostered by games can be especially helpful for those (such as low achievers) who avoid other types of structured learning activities. Time on task: Games can keep learners interested in repetitious tasks, such as memorizing multiplication tables. What would otherwise be tedious drill becomes fun.
15. Limitations of Games: Competition: Competitive activities can be counterproductive for students who are weak in the content or skill being practiced. Distraction: Without careful management and debriefing, student can get caught up in the excitement of play and fail to focus on the real objectives.
16. Cont…. Poor design: To be instructionally meaningful the game activity must provide actual practice of the intended academic skill. A fatal shortcoming of poorly designed games is that players spend a large portion of their time waiting for their turn, throwing dice, moving markers around a board, and performing similar trivial actions.
17. Utilization of CBI methodsMethods Description Role of Role of Role of Applications teacher computer student / ExamplesGaming Competitive Sets limits, Acts as Learns facts, Fractions drill and directs competitor, strategies, games, practice in a process, Judge, and skills, counting motivational monitors scorekeeper. evaluates games, format, results. choices spelling individual or computer with games, typing small group. computer. games.Simulation Approximates Introduces Plays roles Practices Troubleshooti real-life, subject delivers decision ng, history, situations, presents results of making, medical based on background discussions, makes diagnosis, realistic guides maintains the choices, simulators, models, “debriefing” model and its receives result business individual or database. of decisions, management, small group. evaluate laboratory decisions. experiments.