What is Stress?
The pattern of emotional states,
cognitions, and physiological reactions
occurring in response to stressors.
Various factors in the external
environment that induce stress
among people exposed to them.
Deviations from normal states or
functioning resulting from stress.
Major Causes of Stress
Occupational Demands: Some jobs are more stressful than others.
Conflict between work and nonwork: Stress from competing
Role ambiguity: Stress from uncertainty
Overload and underload: Doing to much or too little
Responsibility for others : A heavy burden
Lack of social support: The cost of isolation.
Sexual harassment: A pervasive problem in work settings.
Unpleasant physical working conditions.
Stress and Task Performance
Stress and Psychological Well-being: Burnout
Burnout: Some major causes
Stress and Health: The Silent Killer
A syndrome resulting from prolonged
exposure to stress, consisting of
physical, emotional, and mental
exhaustion plus feelings of a lack of
Intense and prolonged
(fatigue, lack of energy)
(depression, feelings of
other negative effects
(negative views of others,
of one’s own work)
Feelings of low
Stressful life events
The Hassles of daily life
Personal Approaches to Stress Management
Lifestyle management: The effect of diet and exercise
Physiological techniques: Relaxation and meditation
Cognitive Techniques: Thinking yourself out of stress
Family-supportive practice: Helping to reduce the stress of
Stress management programs
Questions for Discussion
1. What concrete steps can organizations take with respect to
new hires to assure that they don not experience entry shock
upon joining the company?