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Mahmood Qasim slides on Personality for Organizational Behavior students

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  • 1. PERSONALITY
  • 2. What is Personality? The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment.
  • 3. Role of Heredity & the Brain Nature and nurture both contribute to one’s personality. The genes affect the brain functions that in turn affect how people interacts with their environment and thus their personality.
  • 4. Self-Esteem The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation. Self is a product of many interacting parts may be thought as the personality viewed from within. Thus self-esteem can be said to be an attempt to understand ones self.
  • 5. Person-situation Interaction People are not static, acting the same in all situations, but instead are ever changing and flexible.
  • 6. The Socialization Process Personality development consists of continuous process and the sequence is based largely on the learning opportunities available and the socialization process. There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons, groups, and especially, organizations that greatly influence on individual's personality.
  • 7. Characteristics of Organizational Socialization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Change of attitude. Continuity of socialization over time. Adjustment to new jobs, work groups, and organizational practices Mutual influence between new recruits and their managers Criticality of the early socialization period.
  • 8. Steps to successful organizational socialization 1. 2. 3. 4. Provide a challenging first job. Provide relevant training. Provide timely and consistent feedback. Select a good first supervisor to be in charge of socialization. 5. Design a relaxed orientation program. 6. Place new recruits in work group with high morale.
  • 9. Big Five Personality Traits Conscientiousness Dependable, Responsible, Hardworking, vs. Unreliable, Irresponsible, Careless, Emotional Stability Stable, Confident, Calm vs. Unstable, Depressed, Anxious Agreeableness Tolerant, Cooperative, Courteous vs. Fanatical, Stubborn, Rude Extraversion Sociable, Talkative, Outgoing vs. Shy, Reserved, Withdrawn, Open to Experience Curious, Original, Creative vs. Dull, Uninspired, Unimaginative
  • 10. Carl Jung’s Theory People were typed as Extravert Introvert Sensing Perception Intuiting Mental Process Thinking Judgment Feeling
  • 11. Myers – Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) How do you evaluate and make decisions? Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Outgoing Quiet Analytical Subjective Interacting Concentrating Head Heart Speaks then thinks Thinks, then speaks Rules Circumstance Gregarious Reflective Justice Mercy Where do you get your energy? What do you pay attention on, to collect information? Sensing (S) Intuiting (N) How do you orient yourself to the outside world? Judging (J) Perceiving (P) Practical General Structured Flexible Details Possibilities Time oriented Open ended Concrete Theoretical Decisive Exploring Specific Abstract Organized Spontaneous
  • 12. The Nature and Dimensions of Attitude A fairly stable emotional tendency to respond consistently to Attitudes some specific object, situation, person, or category of people.
  • 13. Personality is thought of Personality as the whole person. Attitudes can be thought of as making up the Attitudes personality.
  • 14. Components of Attitudes Emotional If your friend is honest, Belief Informational Honesty is good, Behavioral Then your friend is good Values Attitude Behavior
  • 15. Belief Attitude Behavior Values SAIMS’ faculty is very cooperative, Cooperative faculty is an advantage, I love to be a student of SAIMS, I am always proud to a SAIMIAN. Belief Values Attitude Behavior
  • 16. Functions of Attitudes The Adjustment The Ego-Defensive The Value-Expressive The Knowledge Attitudes help people adjust to their work environment. Their attitude reflects the environment they are faced with. Employees defend their self-images. They develop positive perception about themselves whereas others may take them as wrong. Attitudes provide people with basis for expressing their values. Senior managers may force certain work ethics which they value. Attitudes provide people with knowledge that help them explain the world around them.
  • 17. Changing Attitudes We frequently try to change other people’s attitudes. We attempt to get others to develop favorable attitudes towards us. The organizations are also involved in the modification and management of attitudes. Some examples of cases in which management might desire attitude change are as follows: •Attitudes towards workforce diversity; •Attitudes towards ethical business practices; •Attitudes towards anticipated changes, such as the introduction of new technology or total quality management; •Attitudes towards safety practices and the use of safety equipment.
  • 18. Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognition are simply thoughts or knowledge that people have about their own beliefs, values, attitudes, and behavior. Cognitive dissonance refers to a feeling of tension experienced when certain cognitions are contradictory or inconsistent with each other. Changing Behavior to Change Attitudes CHANGED BELIEFS AND / OR VALUES CHANGED ATTITUDES CHANGED BEHAVIOR
  • 19. Providing New Information Use of Fear Resolving Discrepancies Influence of Friends or Peers The Co-opting Approach The positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) plays a vital role in work-related attitudes such as job satisfaction and motivation. Besides PA / NA, job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been important study in the field of organizational behavior.
  • 20. Job Satisfaction A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. What determines Job Satisfaction? •Discrepancy •Fairness Distributive Fairness Equity Theory Procedural Fairness •Disposition Mentally Challenging Work High Pay Promotion People
  • 21. Key Contributors to Job Satisfaction Fairness Values Job Outcomes wanted Job Satisfaction Discrepancy Beliefs Perceived job Outcomes Received Disposition
  • 22. Other Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction •Make job more fun. •Have fair pay, benefits, and promotion opportunities. • match people with jobs that fit their interests and skills. •Design jobs to make them exciting and satisfying The Consequence of Job Dissatisfaction •Mental Health and Off-the-Job Satisfaction •Absence from work •Turnover •Performance •Organizational Citizenship Behavior
  • 23. Organizational Commitment Job satisfaction and commitment are treated as different attitudes. As an attitude, organizational commitment is most often defined as : i. ii. iii. a strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization; a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization; a definite belief in , and acceptance of , the values and goals of the organization. This is an attitude reflecting employees’ loyalty to their organization and is an ongoing process through which organizational participants express their concern for the organization and its continued success and well-being.
  • 24. Three-component Model proposed by Meyers and Allen 1. 2. 3. Affective commitment involves the employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Continuance commitment involves commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization. This may be because of the loss of sonority for promotion or benefits. Normative commitment involves employees’ feelings of obligation to stay with the organization because they should; it is the right thing to do.
  • 25. The Outcomes of Organizational Commitment 1. 2. There is a positive relationship between organizational commitment and desirable outcomes such as high performance, low turnover, and low absenteeism. It also relates to other desirable outcomes, such as the perception of a warm, supportive organizational climate and being a good team member willing to help. Some studies shows absence of a strong relationship between performance and other shows moderate relationship.
  • 26. Guidelines to Enhance Organizational Commitment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Commit to people-first values Clarify and communicate your mission Guarantee organizational justice Create a sense of community Support employee development
  • 27. Discussion Question 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Critically analyze the statement that “the various psychological processes can be thought of as pieces of a jigsaw and personality as the completed puzzle picture.” What are the “Big Five” personality traits? Which one seems to have the biggest impact on performance? How would knowledge of the Big Five help you in your job as a manager? What are the four major dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) that yield the 16 types? How can the MBTI be used effectively? In your own words, what is an attitude? What are three characteristics and three components of attitudes? What are some of the conditions under which a person’s attitudes might not predict his or her work behavior? What types of barriers prevent people from changing their attitudes? How can attitude be changed?
  • 28. Discussion Question 7. What is meant by the term job satisfaction ? What are some of the major factors that influence job satisfaction? 8. What are some of the important outcomes of job satisfaction? 9. Many organizations use diversity training to promote favorable attitudes among employees who differ in gender, age, race or ethnicity. Given our discussion of attitude change, what factors would improve the success if such efforts at persuasion? Could behavior change foster attitude change? 10. Discuss the pros and cons of the argument, “Organizations should do everything they can to enhance the job satisfaction of their employees. 11. Explain why workers who are very satisfied with their jobs might not be better performers than those who are less satisfied. 12. What is organizational commitment? What three components have emerged to help better explain the complexities of commitment? Why may an understanding of organizational commitment be especially important in the years ahead?