What is Personality?
The relatively stable set of
that influences the way an
individual interacts with his
or her environment.
Role of Heredity & the Brain
Nature and nurture both
contribute to one’s personality.
The genes affect the brain
functions that in turn affect how
people interacts with their
environment and thus their
The degree to which a person has a
Self is a product of many interacting
parts may be thought as the
personality viewed from within.
Thus self-esteem can be said to be
an attempt to understand ones self.
People are not static, acting the
same in all situations, but instead
are ever changing and flexible.
The Socialization Process
Personality development consists of
continuous process and the sequence is based
largely on the learning opportunities available
and the socialization process. There is
increasing recognition given to the role of
other relevant persons, groups, and especially,
organizations that greatly influence on
Change of attitude.
Continuity of socialization over time.
Adjustment to new jobs, work groups,
and organizational practices
Mutual influence between new recruits
and their managers
Criticality of the early socialization
Steps to successful
Provide a challenging first job.
Provide relevant training.
Provide timely and consistent feedback.
Select a good first supervisor to be in charge of
5. Design a relaxed orientation program.
6. Place new recruits in work group with high morale.
Big Five Personality Traits
Dependable, Responsible, Hardworking,
Unreliable, Irresponsible, Careless,
Stable, Confident, Calm
Unstable, Depressed, Anxious
Tolerant, Cooperative, Courteous
Fanatical, Stubborn, Rude
Sociable, Talkative, Outgoing
Shy, Reserved, Withdrawn,
Open to Experience
Curious, Original, Creative
Dull, Uninspired, Unimaginative
Carl Jung’s Theory
Myers – Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Extraversion (E) Introversion (I)
How do you evaluate and make
Where do you get your energy?
What do you pay attention on,
to collect information?
How do you orient yourself to
the outside world?
The Nature and Dimensions of Attitude
A fairly stable emotional
respond consistently to
object, situation, person,
or category of people.
Personality is thought of
Personality as the whole person.
Attitudes can be thought
of as making up the
Components of Attitudes
If your friend is honest,
Honesty is good,
Then your friend is good
SAIMS’ faculty is very cooperative,
Cooperative faculty is an advantage,
I love to be a student of SAIMS,
I am always proud to a SAIMIAN.
Functions of Attitudes
Attitudes help people adjust to their work
environment. Their attitude reflects the
environment they are faced with.
Employees defend their self-images. They
develop positive perception about
themselves whereas others may take them as
Attitudes provide people with basis for
expressing their values. Senior managers
may force certain work ethics which they
Attitudes provide people with knowledge
that help them explain the world around
We frequently try to change other people’s attitudes. We
attempt to get others to develop favorable attitudes towards
us. The organizations are also involved in the modification and
management of attitudes. Some examples of cases in which
management might desire attitude change are as follows:
•Attitudes towards workforce diversity;
•Attitudes towards ethical business practices;
•Attitudes towards anticipated changes, such as the introduction of
new technology or total quality management;
•Attitudes towards safety practices and the use of safety equipment.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognition are simply thoughts or knowledge that people have
about their own beliefs, values, attitudes, and behavior.
Cognitive dissonance refers to a feeling of tension experienced
when certain cognitions are contradictory or inconsistent with
Changing Behavior to Change Attitudes
CHANGED BELIEFS AND / OR VALUES
Providing New Information
Use of Fear
Influence of Friends or Peers
The Co-opting Approach
The positive affectivity (PA) and
negative affectivity (NA) plays a
vital role in work-related attitudes
such as job satisfaction and
Besides PA / NA, job satisfaction
and organizational commitment
has been important study in the
field of organizational behavior.
A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs.
What determines Job Satisfaction?
Mentally Challenging Work
Key Contributors to Job Satisfaction
Other Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction
•Make job more fun.
•Have fair pay, benefits, and promotion opportunities.
• match people with jobs that fit their interests and skills.
•Design jobs to make them exciting and satisfying
The Consequence of Job Dissatisfaction
•Mental Health and Off-the-Job Satisfaction
•Absence from work
•Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Job satisfaction and commitment are treated as different
attitudes. As an attitude, organizational commitment is most
often defined as :
a strong desire to remain a member of a particular
a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the
a definite belief in , and acceptance of , the values and
goals of the organization.
This is an attitude reflecting employees’ loyalty to their organization
and is an ongoing process through which organizational participants
express their concern for the organization and its continued success
Three-component Model proposed by Meyers and Allen
Affective commitment involves the employee’s emotional
attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the
Continuance commitment involves commitment based on the
costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization.
This may be because of the loss of sonority for promotion or
Normative commitment involves employees’ feelings of
obligation to stay with the organization because they should; it is
the right thing to do.
The Outcomes of Organizational Commitment
There is a positive relationship between organizational
commitment and desirable outcomes such as high performance,
low turnover, and low absenteeism.
It also relates to other desirable outcomes, such as the
perception of a warm, supportive organizational climate and
being a good team member willing to help.
Some studies shows absence of a strong relationship between
performance and other shows moderate relationship.
Guidelines to Enhance Organizational Commitment
Commit to people-first values
Clarify and communicate your mission
Guarantee organizational justice
Create a sense of community
Support employee development
Critically analyze the statement that “the various psychological
processes can be thought of as pieces of a jigsaw and personality
as the completed puzzle picture.”
What are the “Big Five” personality traits? Which one seems to
have the biggest impact on performance? How would knowledge
of the Big Five help you in your job as a manager?
What are the four major dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) that yield the 16 types? How can the MBTI be
In your own words, what is an attitude? What are three
characteristics and three components of attitudes?
What are some of the conditions under which a person’s
attitudes might not predict his or her work behavior?
What types of barriers prevent people from changing their
attitudes? How can attitude be changed?
What is meant by the term job satisfaction ? What are some of
the major factors that influence job satisfaction?
8. What are some of the important outcomes of job satisfaction?
9. Many organizations use diversity training to promote favorable
attitudes among employees who differ in gender, age, race or
ethnicity. Given our discussion of attitude change, what factors
would improve the success if such efforts at persuasion? Could
behavior change foster attitude change?
10. Discuss the pros and cons of the argument, “Organizations should
do everything they can to enhance the job satisfaction of their
11. Explain why workers who are very satisfied with their jobs might
not be better performers than those who are less satisfied.
12. What is organizational commitment? What three components
have emerged to help better explain the complexities of
commitment? Why may an understanding of organizational
commitment be especially important in the years ahead?