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Mahmood Qasim
What is Motivation?

The extent to which persistent effort is
directed towards a goal.

Mahmood Qasim
What is Motivation?

Mahmood Qasim
What is Motivation?

Primary motives are unlearned and
physiological. These motives are also
known as Physiological Motive...
What is Motivation?

These are also unlearned but are not
physiological based.
Eg: Curiosity, Manipulation, Affection,

Ma...
What is Motivation?

A motive must be learned in order ro
be included in the Secondary
classification.
Eg: Power, Achievem...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation

Mahmood Qasim
The Content Theories of Work Motivation

Mahmood Qasim
The Content Theories of Work Motivation

1. When did you feel particularly good about
your job – what turned you on?
2. Wh...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation

Hygiene Factors
(Dissatisfies)

Motivators
(Satisfiers)

Company policy and
admin...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation

E – Existence
R – Relatedness
G – Growth

Mahmood Qasim
The Content Theories of Work Motivation
HERZBERG’S
TWO FACTORS

MASLOW’S
HIERARCHY OF
NEEDS

MOTIVATORS

ALDERFER’S
ERG NE...
The Process Theories of Work Motivation
Vroom’s Model is built around the concept of valence,
instrumentality, and expecta...
The Process Theories of Work Motivation
Instrumentalities

Expectancy
Second-Level
Outcomes
First-Level Outcomes

Outcome ...
The Process Theories of Work Motivation
Perceived equitable
rewards
Value of Reward

Abilities and
traits

Intrinsic
rewar...
LOCKE AND LATHAM’S

The process of determining specific levels
of performance for workers to attain.

Mahmood Qasim
LOCKE AND LATHAM’S

Values and
value
judgment

Emotions
and
desires

Intentions
or GOALS

Mahmood Qasim

Responses,
action...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation

People strives to maintain rations of their
own outcomes (rewards) t their own
in...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation
The Rewards employees receive from
their jobs, such as salary and
recognition.

Pe...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation
The condition, resulting in feelings of guilt,
in which the ratio of one’s outcome...
The Content Theories of Work Motivation
Person A

Social Comparison

Person B

Underpayment
Overpayment

Outcomes
Inputs

...
POSIBLE REACTIONS TO INEQUITY
Types of Reaction
People can respond
to overpayment
and underpayment
inequities in
behaviora...
Questions for Discussion
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

Based on Malsow’s need hierarchy theory, what specific things can be done
to en...
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Mahmood Qasim Slides on Motivation for Organizational Behaviour Students

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Transcript of "Mahmood Qasim Slides on Motivation for Organizational Behaviour Students"

  1. 1. Mahmood Qasim
  2. 2. What is Motivation? The extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal. Mahmood Qasim
  3. 3. What is Motivation? Mahmood Qasim
  4. 4. What is Motivation? Primary motives are unlearned and physiological. These motives are also known as Physiological Motives or Biological Motives Eg: Food, Shelter, Sex Mahmood Qasim
  5. 5. What is Motivation? These are also unlearned but are not physiological based. Eg: Curiosity, Manipulation, Affection, Mahmood Qasim
  6. 6. What is Motivation? A motive must be learned in order ro be included in the Secondary classification. Eg: Power, Achievement, Affiliation, Security, Status Mahmood Qasim
  7. 7. The Content Theories of Work Motivation Mahmood Qasim
  8. 8. The Content Theories of Work Motivation Mahmood Qasim
  9. 9. The Content Theories of Work Motivation 1. When did you feel particularly good about your job – what turned you on? 2. When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job – what turned you off? Mahmood Qasim
  10. 10. The Content Theories of Work Motivation Hygiene Factors (Dissatisfies) Motivators (Satisfiers) Company policy and administration Supervision, technical Salary Interpersonal, supervisor Working conditions Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Mahmood Qasim
  11. 11. The Content Theories of Work Motivation E – Existence R – Relatedness G – Growth Mahmood Qasim
  12. 12. The Content Theories of Work Motivation HERZBERG’S TWO FACTORS MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS MOTIVATORS ALDERFER’S ERG NEEDS GROWTH RELATEDNESS HYGIENE FACTORS EXISTANCE Mahmood Qasim
  13. 13. The Process Theories of Work Motivation Vroom’s Model is built around the concept of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy and is commonly called the VIE theory. Valence (V) – The value a person places on the rewards he or she receives from an organization. Eg: value, incentive, attitude, expected utility. Instrumentality (I) – An individual’s beliefs regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in accord with his or her own level of performance. Expectancy (E) – The belief that one’s efforts will positively influence one’s performance. Mahmood Qasim
  14. 14. The Process Theories of Work Motivation Instrumentalities Expectancy Second-Level Outcomes First-Level Outcomes Outcome 1a Outcome 1 Motivational Force F = E Valence X Expectancy Outcome 1b Outcome 2a Outcome 1 Outcome 2b Outcome 2c Mahmood Qasim
  15. 15. The Process Theories of Work Motivation Perceived equitable rewards Value of Reward Abilities and traits Intrinsic rewards Performance (accomplishment) Effort Satisfaction Extrinsic rewards Role perceptions Perceived Effort reward probability Mahmood Qasim
  16. 16. LOCKE AND LATHAM’S The process of determining specific levels of performance for workers to attain. Mahmood Qasim
  17. 17. LOCKE AND LATHAM’S Values and value judgment Emotions and desires Intentions or GOALS Mahmood Qasim Responses, actions, or performance Consequences, feedback, or reinforcement
  18. 18. The Content Theories of Work Motivation People strives to maintain rations of their own outcomes (rewards) t their own inputs (contributions) that are equal to the outcome/input ratios of others with whom they compare themselves. My outcomes My inputs Mahmood Qasim = Other’s Outcomes Other’s inputs
  19. 19. The Content Theories of Work Motivation The Rewards employees receive from their jobs, such as salary and recognition. People’s contribution to their jobs, such as their experience, qualifications, or the amount of time worked. Mahmood Qasim
  20. 20. The Content Theories of Work Motivation The condition, resulting in feelings of guilt, in which the ratio of one’s outcomes to inputs is ,more than the corresponding ratio of another person with whom that person compares himself or herself. The condition, resulting in feelings of anger, in which the ratio of one’s outcomes to inputs is ,less than the corresponding ratio of another person with whom that person compares himself or herself. Mahmood Qasim
  21. 21. The Content Theories of Work Motivation Person A Social Comparison Person B Underpayment Overpayment Outcomes Inputs Inequity for Person A Outcomes Inputs Inequity for Person B Greater than Underpayment Inequity for Person A Outcomes Inputs Less than Overpayment Outcomes Inputs Equitable Equitable payment for Person A Inequity for Person B Outcomes Inputs Mahmood Qasim Equal to Outcomes Inputs payment for Person B
  22. 22. POSIBLE REACTIONS TO INEQUITY Types of Reaction People can respond to overpayment and underpayment inequities in behavioral and /or psychological ways. These reactions help change the perceived inequities into a state of perceived equity. Types of Reaction Overpayment Inequity Underpayment Inequity Behavioral (What you can do is…) Raise your inputs (e.g., work harder), or lower your outcomes (e.g., work through a paid vacation) Lower your inputs (e.g., reduce effort), or raise your outcomes (e.g., get a raise in pay), or change comparison (e.g., compare yourself with another person), Employee theft (e.g., employees may steal things to compensate inequity. Mahmood Qasim Psychological (What you can think is…) Convince yourself that your outcomes are deserved based o your inputs (e.g., rationalize that you work harder than others and so you deserve more pay). Convince yourself that others’ inputs are really higher than your own (e.g., rationalize that the comparison worker is really more qualified and so deserves higher outcomes).
  23. 23. Questions for Discussion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Based on Malsow’s need hierarchy theory, what specific things can be done to enhance an employee’s motivation? Suppose an employee feels underpaid relative to his or her co-workers. What conditions may have led to these feelings, and how might you expect such an individual to behave on the job? Consider a poor performing employee who explains to his boss that he is trying very hard. According to expectancy theory, what factors would contribute to such effort? What additional factors, besides motivation, contribute to task performance? Explain the role that money plays as a motivator in Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory, Alderfer’s EGR theory and Herzberg‘s Two Factor Theory. Briefly define the three classifications of motives. What are some examples of each? Mahmood Qasim
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