IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON TQM PROGRAMS By:   MAHMOOD MANZOOR BE, MBA, CQM, CQA, CSSBB PRESENTED IN  PAKISTAN’S 1...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>TQM IS A MAJOR SOCIAL PHENOMENON. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ACCEPTED TQM AS MEANS TO ACHIE...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>SUCCESS RATE VARY GREATLY.  </li></ul><ul><li>SOME STUDIES SHOW EFFECTIVENESS.  </li></ul><ul><li>OTH...
IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE <ul><li>TQM EMERGED IN JAPAN, HAS ROOTS IN  CULTURE OF ANCIENT NIPPON.  </li></ul><ul><li>JAPANESE E...
IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE <ul><li>TQM BASIS ON JAPANESE CULTURE ACCOUNTS FOR SUCCESS OF TQM IN JAPAN. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPAR...
COMMON MYTHS <ul><li>CULTURE IS EASY TO CHANGE.  </li></ul><ul><li>EACH ORGANIZATION HAS ONE CULTURE.  </li></ul><ul><li>O...
COMMON MYTHS <ul><li>CULTURE CHANGE IS A LOWER PRIORITY THAN OTHER INITIATIVES.  </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE WILL STAY THE S...
DEFINITIONS <ul><li>AS MANY DEFINITIONS AS AUTHORS. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON DEFINITION ‘THE WAY WE DO THINGS AROUND HERE’...
DEFINITIONS <ul><li>CONSCIOUS & SUBCONSCIOUS CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>AT SURFACE ARE BEHAVIORS & RITUALS, ARTIFACTS, LAN...
DIMENSIONS <ul><li>CULTURES VARY ALONG SOCIABILITY AND SOLIDARITY.  </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIABILITY REFERS TO EMOTIONAL RELA...
DIMENSIONS HIGH LOW SOCIALABILITY HIGH SOLIDARITY NETWORKED COMMUNAL FRAGMENTED MERCENARY
DIMENSIONS <ul><li>FRAGMENTED:  </li></ul><ul><li>-ASSOCIATED WITH VIRTUAL     ORGANIZATIONS.  </li></ul><ul><li>-INDIVIDU...
DIMENSIONS <ul><li>COMMUNAL:   </li></ul><ul><li>-TYPICAL OF SMALL ORGANIZATIONS.  </li></ul><ul><li>-CLEAR UNDERSTANDING ...
CULTURE CHANGE <ul><li>CHANGE TAKES TIME AND EFFORT.  </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE MUST BE MEASURED IN YEARS, NOT WEEKS OR MON...
CULTURE CHANGE <ul><li>HIGH LEVEL SUPPORT ESSENTIAL. </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT TO LEAD BY EXAMPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>MA...
CULTURE CHANGE  <ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS WITH A HIGH SOLIDARITY AND HIGH SOCIABILITY CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS...
BEHAVIOR PROMOTION <ul><li>CHANGE IS A LONG-TERM PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>IN SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM, EFFORTS BE TO PROMOT...
SOCIAL CONTEXT <ul><li>MOST BEHAVIORAL CHANGES ARE CAUSED SOCIALLY.  </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES TURN TO COLLEAGUES RATHER...
ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT <ul><li>FACTORS INCLUDE RECOGNITION AND INCENTIVES, THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT, GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTA...
MANAGERIAL CONTEXT <ul><li>MOTIVATING COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IS KEY MANAGERIAL ISSUE. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE EMPLOYEES TO CO...
TECHNICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIP EXISTS BETWEEN TECHNOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR.  </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY M...
INTERACTION <ul><li>TQM IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM PROGRESSES FROM A PLANNING PHASE TO IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVENTUALLY TO INSTI...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>THREE C’s OF LEADERSHIP  </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITMENT </li></ul><ul><li>COGNIZANCE </li></ul><...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>NOT ALWAYS POSSIBLE TO TRANSLATE BEST PRACTICES FROM ONE ORGANIZATION TO ANOTHER. </li></ul><u...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>LEADERSHIP SUPPORT IS ESSENTIAL FOR A CULTURE CHANGE.  </li></ul><ul><li>LEADERSHIP’S THOSE LE...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>USING STORIES.  </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING HEROES/HEROINES WHOSE ACTIONS EXEMPLIFY THE DESI...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE INVOLVED. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD. </li></ul><ul>...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>QUALITY INITIATIVES ARE EFFORTS TO CULTURE CHANGE.  </li></ul><ul><li>AN AWARD LIKE THE BALDRI...
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>REDESIGN PROCESSES TO CHANGE CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>MANY ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES ACCEPT IN...
TQM PROGRAM EXAMPLE <ul><li>PIA ENGG LOST ITS FAA (USA) & CAA (UK) QUALITY APPROVALS IN MID 90’s. </li></ul><ul><li>PIA’s ...
TQM PROGRAM EXAMPLE <ul><li>SCENARIO CHANGED IN MID 90’s. </li></ul><ul><li>IATP RESTRICTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>DRY LEASE...
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES <ul><li>STRENGTHS: </li></ul><ul><li>-WORKFORCE. </li></ul><ul><li>-MAINTENANCE BASE. </li></ul><ul...
OPPORTUNITIES & THREATS <ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>-HUGE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. </li></ul><ul><li>-GOODWILL...
TQM   STRATEGIES <ul><li>PLAN TO CHANGE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TO MAKE QUALITY A PRIORITY. </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY POLIC...
TQM STRATEGIES <ul><li>NEW ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE DEFINED AND IMPLEMENTED.  </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM OF INTERNAL AUDITORS FO...
DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED <ul><li>FREQUENT TOP MANAGEMENT CHANGES.  </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE & LACK OF PARTICIPATION BY...
LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>RESULTS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO TOP MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>MATURE, COMPETENT, CO...
LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>DOCUMENT HIERARCHY SHOULD BE KEPT LOGICAL AND SIMPLE.  </li></ul><ul><li>REVIEW MEETINGS SHOULD BE ...
SUMMARY AND CLOSURE <ul><li>CULTURE IS AN INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF THE ORGANIZATION.  </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE IS VERY REAL ...
SUMMARY AND CLOSURE <ul><li>LEADERS CAN SHAPE CULTURES IN HARMONY WITH DESIRED CHANGES. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSTANDING, M...
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IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON TQM PROGRAMS

  1. 1. IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON TQM PROGRAMS By: MAHMOOD MANZOOR BE, MBA, CQM, CQA, CSSBB PRESENTED IN PAKISTAN’S 10 TH PIQC INTERNATIONAL COMVENTION ON QULALITY IMPROVEMENT CONFERENCE NOVEMBER 27-28, 2006 - LAHORE, PAKISTAN
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>TQM IS A MAJOR SOCIAL PHENOMENON. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ACCEPTED TQM AS MEANS TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENCE. </li></ul><ul><li>SOME STUDIES SHOW RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TQM & HIGH PERFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT EFFECTIVENESS OF TQM HAS NOT BEEN CLEARLY DETERMINED YET. </li></ul><ul><li>REVIEW REVEALS MIXED RESULTS. </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>SUCCESS RATE VARY GREATLY. </li></ul><ul><li>SOME STUDIES SHOW EFFECTIVENESS. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS POINT TO DOUBTS AND APPARENT FAILURES. </li></ul><ul><li>SOME ORGANIZATIONS ‘BREATHE’ TQM, OTHERS CRITICIZE IT AS BEING DEAD AND DOOMED TO FAILURE? </li></ul>
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE <ul><li>TQM EMERGED IN JAPAN, HAS ROOTS IN CULTURE OF ANCIENT NIPPON. </li></ul><ul><li>JAPANESE ETHICS LIE IN BUDDHISM, SHINTO, & TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS. </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE VALUES LIKE DISCIPLINE, RESPECT FOR ELDERS AND PRAGMATISM. </li></ul><ul><li>JAPANESE MANAGERS ATTEND TO ALL TYPES OF EMPLOYEE NEEDS. </li></ul>
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE <ul><li>TQM BASIS ON JAPANESE CULTURE ACCOUNTS FOR SUCCESS OF TQM IN JAPAN. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARED TO LOW SUCCESS IN WEST. </li></ul><ul><li>TQM REQUIRES ENVIRONMENT IN ALIGNMENT WITH THESE PRINCIPLES. </li></ul><ul><li>WILL INVOLVE CHANGE TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CONDUCIVE TO THE TQM IMPLEMENTATION. </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMMON MYTHS <ul><li>CULTURE IS EASY TO CHANGE. </li></ul><ul><li>EACH ORGANIZATION HAS ONE CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY AN ACT OF GOD (OR MAYBE THE BOARD OR THE CEO) CAN CHANGE THE CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE CHANGE REQUIRES A MAJOR, SYSTEM-WIDE PLAN. </li></ul>
  7. 7. COMMON MYTHS <ul><li>CULTURE CHANGE IS A LOWER PRIORITY THAN OTHER INITIATIVES. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE WILL STAY THE SAME UNLESS IT IS DELIBERATELY CHANGED. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE CHANGE IS A VAGUE CONCEPT TO DO ANYTHING ABOUT’. </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS ONLY ONE WAY TO CHANGE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. </li></ul>
  8. 8. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>AS MANY DEFINITIONS AS AUTHORS. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON DEFINITION ‘THE WAY WE DO THINGS AROUND HERE’. </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED ASSUMPTIONS BY EMPLOYEES. </li></ul><ul><li>VALUES, BELIEFS, INFORMAL PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>PHILOSOPHIES, IDEOLOGIES, CONCEPTS, CEREMONIES, NORMS, RITUALS. </li></ul><ul><li>TASK SUPPORT, SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP & PERSONAL FREEDOM NORMS. </li></ul>
  9. 9. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>CONSCIOUS & SUBCONSCIOUS CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>AT SURFACE ARE BEHAVIORS & RITUALS, ARTIFACTS, LANGUAGES, & STORIES. </li></ul><ul><li>AT LESS CONSCIOUS LEVEL ARE UNWRITTEN RULES, NORMS & SYMBOLS. </li></ul><ul><li>AT TOTALLY SUB-CONSCIOUS LEVEL LIE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS AND CORE VALUES OF INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND THE ORGANIZATION. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DIMENSIONS <ul><li>CULTURES VARY ALONG SOCIABILITY AND SOLIDARITY. </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIABILITY REFERS TO EMOTIONAL RELATIONS WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION. </li></ul><ul><li>SOLIDARITY REFERS TO DEGREE TO WHICH MEMBERS OF AN ORGANIZATION SHARE GOALS AND TASKS. </li></ul><ul><li>BY COMBINING THESE DIMENSIONS, AN ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE CAN BE FRAGMENTED, NETWORKED, COMMUNAL AND MERCENARY. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DIMENSIONS HIGH LOW SOCIALABILITY HIGH SOLIDARITY NETWORKED COMMUNAL FRAGMENTED MERCENARY
  12. 12. DIMENSIONS <ul><li>FRAGMENTED: </li></ul><ul><li>-ASSOCIATED WITH VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>-INDIVIDUALS WORK ALONE. </li></ul><ul><li>-LOW CONSCIOUSNESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERSHIP. </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORKED: </li></ul><ul><li>-INFORMAL/POLITICAL ATMOSPHERE. </li></ul><ul><li>-DIFFICULTY GAINING ADHERENCE TO PROCEDURES, RULES. </li></ul>
  13. 13. DIMENSIONS <ul><li>COMMUNAL: </li></ul><ul><li>-TYPICAL OF SMALL ORGANIZATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>-CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF GOALS. </li></ul><ul><li>-HIGH VALUES ON FAIRNESS. </li></ul><ul><li>MERCENARY: </li></ul><ul><li>-LOW LOYALTY TO ORGANIZATION. </li></ul><ul><li>-LOW COOPERATION. </li></ul><ul><li>-BUSINESS-FOCUSED. </li></ul>
  14. 14. CULTURE CHANGE <ul><li>CHANGE TAKES TIME AND EFFORT. </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE MUST BE MEASURED IN YEARS, NOT WEEKS OR MONTHS. </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>VISION NECESSARY TO MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO CHANGE. </li></ul><ul><li>LINK WITH ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS REQUIRED. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CULTURE CHANGE <ul><li>HIGH LEVEL SUPPORT ESSENTIAL. </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT TO LEAD BY EXAMPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE CHANGE SO ATTRACTIVE THAT PEOPLE WANT TO BE PART OF IT.’ </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGES TO BE GRAFTS OF NEW VALUES TO THE OLD CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>THREE SETS OF ATTRIBUTES CLEARLYASSOCIATED WITH CULTURES: </li></ul>
  16. 16. CULTURE CHANGE <ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS WITH A HIGH SOLIDARITY AND HIGH SOCIABILITY CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS WHICH EMPHASIZE FAIR PROCESSES AS WELL AS FAIR OUTCOMES. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS WHICH RECOGNIZE THEIR EMPLOYEES’ WORK. </li></ul>
  17. 17. BEHAVIOR PROMOTION <ul><li>CHANGE IS A LONG-TERM PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>IN SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM, EFFORTS BE TO PROMOTE A BEHAVIOR . </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCE SERIES OF VISIBLE SHORT-TERM IMPACTS IN DIFFERENT AREAS. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ THE KEY IS TO BUILD ISLANDS OF A CHANGED BEHAVIOR AND THEN TO BUILD BRIDGES BETWEEN THE ISLANDS.’ </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE WILL CHANGE AFTER EMPLOYEES HAVE SEEN THE RESULTS. </li></ul>
  18. 18. SOCIAL CONTEXT <ul><li>MOST BEHAVIORAL CHANGES ARE CAUSED SOCIALLY. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES TURN TO COLLEAGUES RATHER THAN TO OTHER SOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL CONTEXT IS BEDROCK FOR ALL OTHER EMPLOYEE BEHAVIORS. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS NEED TO DEVELOP STRATEGIES TO INCREASE EXCHANGES BETWEEN EMPLOYEES. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT <ul><li>FACTORS INCLUDE RECOGNITION AND INCENTIVES, THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT, GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY STRUCTURES. </li></ul><ul><li>TWO MOST IMPORTANT PRACTICES ARE REWARDS & RECOGNITION AND MONITORING. </li></ul><ul><li>REWARD & RECOGNITION PRACTICES CAN PROMOTE OR INHIBIT BEHAVIORS. </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING CAN SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR. </li></ul>
  20. 20. MANAGERIAL CONTEXT <ul><li>MOTIVATING COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IS KEY MANAGERIAL ISSUE. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE EMPLOYEES TO COOPERATE VOLUNTARILY. </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGERS CAN STIMULATE OR INHIBIT BEHAVIOR. </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT TO LEAD BY EXAMPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS ON KEY INITIATIVES. </li></ul>
  21. 21. TECHNICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIP EXISTS BETWEEN TECHNOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY MAKES CONNECTIONS THAT ENABLE SHARING. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT DOES NOT MOTIVATE BEHAVIOR. </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY SHOULD ONLY COMPLEMENT OTHER ACTIVITIES. </li></ul>
  22. 22. INTERACTION <ul><li>TQM IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM PROGRESSES FROM A PLANNING PHASE TO IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVENTUALLY TO INSTITUTIONALIZATION PHASE. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE CAN INTERACT WITH THE TQM IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM IN MANY WAYS AND IN ALL PHASES OF THAT PROGRAM. </li></ul>
  23. 23. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>THREE C’s OF LEADERSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITMENT </li></ul><ul><li>COGNIZANCE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETENCE </li></ul>
  24. 24. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>NOT ALWAYS POSSIBLE TO TRANSLATE BEST PRACTICES FROM ONE ORGANIZATION TO ANOTHER. </li></ul><ul><li>YET SOME OPTIONS THAT SUPPORT A CULTURE CHANGE CAN BE IDENTIFIED. </li></ul><ul><li>MOST DIRECT APPROACH IS TO REMOVE CERTAIN MEMBERS AND SELECT AND SOCIALIZE NEW MEMBERS. </li></ul>
  25. 25. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>LEADERSHIP SUPPORT IS ESSENTIAL FOR A CULTURE CHANGE. </li></ul><ul><li>LEADERSHIP’S THOSE LEVERAGE POINTS SHOULD BE IDENTIFIED WHERE THEY CAN IMPACT THE CULTURE CHANGE EFFORTS. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPENSATION SHOULD BE LINKED TO SUCCESS IN TRANSFORMING CULTURE. </li></ul>
  26. 26. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>USING STORIES. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING HEROES/HEROINES WHOSE ACTIONS EXEMPLIFY THE DESIRED CHANGES. </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE STORIES ARE MORE EFFECTIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD STORIES RETOLD REPEATEDLY. </li></ul><ul><li>GREAT STORIES CAN COME FROM ANYONE. </li></ul>
  27. 27. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE INVOLVED. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES ARE MEMBERS OF TEAM. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION SHOULD BE MADE A KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR. </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEE REPRESENTATION SHOULD BE INCLUDED ON BOARDS AND IN PLANNING ACTIVITIES. </li></ul>
  28. 28. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>QUALITY INITIATIVES ARE EFFORTS TO CULTURE CHANGE. </li></ul><ul><li>AN AWARD LIKE THE BALDRIGE AWARD SHOULD BE PURSUED. </li></ul><ul><li>SIX-SIGMA METHODOLOGIES SHOULD BE USED. </li></ul><ul><li>DASHBOARDS SHOULD BE SET TO MONITOR AND DRIVE CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE KEY PROCESSES MORE RELIABLE. </li></ul>
  29. 29. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES <ul><li>REDESIGN PROCESSES TO CHANGE CULTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>MANY ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES ACCEPT INEFFICIENCY AS INEVITABLE. </li></ul><ul><li>LEAN MANUFACTURING. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ERRORS. </li></ul>
  30. 30. TQM PROGRAM EXAMPLE <ul><li>PIA ENGG LOST ITS FAA (USA) & CAA (UK) QUALITY APPROVALS IN MID 90’s. </li></ul><ul><li>PIA’s ORG CULTURE THEN WAS RESISTANT TO CHANGE AND LACKED INITIATIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP MANAGEMENT WAS NON-COMMITTED TO QUALITY. </li></ul><ul><li>THEREFORE PIA DID NOT PURSUE FOR ANY NEW APPROVAL. </li></ul>
  31. 31. TQM PROGRAM EXAMPLE <ul><li>SCENARIO CHANGED IN MID 90’s. </li></ul><ul><li>IATP RESTRICTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>DRY LEASE OF B747 FROM CPA. </li></ul><ul><li>CAA (PAK) PLANS TO GO FOR JAR. </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBAL QUALITY AWARENESS. </li></ul><ul><li>PIA HAD TO GO FOR QUALITY APPROVAL. </li></ul><ul><li>DECISION BY ‘COMPULSION’ RATHER THAN ‘CHOICE’. </li></ul>
  32. 32. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES <ul><li>STRENGTHS: </li></ul><ul><li>-WORKFORCE. </li></ul><ul><li>-MAINTENANCE BASE. </li></ul><ul><li>-TRAINING CENTER. </li></ul><ul><li>WEAKNESSES : </li></ul><ul><li>-TOP MANAGEMENT CHANGES. </li></ul><ul><li>-INSUFFICIENT RESOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>-COMPLACENT WORK ATMOSPHERE. </li></ul><ul><li>-ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. </li></ul>
  33. 33. OPPORTUNITIES & THREATS <ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>-HUGE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. </li></ul><ul><li>-GOODWILL OF PIA ENGINEERING. </li></ul><ul><li>-REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>THREATS: </li></ul><ul><li>-POLITICAL CONDITIONS OF REGION. </li></ul><ul><li>-FINANCIAL HEALTH OF AIRLINE. -OPEN SKY AVIATION POLICY. </li></ul>
  34. 34. TQM STRATEGIES <ul><li>PLAN TO CHANGE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TO MAKE QUALITY A PRIORITY. </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY POLICY & OBJECTIVES DEFINED AND PROPAGATED. </li></ul><ul><li>DEDICATED JAR-145 PROJECT TEAM FORMED. </li></ul><ul><li>CONSULTANTS APPOINTED. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ACCOUNTABLE MANAGER’ APPOINTED. </li></ul><ul><li>MOE MANUAL DEVELOPED. </li></ul>
  35. 35. TQM STRATEGIES <ul><li>NEW ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE DEFINED AND IMPLEMENTED. </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM OF INTERNAL AUDITORS FORMED. </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIRED FUNDS SANCTIONED. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION-WISE JAR-145 TRAINING PROVIDED. </li></ul><ul><li>ACTION PLAN DEVELOPED. </li></ul><ul><li>A CONTINUOUS REVIEW BY THE TOP MANAGEMENT INITIATED. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ STORY-TELLING’ EXERCISE. </li></ul>
  36. 36. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED <ul><li>FREQUENT TOP MANAGEMENT CHANGES. </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE & LACK OF PARTICIPATION BY THE MANAGERS. </li></ul><ul><li>AUDITEE REACTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCES NOT AVAILABLE IN TIME. </li></ul><ul><li>TRAININD SHORTFALLS. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE REQUIREMENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION SIZE & TIME FACTOR. </li></ul>
  37. 37. LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>RESULTS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO TOP MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>MATURE, COMPETENT, COMMITTED & AGGRESSIVE TEAM REQUIRED. </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY POLICY & OBJECTIVES BE ESTABLISHED WITH INVOLVEMENT OF TOP MANAGEMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING SHOULD BE PROVIDED TO ALL PERSONNEL. </li></ul><ul><li>ENGAGE A CONSULTANT. </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONNEL SHOULD BE INVOLVED. </li></ul>
  38. 38. LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>DOCUMENT HIERARCHY SHOULD BE KEPT LOGICAL AND SIMPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>REVIEW MEETINGS SHOULD BE KEPT TO THE BARE MINIMUM. </li></ul><ul><li>THE INTERNAL AUDITS SHOULD BE HANDLED WITH VIGILANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE AUDITEES SHOULD BE HANDLED WITH PERSISTENCE AND TOLERANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE WILL HAVE TO BE KEPT IN FOREMOST PERSPECTIVE AT ALL TIMES. </li></ul>
  39. 39. SUMMARY AND CLOSURE <ul><li>CULTURE IS AN INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF THE ORGANIZATION. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE IS VERY REAL AND VERY POWERFUL FORCE. </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFICULT TO MEASURE PRECISELY, IT CAN BE DISCERNED . </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSMENT OF CULTURE CAN GUIDE CHANGE FROM PALNNING A CHANGE TO SELECTING IMPROVEMENTS, FROM IMPLEMENTING TO INSTITUTIONALIZED. </li></ul>
  40. 40. SUMMARY AND CLOSURE <ul><li>LEADERS CAN SHAPE CULTURES IN HARMONY WITH DESIRED CHANGES. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSTANDING, MEASURING AND CHANGING CULTURE IS PRE-REQUISITE. </li></ul><ul><li>IF CULTURE CANNOT BE MEASURED, PRIORITIES CANNOT BE SET. </li></ul><ul><li>TQM BE ACCOMPANIED WITH THE INFUSION & REINFORCEMENT OF A CULTURAL CHANGE. </li></ul>
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