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Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
Free Radicals
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Free Radicals

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  • 1. Contents  General properties  Pathological damages FR  Free radicals and cancer  Free radicals and aging  Drugs, foods, environment and free radicals  Latest research
  • 2. Other Sources  Chemotherapeutic agents  Doxorubicin,  Cyclophosphamide,  5-fluorouracil,  Methotrexate  Vincristine
  • 3. Cancer  Carcinogens  Chemotherapy  Radiation  Latest techniques  Prevention
  • 4. Cancer 
  • 5. Chemotherapy  Post-translational modifications (PTM)  Protein oxidation  Protein phosphorylation  ER stress  Calcium release  Apoptosis  ROS
  • 6. Vitamin E  20 mg , 10 mg  Scavenger  Immune responses  Nitrites to nitrosamines  Oncogenes (H-ras and C-myc), and proliferation  50% oral cancer risk  Breast cancer risk
  • 7. Vitamin A  Carotenoids and cancer risk  Strongest b-carotene  Cervix, lung and oral cavity  Dietary antioxidants : stomach and breast cancer
  • 8. ….Vitamin A  Communication  Growth regulating signals from adjoining normal cells  Tumor growth suppressed
  • 9. Vitamin C  Vitamin C :  1) hyaluronidase inhibitor system;  2) nitrosamines in the GIT  3) cytochrome P-450 system  Selenium aerodigestive system
  • 10. Hypertension & FRs  Nitric oxide  Antioxidants  Glutathione  Glutathione- depleted rats  Vitamin E and C to the rats' diet
  • 11. Hypertension  AICR 400 and 800 gm per day  Vitamins C, E, and b-carotene reduce :  Coronary events,  Reperfusion injury,  Platelet aggregation,  LDL oxidation
  • 12. Drug Choices  Univ of Florida Medical School, statin with ACE inhibitor,  Decrease amounts of free radical  Oxidization of LDL  Endothelial cells  Chelating agents  Seresis Pharmaton
  • 13. Diabetes & FRs  Type 1 diabetes  ß-cell destruction cytokines  RNS  ROS  Ferritin Fenton reaction  Low levels of antioxidant genes
  • 14. Diabetes and FRs  EUK-8 synthetic salen- manganese compounds  Catalytic superoxide dismutase,  Peroxidase,  Catalase activity  Inactivate superoxide and nitrogen oxides
  • 15. EUK-8  EUK-8 to mice with established autoimmunity  EUK-8 treatment and survival of islet allografts in newly diabetic mice
  • 16. Down Syndrome  Excess SO levels accumulation  Antioxidant cellular function
  • 17. Cell Types  Cell type-specific responses to  H2O2 responses  RPE  Corneal fibroblasts
  • 18. Neurological Disorders  Antioxidants slow the progression of certain neurological disorders  Oxidation disorders of the nervous system.  Vitamin C and E Parkinson's disease
  • 19. Alzheimer  Beta-amyloid and oxidative toxicity,  Oxidative damage to neurons,  Increases interneuronal calcium levels, damage due to free radicals.  Carnosin
  • 20. Treatment  Vitamin E preventing or alleviating neurological disorders,  Long-term Vitamin E deficiency progressive neurological syndrome
  • 21. Melatonin  Free radical scavenger and antioxidant  Pineal gland, molecular damage  Melatonin lowers tissue damage and dysfunction
  • 22. Melatonin  Melatonin absorbed any route  Crosses all barriers,  Enter all parts of every cell  Preserves mitochondrial function,  low toxicity  Blood levels low, tissue levels higher, in bone marrow cells and bile
  • 23. Cataract  Oxidation, ultraviolet light,  Damage to the proteins of the lens.  The oxidized protein precipitates out and causes cloudiness of the lens.
  • 24. ….Cataract  Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, remove the damaged portion, but the oxidation occurs at a faster rate  With time, the damage becomes irreversible
  • 25. Maculopathy  Exposure to light, blue light,  Age-related macular degeneration  Vitamin E  Carotenoids are said to decrease the risk of this disorder
  • 26. Latest Uses  Polymer, in pig sperm, enhance the lifespan of human sperm in fertility treatments  Hybrid protein recognizes a molecule on the sperm's surface and the antioxidant vitamin E.  Pig sperm live longer than untreated cells,
  • 27. Glutamate  Glutamate hippocampal cells of glutathione, incapable to reduce reactive oxygen species in cell death by oxidative stress.  cells resistant to glutamate increased phosphorylation of (CREB) and decreased ERK1/2
  • 28. Glutamate  Increase in mRNA for receptors activated by the vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP and glutamate like the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu 1  Treating cells with VIP and glutamate led to the same changes in protein phosphorylation observed in resistant cells and induced the proto-oncogene Bcl-2.
  • 29. Glutamate  Bcl-2 overexpression protected by increasing the amount of intracellular glutathione and Bcl- 2 knockdown by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) increased glutamate susceptibility of resistant cells.  Other receptors upregulated in this paradigm might represent useful targets in the treatment of neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.
  • 30. TBI and FRs  Overactivation of ERK secondary cell death mechanisms in TBI.  Fre radical scavenger S-PBN  Neuroprotective properties in TBI  Attenuates the early activation of ERK  Resulted in less activation of caspase-3  Subsequent DNA fragmentation  U0126 cortical atrophy at 2 weeks after trauma
  • 31. Oxygenation therapy Disease is caused by absence of oxygen  "good energy" metabolism, detoxification, and immune system function  Oxygen therapies "good" energy, to "detoxify" metabolic poisons, and to kill invading organisms.
  • 32. What's The Latest ?  ROS mtDNA UV human hepatoma cell  Alteres the ROS by MnSOD / catalase  Results accumulation of hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage to mtDNA of UV-irradiated cells, and overexpression of both MnSOD and catalase reduces the mtDNA damage and blocks the growth inhibition by UV.  Increased activity of MnSOD may lead to a toxic effect on mtDNA by UV- irradiation.
  • 33. Cisplatin  ROS, hydroxyl radicals,  Cisplatin nephropathy  Edarabone
  • 34. Bibliography  NCBI pubmed  Ignata connect  Science daily  Grays cancer institution  American institution for cancer research  Univ. Florida  Life extension magazine  Net sources
  • 35. www.mahmoodi.org

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