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Hiv prevention

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  • 1. What is HIV and what is AIDS ???? HIV   Human immuno deficiency virus    HIV is a virus that makes an individual susceptible to AIDS   Being HIV positive does not necessarily mean having AIDS, but it increases the vulnerability for AIDS AIDS   Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome      AIDS is a syndrome i.e a group of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease
  • 2. The start of AIDS • The history of AIDS is a short one. As recently • • as the 1970s, no one was aware of this deadly illness. Since then the global AIDS epidemic has become one of the greatest threats to human health and development. At the same time, much has been learnt about the science of AIDS, as well as how to prevent and treat the disease.
  • 3. The global picture • Statistics for the end of 2009 indicate that around 33.3 million people are living with  HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. • Each year around 2.6 million more people become infected with HIV and 1.8 million die of AIDS.
  • 4. The global picture • Although HIV and AIDS are found in all parts of the world, some areas are more afflicted than others. The worst affected region is  sub-Saharan Africa, where in a few countries more than one in five adults is infected with HIV. The epidemic is spreading most rapidly in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where the number of people living with HIV increased by 54.2% between 2001 and 2009.
  • 5. HIV is transmitted… • through blood and other bodily • fluids such as semen and vaginal fluid. This exchange of fluids can occur through sexual intercourse , drug injection , breastfeeding or during pregnancy with an infected
  • 6. HIV is not transmitted through… • Hugging
  • 7. HIV is not transmitted through… • Touching/hand shaking
  • 8. HIV is not transmitted through… • Sharing bathroom or toilet
  • 9. HIV is not transmitted through… •  Sneezing
  • 10. HIV is not transmitted through… • Eating together or sharing utensils
  • 11. HIV is not transmitted through… • Swimming pools
  • 12. HIV is not transmitted through… • Sharing clothes
  • 13. HIV is not transmitted through… • Mosquito bite/Insect bite
  • 14. HIV is not transmitted… • Patient caring
  • 15. Reducing HIV Risk in Female Sex Workers There is no single, universal model for providing prevention activities to FSWs. The content of the intervention package itself, and the strategies to deliver that package, have to be adapted to different situations.
  • 16. The Intervention Package • Information and Behavioral change • Condoms use • Sexual health services
  • 17. Information and behavior change • Basic knowledge of HIV transmission and the • • • • • • • • protective role of condoms Behavior change messages should therefore focus on: Alternative safe sex practices Use of condoms Lubricants Symptoms of STIs Health-seeking issues Clarification of misunderstandings about unsafe traditional practices or beliefs
  • 18. Condom use • The male condom is currently the only • • • • effective, widely available HIV/STI prevention method. Access to condoms is therefore essential to effective preventive behavior among FSWs. Sex workers with many clients per day may complain of vaginal irritation and pain when using condoms. Water-based lubricants not only prevent these problems, but also decrease condom breakage.
  • 19. Sexual health services It is clear that STIs facilitate HIV transmission, prompt STI treatment has become a key strategy for HIV prevention. High STI infection rates have been reported in FSWs and their clients. Good quality STI care not only results in immediate health benefits, but also has the potential to slow down the HIV epidemic.
  • 20. Three components, one package Combining the three key elements— information, behavior change/use of condoms and sexual health services— in one package will result in a better, more effective HIV prevention intervention.
  • 21. Pre Assessment To be practiced
  • 22. Counseling Skills Counselin & Negotiation Skills To be practiced
  • 23. • Goals:  what do you want to get out of the negotiation? • Alternatives:  if you don't reach agreement with the other • • • • • person, what alternatives do you have? How much does it matter if you do not reach agreement? And what alternatives might the other person have? Relationships:  what is the history of the relationship? Could or should this history impact the negotiation? Will there be any hidden issues that may influence the negotiation? How will you handle these? Expected outcomes:  what outcome is expected from this negotiation? The consequences:  what are the consequences for you of winning or losing this negotiation? Power:  who has what power in the relationship? Who controls resources? Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn't reached? Possible solutions:  based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises might there be?
  • 24. VCCT as part of HIV/AIDS prevention and care strategy • HIV voluntary confidential counseling and testing (VCCT) has become an integral part of HIV prevention and care programs. • VCCT services have evolved to reflect the changing needs of communities and the changing capabilities in care and treatment and support for people with HIV infection.
  • 25. VCCT is much more than drawing and testing blood to determine whether one is infected with HIV. It is a vital point of entry to other HIV/AIDS services, including counseling for prevention of HIV, clinical management of HIV related illnesses, TB control, psychosocial support and the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.
  • 26. • HIV counseling requires some of the basic counseling skills needed for other types of counseling, but the nature of HIV and AIDS makes this counseling unique. • HIV/AIDS related counseling includes prevention counseling and counseling for coping, care, and support.
  • 27. • Why HIV testing needs counseling? • What is HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing? • What are the purposes of VCT services? • Why is VCCT important?
  • 28. Why HIV testing needs counseling? • HIV infection can lead to serious illnesses and can • • • • • • cause fear – clients need to prepare themselves. Learning about an HIV positive result can be potentially harmful – clients need to be informed about implications and potential support. The decision to take the test must be voluntarily – informed consent must be established. Learning about the positive result can be difficult – clients need support and information.
  • 29. A person with HIV/AIDS requires medical as well as psychosocial support.
  • 30. What is HIV Counseling and Testing? HIV Counseling • Confidential dialogue between a client and a counselor aimed at enabling the client to cope with stress and make personal decisions related to HIV/AIDS.
  • 31. Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing (VCCT) • - A combination of two activities – counseling and testing, into a service that amplifies the benefits of both activities
  • 32. How is HIV Counseling Different from other counseling? • HIV counseling requires explicit • • • discussion of sexual practices. HIV counseling requires explicit discussion of sickness, death, and dying. HIV counseling requires that the counselor considers the reactions and needs of partners and other family members as well as those of the client.
  • 33. Counselors are likely to work with clients who hold opinions and values very different from their own and will be challenged to become aware of their own biases and stereotypes that could interfere with effective counseling.
  • 34. Why is VCCT important? • A large number of those infected with HIV do not know that they are infected.
  • 35. Knowing one’s status allows people to change their behaviors – to protect and take care of themselves, their partner, and children.
  • 36. Knowledge of one’s status helps her to plan and make important life decisions.
  • 37. • VCCT provides an opportunity for prevention counseling and referral to care and support services.
  • 38. Components of VCCT •Assure confidentiality •Determining client’s knowledge •Giving accurate information •Conduct personalized risk assessment •Developing a personalized risk reduction •plan •Demonstrating appropriate condom use •Explaining the test and obtaining informed •consent •Discussing implications of HIV results •Assessing coping ability •Result notification •Providing psychological and emotional support and referral as appropriate
  • 39. VCCT is an entry point and not the end point